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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (July-Dec. 1891)"

S EDO? laObfllE 7 

California State Library 




Ree&U&ci MAR 1892 if 





Vol. XLII.-No. 1. 



SAN FRANOISOO. SATURDAY, JULY 4. 1891. 



DEWEY & CO., Publtaheni, 
Office, 220 Market St. 



Washington. 

Perbapa we cannot 
more pointedly bring to 
the minds of our read- 
ers thooghts appropri- 
ate to the recurrence of 
the nation')! birthday 
than by presenting the 
Impressive view of the 
Washington monument 
which appears upon 
this page. This grand 
structure is to perpetu- 
ate the memory of 
Washington, and the 
memory of Washington 
is more than the recol- 
leotion of a great his- 
torio individual ; it in 
eludes a conoeption of 
the thoughts and acts 
which made him great, 
and of the principles 
which underlie oar suc- 
cess as a nation, and 
truth to which will 
insure our future, 
Waehiogton hat be- 
come to as more than a 
man ; even more than 
a statesman, a warrior, 
a patriot, Washington 
stands the ideal Amer- 
loan, endowed with 
every truth, nobility 
and virtue which the 
human mind can con- 
oeive embodied in 
human life, oon^equent- 
ly to speak his name in 
the fullness of Its sig- 
nificance is to bring to 
mind all we are as a 
nation and all we hope 
to be. 

Therefore, we chose 
as our leading illustra- 
tion in this issue, which 
bears the charmed date 
July 4, the greatest 
monument to Washing- 
ton, the greatest monu- 
ment ever raised to the 
memory of any man, 
the highest enduring 
atrncture in the world, 

The foundations of 
the Washington monu- 
ment were laid Feb. 23, 
1848, and it was com- 
pleted and dedicated 
Feb. 22, 1885. It is a 
hollow abaft of granite, 
faced on the ontside 
with blocks of white 
marble, 655 feet high, 
A comparison with the 
other noted artificial 
elevations of the world 
will readily convey to 
the reader the wonder- 
fal diitiensioDs of the 
monument. The nine 
highest in the world 
are m follows : '„ First, 



S^0 2S-A 




THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT AT THE NATIONAL CAPITAL, 



the Washington mon- 
ument, 555 feet; sec- 
ond, the Colcgne Ca- 
thedra), 510 feet; third, 
the great Pyramid of 
Cheopf,460 feet; fourth, 
St. Ptter's Church at 
Rome, 448 feet; fifth, 
St. Paul's Chnrob, Lon- 
don, 360 feet; sixth, St. 
Mark's Church at Ven- 
ice; seventh, the Cap- 
itol at Washington 283 
feet; eighth, the Brook- 
lyn Bridge Tower, 276 
feet; ninth. Trinity 
Church, New York, 263 
feet. 

The apex is a pyra- 
mid of white marble, 
topped with metal and 
a lightning rod. The 
dizzy hight may be 
reached by an elevator 
within the monument. 
The States of the 
ico, and in many in- 
•tuaces cities, as well 
as numerous foreign 
countriet, are repre- 
sented in the obelisk, 
and California contrib- 
uted a memorial stone, 
lo 1852 the California 
stone was hewn out of 
a quarry of the finest 
variegated marble at 
Ringold, El Dorado 
county, Cal., under the 
direction of John Bigler 
and Col. John F. Hall, 
and brought to Sacra- 
mento with an ox team. 
It was shipped to 
Washington under di> 
rect supervision of Gov, 
Bigler. 

In the west wall of 
the monument, just 
above the platform, at 
the bight of about 150 
feet from the base of 
the shaft, and easily 
seen, is a atone bearing 
the following insorip- 
tioQ in sunken letters : 

California, 
The youngest sister 

of the Union, , 
Presents this Golden 

Tribute to the 
Memory of its father. 

There waa another 
stone, prepared in 1860 
by the miners of Colum- 
bia, Tuolumne connty, 
which was shipped by 
sailing vessel. The ship 
made a quick trip, but 
was sunk just before 
reaching New York. 
The miners' stone never 
reached the monument 
but lies on the bottom 
of the Atlantic. 



2 



f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 



[July 4, 1891 



Suggestions for Californians. 

Editors Pbess: — Every town in C»Hfornla 
ought to organize a village improvement eo- 
oiety, for the purpose of bettering the general 
condition of the town, making land more eale- 
able, attracting the best olaaa of settlerr, and 
contributing to the comfort and prosperity of 
local residents. It should be the duty of such 
a society to urge the building of good roads, 
adequate irrigation facilities, roadside tree- 
planting, the laying out of public parke, the 
maintenance of cemeteries, the establishing and 
maintenance of first-class sohoolf, free libraries 
and reading-rooms, and last but not least, the 
maintenance of some sort of a permanent ex- 
hibit of the resources of the county or locality 
for the use and instruction of strangers acd 
residents. 

In some of the Eiatern cities, men and wo- 
men have organized for the purpose of keeping 
the local cemeteries and parks in good condi- 
tion. In Ksnsas City, a local improvement 
■oolety has recently been started; while here 
in San Francisco, a number of Incal improve- 
ment olubs are rapidly changing the conditions 
th>«t have heretofore existed. 

Here in Oalifornia, where much of our actual 
protperity lies before ua instead of behind uf ; 
here, where bat little has been done and so much 
ii yet to be done, there is an immense field 
awaiting those who are willing to cnltivate it 
and make it prodnotive. 

The greatest drawback to all enterprise in 
California lies in the iparceness of its popula- 
tion and its low rate of increase from year to 
year. Plans are constantly advanced which > 
are intended to induce immigration, but as yet 
California has found no means of securing such 
immigration, while the neighboring States of 
Oregon and Washington have grown dispropor- 
tionately fast. 

In a very able address recently delivered by 
» member of the State Board of Trade, the 
statement is made that " where actual pros- 
perity existf, population comes by the force of 
irresistible invitation; where prosperity Is 
merely promised, immigration can be induced 
only by argument and persuasion. A genuine 
prosperity in our State will bring us a reinforce- 
ment of industrial population uninvited except 
by the cogency of prosperity itself." 

If that be true, then the value of the work of 
the various corporations interested in the 
growth and prosperity of our State, supple- 
mented by the active efiTorts of these local im- 
provement societies, oannot be overestimated, 
nor the proposed system of organized effort be 
put: into effioient operation too soon. 

A number of causes are crystallizicg to con- 
tribute their mite toward the sucoets of our 
plans. The completion of the Nicaragua canal, 
the actual building of new railroad linee, the 
increase in the area of land made highly pro- 
dactive by means of artificial Irrigation, the in- 
crease in permanent population, the widening 
of our commercial relations, made possible by 
rapid transportation facililies, and the real in- 
terest in local welfare which is being manifested 
on every side, all tend to bring about the very 
condition for which our organized effort is pav- 
ing the way. 

Up to the present time the settlers In this 
State have, as a rule, shown a strange lack of 
etprit du corpi. Shanties cpring out of the hot 
breast of the desert, but even after canals and 
welli are made to supply the stock and the cul- 
tivated land with plenteous moisture, not a 
tree or a vine Is planted near the shanty to 
clothe its ugliness and provide for Its inmates 
a bit of much-needed shade; not a vegetable is 
raised for table use, even though carrots, 
onions, beets and turnips grow with littla or 
no care; not a fig, an olive, a walnut, an 
apple, nor an orange tree contribute to the 
comfort or sustenance of the family, although 
ftny of theie will grow in almost any part of 
the interior of the State. The lean and jaded 
family prefer living upon potatoes and meat, 
and to most of them meat means fried steak 
and overcooked rosst. The other cuts with 
their hundred and one ways of dainty prepara- 
tion are as unknown to most of them as Gieek. 

One may ride for miles across the Sao Joaquin 
plains that are rich in waving grain in the 
■pring-time, and golden with fragrant hay in 
tfae snmmer, but in the autumn a fine snfiToca- 
ting dust sweeps in clouds through the air, and 
no vestige of tree or shrub along the roadside 
breaks its progress or protects the traveller. 
Yet there are countless trees that will grow 
wherever wheat will grow. In any Earopean 
country these long dusty drives would be 
made supportable by hedges of olive, encalyptus, 
cynress, walnut or other sturdy tree. 

Hare one sees schoclhouses with not a tree 
within miles; where the paint on the bnilding 
ii scorched and icarred by too ardent sunr; 
where the windows, unscreened by curtains or 
overhanging vioee, admit great bars of hot 
light that make the heads of the weary little 
pnniii swim. 

Here one finds moat of the railway station 
BO rickety, hot, dnsty and unprotected, that it 
is Is a torment to (it in one while waiting for a 
tardy train. 

In most of our country towni>, If we are 
obliged to Mtay In them at all, we do so under 
protest. There are no cool, public iqaarea to 



attract the transient visitor; no reading-rooms 
where he may pass an idle hour; no well-kept 
roads along which he can tramp comfortably to 
see a bit of the country, and no places where 
he can get at any reliable Information about 
the country, unless it be in the saloons, and not 
all man care to lounge in the saloons. Nor can 
all barkeepers be relied upon to tell the exact 
truth. 

At a recent convention of newspaper men 
held in Napa Oity, one of the speakers re- 
marked that if the Napa Valley were in the 
hands of any French corporation, or even In 
the hands of French individual property-own- 
ers, steps would be taken to make it the won- 
derland of the world. Water would be stored 
at the head of the valley and led to every point 
by aqueduct or conduit; bard roads would be 
built and kept sprinkled; ornamental trees 
would be planted; fine hotels, dwellings and 
pablio schools would be erected on imposing 
sitei; electricity would illuminate the valley 
by night, and every means would be employed 
to add to the natural advantages, the value to 
be derived from a reasonable recognition of the 
esthetic side of land improvement as well as 
of the utilitarian side. 

There In the Napa valley, while it is one of 
the garden spots of Oalifornia, and compara- 
tively well developed, one finds dnsty roads In 
summer and muddy ones in winter; foliage 
parched and shriveled for lack of moisture dur- 
ing the hot months, or else ragged and drag- 
gled with too much moisture during the winter 
season; and the fruits that are carried 
along these roads during the harvest gather 
upon them a bloom of dust that sets the teeth 
of the consumer on edge, with a sense of gritty 
resiatance. 

The principal factor that will retard the 
growth of good roads on this coast at present 
is the size and extent of the individual hold- 
ings, which makes the cost according to the 
frontage extremely heavy and disproportionate. 
Here again the lamentable lack of a sufficient 
popolation confronts one, and practically checks 
progress, until the question of desirable Immi- 
gration Is settled. After traversing the weary 
wastes of the Sicramento and the San Joaquin 
valleys, it ia like a draught of new life and 
hope to go through Napa, Contra Costa, Santa 
Olaraand Monterey countlep, where small hold- 
ings nestle close together, where cottages are 
built not more than a half a mile apart in many 
places, where trees and gardens are realities 
and not prophesies, and where well kept vege- 
table gardens indicate family thrift. And in 
these counties, It has been the hand of the 
thrifty, law-abiding foreigner, Portuguese, 
Dutch, Oerman or Swi;s, that has inaugurated 
the reign of small holdings well cultivated. It 
is the foreigner, who has not yet entered the 
mad race for millions, who is still content to 
connt up bis prrfits in cents, dimes and dollars, 
who has made the prosperity of these counties; 
while his open-handed Ameriosn neighbor has 
been railing at the hard lot of the farmer, and 
has mortgaged bis place In order to provide a 
piano for his daughter, a fund to enter a South 
Sea Island speculation, or something else qnite 
as ridiculous. 

What has been done In some counties may be 
done in all. The village improvement society 
plan, If carried out by enterprising men and 
women, would obviate many of the disad- 
vantages now standing in the way of our pros- 
perity. As each society would confine itself to 
its own immediate locality, the financial and 
mental responsibility would fall lightly on the 
•honlders of each branch, yet the sum total 
of effective work carried out would be enor 
mous. The Boards of Commerce, of Trade, of 
Agriculture, the real estate firms, and all per 
tons interested in the welfare of the State, 
would endorse such an enterprise, and supple 
ment its efforts In every DosKible wav. 

E T. J Parkhdrst. 




Tympany, "Hoven" or "Bloat." 

Dlatentlcn of the Rumen With Oaa 

Editors Press : — Can you or any of your read- 
ers give a good remedy for />ioa/ in cattle ? — Nelson 
Ward, Comflon, Cat. 

Editors Press :— The most frequent cause 
of this disorder is green' food of various kinds, 
especially clover. It usually occurs from the 
voracity with which cattle that have been kept 
on dry food all the winter consume grass in the 
spring. It is also more liable to happen when 
the animal grazes while the dew is on the grass, 
hence the disetse is sometimes known as dew 
blonn. A d( ficlent secretion of saliva may also 
produce the disease. This latter cmse acts as 
a preveotive to redeglutition, since the proper 
formation of the returning pellet requires 
liquid admixture. Bloat is of two kinds— acute 
and ohronlc. The latter depends upcn dis- 
orders of the digestive organs, tuoh as want of 
tone to the rumen (paunch) In particular, and 
also the [presence of disease of the reticulum 
(second stomach). Elimination of gas In the 
rumen always occurs to a certain extent. The 
canaes of excess in this matter are either de- 
pendent primarily on the state of the stomach 
or on the nature of the Ingesta. 

Fresh green food, taken in large quantities, 
undergoes fermentation. It is placed under 
favorable conditions to that process a temp<<r 



atnre of about 100 degrees and moisture. In 
the early stages carbonic anhydride is the gas 
given off, and in the latter the food decom- 
poses and then snl^nretted hydrogen is elimi- 
nated. 

This gas can escape in two ways — through 
the esophagus (gullet), or through the omasnm 
(third stomach), but this is frequently pre- 
vented by esophageal spasm, or by contraction 
of the rumino — reticular sphincter. 

Trtatmtnt. — In this disease, the animal is 
often in great danger of suffocation from ex- 
treme abdominal distention. When death 
threatens the animal every minute. It ia advisa- 
ble to puncture the rumtn as a preliminary 
measure. The instrument used is the trocar 
and cannlar, which can be bought for $2; it 
must be large, say seven Inches long and nearly 
half an inch in diameter. The pnncture must 
be made on the left side, at a point equally dis- 
tant from the point of the hip, the last rib and 
the lumbar transverse processes, (situated over 
the region of the kidneys). The tube is then 
opened by removal of the trocar, the cannla 
may be left in as long as required, and retained 
by a string. If the rush of gas which follows 
the operation suddenly ceases before much has 
escaped, some solid matter has accumulated 
round the end of the canular. This must ha re- 
moved by again inserting the trocar or by 
moving the cannlar. In most cases, medicinal 
agents are required. In the early stages, the 
compounds of ammonia are indicated. Liquor 
ammonia or the spiritus aromaticus (largely 
dilated with water) form with the car- 
bonic acid gas the ammonium carbonate, 
which is a useful stimulant. Chloride of lime 
is easily obtainable and acts on the oarburetted 
and sulphuretted hydrogens which are present, 
forming hydrochloric acid; it also acts as an 
arrester of putrefaction and fermentation. 
Hyposalphlte of soda also serves to oondente 
the gases. The giving of stimulants and re- 
moval of gas generally requires to be repeated 
several times. It is always advisable to give 
a cathartic at onoe. In ohronio cases, small 
doses of nnx vomica Is very valuable. 

A. E. BuzARD, V. S. 

Tape Worms. 

Editors Press: — Will Dr. Biizard, the veteri- 
nary surgeon, please give us in the columns of the 
Rural Press the life hittoryof the tape worm of the 
horse, and tieaiment, and oblige 

Constant Reader, 

Editors Press:— The adult tape worm is 
made up of a number of proglottides fastened 
on to a soolex, or head, which is fixed on to 
the mucous membrane of the intestine. When 
the proglottides or segments of the adult 
worm become mature, they pass off with the 
excrement. Etch segment contains a quantity 
of ripe eggs, these becoming scattered about 
may gain access to the alimentary canal of a 
suitable intermediary host. In this new situ- 
ation the six hooked embryo which is contained 
In the egg breaks its shell and obtains its 
liberty. The immature worm or embryo now 
passes through the intestinal wall and wanders 
aboat until it arrives at a spot suitable for its 
development Into a perfect cyst. In this con- 
dition it will remain and perish, unless its 
host dies or is killed. In the latter case it 
may gain aoaess to the intestinal canal of 
another host fitted for its further existence, 
and in tbij case the sooler fixes on to the gut, 
and the proglottides slowly develop. It Is 
very rare that the same agimal serves as host 
both for oyet and adult worm. It will be seen 
from the above that the tape worm has two 
distinct phases of existence. In the one the 
soolex of the parasite is connected with a so- 
called cyst or bladder, and is buried in the 
solid tissue of the host. In the other, the adult 
tape worm is found in the alimentary canal. 
The chief tape worms of the horse are: 

Totnia Plieata, which varies in length from 
six Inches to three feet. It generally inhabits 
the small intestines. 

Tcenia Per/oliata, whioh is from one to three 
inches in length. It Is found in the cceoum 
and colon, the two first of the large bowels. 
Of equine cestodes it is the most common and 
mav give rise to serious disturbance. 

Taenia Mamillana —Tbia member of the 
group is about half an inch long and Infests 
the colon. In the treatment of tape worms, 
such drugs as oil of male fern, absinthe oil or 
oil of turpentine should be given. 

Source of the Tape Worms of the Hcrse. 

The cystic forms of toenia placata, tcenia 
mamillana and tania per/oUata are as yet un- 
known. Probably their larval forms exist In 
the bodies of different insects. The larval 
forms have received various names, according 
to their contents,* viz.: 

1. A Cysticereus is a cyst filled with serum, 
and provided with only one bead. 

2. A Ccenurui is a cyst filled with serum, 
and provided with many heads. 

3. An Echinoeoceui is a primary ojst, which 
contains, or which gives riss to, secondary cysts 
filled with serum, each provided with numerous 
heads. 

The larval cestodes of the horse are, com- 
paratively speaking, somewhat rare. The one 
most frequently met with, however, is that of 
the t(enia echinocoeeus . This cystic worm Is 
the larval form of the tcenia ithinocoeeua which 
infests the small Intestines of the dog and wolf. 
The flesh of the horse is not liable to be in- 
fested by oyatioeroi. A. E. Bdzard, 
Veterinary Sargeon, 

r,S] Farrell St , S. F. 



(She £(iei.d. 



County Supervisors and District Fairs. 

The Yolo Mail reports a oitizeni' meeting 
held at Woodland last week to hear the disons- 
sion of the proposition to extend county aid to 
the District Fair, and hear the decision of the 
Board thereon. Action wis opened by the Dli- 
triot Attorney, who read his opinion, rein- 
forced by an opinion from Attorney-General 
Hart, that the Board of Sapervisors had no 
power, either to make a donation to the aisooi- 
ation, to take stock in the corporation, or to 
buy the land for the raoe track. 

We give below, in fall, the opinion of Dla- 
trict Attorney and Attorney-Qeneral: 

The Opinion of the District Attorney. 

In the matter of the Donation for Fair Par- 
poses — In this matter, the following qaestioni 
were propounded to me by your cbairman, 
upon which be asked me to render an opinion 
to-day; that ia to say: Have the Board of Sa- 
pervisors power to order paid as a donation out 
of the county treasury the sum of 110.000, for 
the purpose of assisting a district fair to be 
held In this county ? 

In addition to this question, I have antici- 
pated that other questions growing out of the 
same matter might deserve some attention, and 
have taken the liberty to set them out and 
answer them in this objection. They are: 

If the board has no power to make the above- 
mentioned donation, has it the power to sub- 
scribe for and hold 910,000 worth of the fair 
stock, under their general power to purchase 
and control property on behalf of the county ? 

Have they power to purchase and hold land 
for fair purposes, and lease the same to the aa- 
■ooiation ? 

Boards of Sapervisors have only these pow- 
ers expressly granted them by the Legislatare, 
or those powers necessarily implied from snob 
express powers. 

The express powers here referred to are thoae 
powers expressly enumerated in the County 
Government Bill. 

The implied powers are ail those Incidental 
to, and which are necessary for the purpose of 
carrying out the express powert; and all the 
courts agree that a means of carrying out an 
express power is not an Implied power, if it is 
merely convenient, but it must be absolutely 
necessary. 

That the Board has no express power to make 
inch a donation necessarily foliowe, from the 
fact that no such power ia enumerated in the 
Caanty Government Bill, and I have diligently 
searched for some means by which I could pos- 
sibly construe it to be legal under an implied 
power, and have failed to find any after an ap- 
plication of a most elastic stretch of imagina- 
tion. I therefore advise the Board that they 
are absolutely without any power to make the 
donation referred to. 

The other qaestionr, both of which may be 
answered at the same time, and by the same 
process of reasoning, are not so easy. 

Section 2 of the C3unty Government Bill 
provides: "The powers of the county are 
exercised by the Board of Sopervisorr, or by 
agents, and officers acting under them, or 
authority of law." Section 4 of the same act 
provider; "Counties shall have power: 

lat. To sue and be sued. 

2d. To purchase and hold land within its 
limits. 

3d. To make such contracts and bold laob 
personal property as may be neoesaary to the 
exercise of its power. 

4th, To manage and dispose of its property 
as the interests of Its inhabitants may require." 

So you see a general power, to be exercised 
by the Board of Supervisors, is vested In the 
county by these two seotiona: "To purchase 
and hold lands within its limits." If It were 
not for a general rule of construction applicable 
to the constrnction of the charters of all 
corporations, whether private or pnbllo, It 
would seem that you would have power to pur- 
chase and hold land within the limits of thi* 
county, and would, if in your discretion Itap 
peared for the best interest of the inhabitanta, 
have power to dispose of It by lease for fair 
purposes. 

The construction to whioh I referred to is this: 
If a general power is given to a corporation, 
it is limited by the reaaon for whioh the body 
corporate was formed. That ia: a railroad 
corporation Is formed for the purpose of oon- 
dnoting a railroad business, and its directors 
have no right to exercise a power generally 
enumerated for any other purpose than a rail- 
road purpose, and any effort to perform any 
such act would be as against the stock holders, 
what is known In corporaticn law as ultra vires 
and would be veld. So bank incorporations 
are formed for banking purposes, and they are 
limited in the exercise of their general powers 
to banking bnalness. So counties are formed 
by the State to assist in its government. The 
bueiness for which counties are formed then is 
tho business of government and the general 
powers. 

"To hold and purchase land within It* 
llmite," should be consttaed as though to read : 
"To purchase and hold land within its limits 
for the purpose of government," and it wonld 
be a very far-fetched and subtile reasoning that 
could even oolorably sustain the proposition 
that the maintaining of a fair ground or raoe 



Jdly 4, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAlo PRESS. 



track woald in any way aasiat In the govern- 
ment of thia county. 

I therefore advise the Board tliat in my 
opiaioD, tliey have no power either to sob 
(oribe for stock or to parchase the property. 
Sinoe I have been accased of resortio); to that 
interpretation of the law which putn too itrict 
a limitation on the powers of the Board, and 
fearing that it might be true that I had an 
erroneous idea of the construction of the law, 
defining the powers of municipal boards, I took 
the precaution to submit the question here dis- 
onssed to the Attorney Genera), whose opinion 
I file herewith. R-iBpeotfully, 

R. E. Hopkins, District Attorney. 

Opinion of tbe Attorney -General, 
Hon. R. E. Hopkins, District Attorney of Yolo 
County, Cdlfornia. 

Deab fciR : — I am in receipt of yours of the 
Ttb inst. asking the following questions : 

Have the Baard of Sapeivisora power to 
order paid as a donation nut of the county 
Treasury, the sum of $10 000 for the purpose 
of assisting a Distriot Fair to be held in this 
county 7 " 

If they have no snob power, have they the 
oower on behalf of the county to subscribe for 
$10,000 worth of the Association's stock ? 

If they have no power in either of the above 
named oases, have they power to purchase and 
hold property for Fair parpose?, and lease the 
same to the Association 7 

In reply I annwer eaoh of your questions In 
the negative. Boards of Supervisors have no 
power except such as may be delegated to them 
by the Lsglslature. I find no authority given 
by a Board of Supervisors, either directly or 
indirectly, or by implio»tion, that would war- 
rant it to do either of the acts suggested by you. 
Yours respectfully, 
Wm. H. H. Hart, Attorney-General. 

The matter was taken under advisement 
nntll the first Monday in July, at one o'clock 
p. M. 

A Word With Our Hop-Growers. 

It has oome to our knowledge that a number 
of onr hop-growers have oontraoted portions 
of their hop crops to hop-dealers in San Fran- 
oisooand elsewhere at 'prices ranging from 13 
to 18 oeLti per pound. In plain, anvarnlshed 
words we believe such aotion on the part of 
our hop growers is simply suicidal. In the first 
piaoe every indication points to the fact that 
hops, if properly handled by the growers will 
reach nearly, if not fully, as high prices this 
season as they did last year, when they brought 
from 30 to 35 cents per pound, Tbis fiol; must 
be evident to our readers who have perused 
the hop notes the Dispatch Democrat has been 
publishing for sometime past. Toe outlook for 
good hop crops is very discouraging In all parts 
of the world. The unfavorable weather in 
Eagland and Earope, the ravages of the louse 
in New York Bcate and Oregon and Wathing- 
ton, and the limited quantity of old hops on 
hand, all point to a heavy demand for Califor- 
nia hops. Nothing short of a miracle or the 
blind stupidity of our hop growers can prevent 
prices from reaching a higher figure than that 
at present ( ffared by hop contractors. 

In the second place we have yet failed to hear 
of a hop-grower who contracted bis hops early 
in the season who did not get the worst of the 
bargain. The universal experience has been, 
that if hops went up the contractor iosieted on 
the delivery of the hops, and always got them. 
If prices went down, by some ohicanery he 
repudiated the contract. The truth of these 
remarks will be evident to many of our hop- 
growers who realiza the situation from dearly- 
bought experience. 

We are informed that hop contractors are 
bsgging our bop-growers to contract their hops, 
and warning them that if they do not contract 
them at the prices now offdied they will surely 
b9 sorry for it, as prices will nndoubtedly be 
lower when the crop is ready for the market. 
What insu£ferable rot to pour into the ear of 
any sane min. It is exceedingly improbable 
that these hop-oontraotors are running around 
the country at the expense of time and money 
for the benefit of our hop-growers. They are 
doing it for business, and for a money-mikiag 
business at that. 

The faot that growers who are contracting 
bops now are getting leas than they should for 
them is not the worst feature of the aSiir, It 
is the irflaenoe that their actions will have on 
the market this fall that I* the most important 
phase of the matter. If by hard work and 
oaj ilery the contractors can now secure one 
third or even one- quarter of the crop at 13 
cents a pound, the chanoes are that prices will 
not go up, because with the above portion of 
the crop they can manipulate the market. All 
pressing demands from the consumers cin be 
met by contractors, and by keeping down the 
demand during the months of September, Octo- 
ber and November, when the growers are al- 
most bound to sell, prices are sure to be lower 
than they otherwise would be. 

This idea of a grower contracting one-third 
or one-half of his orop and holding the re- 
mainder for higher prices, if generally indulged 
in, is simply ridicnlons. The portion of the 
orop contracted will set the price for the re- 
mainder of the ortp it the demand for hops is 
good; if it U not and prloea fall, the contractors 
will. In nine oases out of ten, find some means 
to repudiate the contract. 

As • business proposition, a hop-grower can- 
not afiord to contract his oropr. He is simply 



tying the bands of himself and his fellow hop- 
growers when he does it, Oar advice to hop- 
growers is: Do not contract all or any portion 
of your orop. Even if hops should go down to 
15 cents instead of remaining at 18 cents, 
which price is now being tfif^red by oontrantors, 
you will in the end come out winner if you 
stick to the proposition of selling your hops 
when they are ready for the market and not 
before. — Vkiah Dispatch. 



Irrigator. 



Information on the Stability of Cali- 
fornian Irrigation Enterprises. 

J. W. Nince, President of the State Associa- 
tion of Irrigation Districts, has issued an im- 
portant circular describing the need of inform- 
ing the pnblic concerning the genuineness and 
promise of California Irrigation enterprises 
under the Wright law, and the steps he has 
taken to secure information of the most accept- 
able kind. We quote from the circular as fol- 
lows : 

It ought to be needless to explain to yon the 
necessity that exists for establishing a more 
thorough and general understanding as to the 
facts on which rest the stability of the several 
irrigation districts and the value of their 
bonds. 

I have it on the best authority that a chief 
reason why bonds of these districts are weak 
In the money market, is because the affairs of 
the districts have thus far been presented to 
the financial world wholly upon ea; parte and 
what are thought by fioanolal men to be preju- 
diced statements in eaoh instance. 

An irrigation district enterprise is a business 
venture on the part of the combined property 
owners of the distriot, represented by the Dis- 
trict B'>ird of Directors, as much as though 
the project were a scheme on the part of an in- 
corporated company for selling water or lands, 
and It is to be managed by the same principles 
and must ultimately stand on its intrinsic 
meritp, Eich district proj ct doubtless has 
merit, but some may have radical and fatal de- 
fects as well. 

Securities based on this, the development, 
class of venture are judged of in fiaanolal cir- 
oles ( q the older communities of the Eiat and 
Europe especially) on the reports ot profes- 
nional experts or speoialistp, who are generally 
known, are thoroughly well vouched for and 
are recognized as having their reputations, 
and consequently their business, directly at 
stake. 

Eich of our irrigation districts has, to be 
sure, its engineers audits attorneys in whom 
the respective district authorities have all due 
confidence. But we must remember that the 
districts are many, that the experts of ( ngineer- 
ing and of law who have participated la the 
work of design and advloed in and conducted 
Che procc edioga of organization and of confirma- 
tion are several for each district. 

We oannot expect even our warmest friends 
among the bankers to keep posted as to the 
standing, ability and trustworthiness of all 
these experts, and be prepared to speak well of 
them or of enterprises bised on their reports, 
when they know nothing of them, and when 
appealed to for specific information abont any 
district. Yet the standing of our securities 
abroad depends and ever will depend upon ad 
vices through disinterested fiaanclal channels 
from here. 

The advisability of centering upon some one 
engineer of wide and good repute, and some 
one attorney of highest standing to review the 
labors of the many heretofore engaged by the 
neveral districts, for the information of the 
fiaanoial public, has been suggested to, and 
tven urged upor, a number of the district rep- 
resentatives by managers of the leading bark-i 
of Sin Francisco quite generally. It was plain- 
ly intimated that if this were done a long step 
would have been taken to render it possible for 
these gnntlemen to help us without oompro- 
mising the banks over which they preside, 

A great fight against misunderstanding and 
ignorance of our organizations and our projects 
has been made by distriot representatives in 
San FraDoieco, and much good has been done 
to the cause of distriot irrlgatioc; but we have 
not reached the goal where we should be. Our 
bonds, wk:iaH,in the case of most districts, at 
Ixast, should command a premium are with dif- 
fi !ulty, and in small lots only, being placed at 
90 oentr. 

The dittrict authorities in this State have a 
high moral as well as tifiaial business duty to 
perform in this matter. It is not alone the dis- 
tricts whose bonds are yet to be sold who are 
concerned In this. When your securities have 
djone to the world, it is your duty to your cred- 
itors, as well as to yourselves and your taxpay- 
ers, to uphold them. To have sold all the 
bonds of a distriot la not to have permanently 
established its credit, and is not to have done 
all that its authorities are cffisially bound to 
do to uphold the measure of credit it has sc- 
oured, 

Aa matters now stand, the failure of any one 
district in this State, from any oansr, or news 
of a serious attack on any one distriot, com 
mnnicated abroad, will very serioosly hurt the 
credit of all the districts. We must have some 
authoritative statements for each district to 
prevent this. We must uphold this system, in 
everyway possible, whether we are "out of 



the woods " in the initiatory sale of bonds or 
not. We owe it to districts yet to come for- 
ward; we owe it to the State; we owe it to 
those who have supported us before the pnblic; 
and, we owe it to the land owners within the 
distriotp, because high credit for the districts 
and good feeling toward the distriot system 
will bring population to the districts, enhance 
land values and make prosperity, while low 
district credit means juat the reverse. 

The step taken by Mr, Naooe and its recep- 
tion by the local fiaanciAl authorities is ex- 
plained by the following correspondence: 

San Francisco. Tun'" 12. 1891. — Thos. Brown, 
/gna/z Slehihart. Lloyd Tevis, A. Monlpellier, R. 
C. Woolworlh and Others — Gentlemen : In 
their endeavors to establisli credit be'ore the finan- 
cial world, the irrigation district authorities in this 
State have come to realize the necessity for having 
the several district schemes and organizitions 
reported upon by experts whose qualifications and 
good standing would be vouched for by those per- 
sons contrclling financial matters in Sin Francisco, 
the recognized center of business and money for 
California. 

Eich district has had its engineers and its attor- 
neys, in whom the respective district authorities have 
all due confidence ; but the districts are many and 
the experts of engineering who have participated in 
the work are several for each district. 

The advisability of centering upon some one engi- 
neer to review the labors of the many heretofore en- 
gaged, for the information of the financial public, 
suggested by yourselves to several district represen- 
tatives a short while ago, has b=^en brought home to 
the district authorities. Speaking for many with 
whom I have communicated, they generally see it 
and approve of it. 

Now, in order to expedite matters and to be able 
to suggest to the several district boards some defi- 
nite line of action, and lay before them the name of 
an engineer whom you and other controllers of local 
financial sentiment will recrgnize as of good profes- 
sional and personal standing. I, as President of 
the Association of Irrigation Districts, profiting by 
the personal interviews had with vou by represenia- 
tives of our districts, address you the following in- 
quiry : 

In case the respective Board of Directors of Irri- 
gation Districts in this State employ William H. 
Hall, consulting engineer, to report on the qjes- 
tions of water supply, plans and estimates for works, 
suitability of lands, and generally the physical, engi- 
reeripg and business questions involved in each 
district scheme, giving him all des'red latitude for 
thoroughness of work, will you thereafter, when in 
the course of business you are applied to for infor- 
mation concerning the standing of such district, re- 
ply that its aff lirs have been examined by an engi- 
neer competent, in your opinion, for the task, and 
familiar with the subject in this State, and a man 
whom you believe to be trustworthy for the 
seivice; in other words, that, in your opinion, he 
is an engineer on whose reports c-ireful investors 
may rely as much as those of any engineer in this 
line of business. Very respectfully yours. 

I. W. Nance, 

President State Association of Irrigation Districts. 

REPLY. 

To J. IV. /Vance, Esq., President State Associ- 
ation Irrigation Districts— 'biv. : We have read 
your foregoing letter of June 12, 1891, and we 
hereby answer in the affirmative relative to the in- 
quiries respecting Mr. Hall, 

In this connection, we would suggest that it 
might be well for your association to employ some 
competent attorney to invest'gite the status of 
the several districts and assist Mr. Hall in his work. 
Respectfully yours. 
Thomas Bkown, Robert J. Tobin, 

Ignatz Steinhart L Gottig. 
Lloyd Tevis, Jamp.s G. Fair, 

a. montpellier, s. p. young, 

r. c. woolworth, albert miller, 
J. W. HtLLMAN, Daniel Meyer. 

As will te seen, the abo\e represent per- 
sonal signatures. The gentleman were ad 
dreseed individually and not as presidents and 
managers of banks, and so, in replying, they 
signed for themselves and not for the banks. 
Toese gentleman have suggested that some 
competent attorney be employed to investigate 
the legal status of the various districts as well, 
and in accordance with that i^uggestion the 
firm of Wilson h Wilson has conneoted to act 
in that capacity. It need .scarcely be said that 
when these gentleman shall have reprrted 
upon any district the utmost oinfidence will be 
placed in their conclusions. 

It must be understood that the gentlemen 
whose names are quoted do not take upon 
themselves the task cf acting as a committee to 
oversee the examinations that are to be made, 
but simply agree in their individual capacity to 
act as references and to certify to the ability 
and responsibility of the experts selected. 

This step has been taken under the guidance 
of a number of the most; prominent irrigators 
in the S ate. Including J. W, Nance, president 
of the S ate association; Messrs, Qieen, Willey 
and others, 

Lassen Irrigation. 

In the record of the progress of irrigation de- 
velopment, one portion of the State has not 
received the attention to which it is justly en- 
titled. The locality referred to is Lassen 
county, and an idea of the extent of the irri- 
gation enterprises of that section may be gath- 
ered from the fact that within three years no 
less than 18 storage reservoirs of large siz) 
have been built for the pnrpose of supplying 
water for the cultivation of the large bodies ot 
arid, but exceedingly fertile lands of that 
cnnnty. 

Another prrjeot of the same sort is now 
under way, which, when completed, will rank 
among the foremost in the State, The Iccatlon 
of this new enterprise is in the Honey Lake 



valley, and frtm the report of L. H, Taylor of 
Sacramento, the engineer in charge of the 
woik, the following interesting facts are 
learned: 

The source of supply is Long Vall'y creek, 
which has a drainace area of over 400 square 
miles in the Sierra Ndvada mountains. About 
six miles above the mouth of the creek, there 
is a narrow canyon through which the stream 
flows, and here it is proposed to construct a 
dam. This will be of earth, with a puddled 
core, and will have a thickness at the base of 
443 feet, sloping gradually at the same angle 
on both sides to the top, where it will be 20 
feet thick. The extreme bight of the dam will 
be 94 feet. At the base, in the bottom of the 
canyon, it will be 200 feet long, at a bight of 
85 feet the length will b° 740 feet, and at the 
full bight the length will be 900 feet, 

A reservoir with an area ot 1000 acres will 
thus be constructed which will have an aver- 
age depth of water of 31 feet. This will give 
an avaibb'B "uooly of 1 350,000 COO cnbio feet 
or 10,125,000,000 gallons of water, or consid- 
erably m''re than the famous B'ar V^alley res- 
ervoir. That the source of tupply for this res- 
ervoir will be ample may be seen from the faot 
that measurements taken by the stream show a 
flow of 1600 to 15,000 miners' inches, while the 
greatest evaporation noted has been but two 
inches a month in similarly sltnated reservoirs 
in the same connty. 

The water will be conveyed from the reser- 
voir in open canals to the lands which it is pro- 
posed to irrigate, and which comprise a large 
area of fertile soil. The reservoir will have a 
capacity to supply 100,000 acres, but it will be 
some time, of course, bafore so large sn area 
will be put under cultivation. The entire cost 
of the dam and the riverting canalr, however 
will not exoeed $100,000, from which it will be 
seen that this is 0"o of the cheapest irrigation 
enterprises in the State, 

The lands that are to be irrigated from this 
reservoir lie at an elsvatlon of 4000 feet, and 
are as fertile as any in the State, Thsy all 
require irrigation for cereals, grasses, fruit ard 
ordinary farm cropp, but the results are most 
remarkable. From 35 to 45 bushels of wheat 
and from 45 to 80 bushels of barley are the 
average crops, and the grain is of the finest 
quality. Alfalfa is a favorite crop, this bsing 
a splendid stock growing section, while the 
potatoes produced here are superior to even 
the famed Salt Lake product. Fur apples and 
similar hardy fruits no better location exists. 
The pioneer apple-growers of Honey-Lake val. 
ley erjiy profits that equal thoso secured by 
the citrus fruit producers of the South, This 
valley ia destined to take high rank for its ap- 
ples, pears, cherriec, plums, etc. 

A gt od commencement has already been made 
In actual work on the dam, and it is expected 
that by next season the reservoir will be com- 
pleted and water will be supplied. 

Not the least of the advantages of the Honey 
Lafee valley is the faot th%t it is already trav- 
ersed by a railroad (uarrow gaug ) rooniog 
north from R^no. The present terminus is 
Amadee, 85 miles north of tke starting point, 
but the line has been surveyed throrgh to Ore- 
gon, and it will undoubtedly be pushed to com- 
nlttion, thus giving the many fertile valleys of 
Lissen county an out'ftt (or their farm prodaots 
in two direo*'"^- — Clironic.h. 



Irrigation by Pumps. 

Where years ago it might cot have been, it 
is now possible to irrigate many fair and pro- 
ductive acres by pumping and thereby be in- 
dependent of all the present systems of water 
courses and charges. A gentleman who has a 
Byron Jackson centrifugivl puop uprn kis 
place hai made a careful observitioa as to costs 
and capacity of this kind of wn-k. The n'ant 
will cost as follows: Engine, $900, pump $200, 
freight $200. averaae well, say $200; or $1500 
forphnt. With 30 teetlif% the pump has • 
capacity of one cubic foot per second, and with 
from 10 to 12 feet lift, two cubio feet per second. 
The water should be used direct from the pump, 
as if a storage reservoir is used there is addi- 
tional expense and loss of water from seepsge 
and evaporation. With small ditches ind atten- 
tion, one enbic foot of water per seoand is 
ample for 160 acres in vines and trees, and nhlle 
using the pump it will keep two men busy 
handling the water, for properly applied, from 
seven to eight acres can be irrigated each day. 
If alfalfa is laid out in narrow checks, so that the 
water can gently run over it, three acres a day 
o^n be irrigated in this manner. Of course if 
flooding be prrctioed, each acre will require the 
old amount of \\ cable feet per second for 24 
hours. 

The costs of running this pnmp are one cord 
of four-foot wood $2 50 (or three loads of sage 
brush at about halt the cost); labor running 
engine $1 65, incidentals 35 cents, a total of 
$4 50 for, say, 1\ acrer, or 60 cents per acre. 
Tne engine ot 15 horse power is ample for a 
pomp of double the oapaci^v given above, and 
the said pnmp only costs $100 more originally, 

Ooe thing should be carefully considered by 
all who sink wells from which water is intended 
to be pamped, and that is, the roof of the well. 
If the oas ng ends In a itratim of land and 
gravel, as the water is rapidly sucked out there 
IS bound to be a cave, so the boring should con- 
tinue until there is a clay roof at least 20 feet 
in thickness, for with such a roof there will 
never be a cave or obstruction to the free Sow 
of the Rrettlv to bn desired water supply, — 
Bakerafield Oalifornian, 



4 



f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 



[July 4, 1891 



jpATROJMS Of J^USBAJ^DF^Y. 



Our Grange Edition. 

The Orange news of most general intereat is given through 
all editions of our paper on thia page Several supple- 
mental pages, devoted to Orange jntereets. are added in our 
Grange edition, which any subscriber can receive in lieu of 
the regular edition without nxTKA C08T, by addressing 
the publishera. 



The Master's Desk. 

■. V. DAVIS, W.U. g. 0. OF CAL170RMA. 

Don't yoa know the session of the State 
Grange will be npon us almost before we know 
It ? Let U8, then, be up and doing, to prepare 
for the beet session ever held in California. 
Do your part. Don't reiy on some one else to 
do it for you. 



Bads and blossoms are aboot gone for the 
year 1S91. In their place we have the ripened 
kernel, frait, grain and vegetable. Thas are 
the labors of seed-time rewarded by the fruits 
and labors of an abundant harvest. Again are 
we taught the lesson that no tree bears fruit in 
summer that does not blossom in the spring. 
We must plant, if we would reap. We must 
work, if we would grow in wealth, strength 
and knowledge. Truly, the laborer is worthy 
of his hire. 

Bs somebody's jewel 1 A fine setting is al- 
ways valuable, even though the ring or pin is 
comparatively worthless. Try to be the oen- 
ter-pleoe of something pure. 



Bennet Valley Grance made a success of 
Children's Day on the 27th of Jane, The at- 
tendance was very large, the day extremely 
hot, the program inetruotive and entertaining, 
the dinner good, and everybody happy and sat- 
isfied. The children did well in singing, read- 
ing and speaking, and 'twas a good thing to 
have been there. 



The Masters of Granges ought to be very 
ouefnl not to be entrapped by any of the many 
oalla for conventions, Congresses, meetings, 
etc. Now, more than ever before, ought the 
Grange to follow its well-eetablished motto, 
"Get in the middle of the road and go slow." 

Some of the spindles in the weather maohin- 
ery must have been much out of order 
during the past few days. At any rate, the 
boxes have heea heated to a high degree, and 
the engineer was hotter than the boxes. 



Grit in your strawberries is not at all relish- 
able. Grit in the sugar bowl does not add to 
the value of the sugar. Grit on the hands 
makes them rough and sore, bat grit, true grit 
in a man is a splendid attribute. Everybody 
admires the man of grit. The man who has 
the courage of his honest convictions Is the man 
who always has true and reliable friends. That 
man who does not tremble because somebody 
else opposes him, is the man we like. Yet we 
do not like a man to be so full of grit that he is 
always rasping and grating somebody. The 
man who is so angular that no one dare ap- 
proach bim, is too often mistaken for the man 
of grit. The one is the man we ought to avoid. 
The other is the man we ought to encourage. 
The honest man with courage enough to ex- 
press his true oonvlotiona at all times and in 
all places, is a valuable man. 

The fiscal year is ended, and a new fiscal 
year is begun. Many of the laws enacted by 
the last Legislature, by which public money is 
appropriated, are now for the iirst time oper- 
ative. It behooves every taxpayer to keep an 
eye toward the State's cash-box, to see who 
gets the money, and to know what is to be 
done with it. 



Have yon done your duty to the Grange or- 
gan during the past year ? How many com- 
mnnications have yoa sent the Rural? How 
many subscribers did you seoore for the farm- 
ers' home paper T 



We are enjoined to keep ourselves unspotted 
(rem the world. If we can do this, and it 
ought to be an aim of life to do it, then how 
proud of us are friends ! The many lessons 
taught by our Order help, to a great degree, to 
keep the membership unspotted from the 
world. 

Dram Sailing Not an Inherent Right. 

A Nuisance Lenally and Otherwise. 

There is no inherent right in a citizen to sell 
intoxicating liquors bv retail; it is not a privi- 
Ipge of a citizen o' a State or of a citizen of the 
United State". — i7. S. Supreme Court, Califor- 
nia vs, Ckristiamen. 

No legislature can bargain away the public 
health or the public morals. The people them- 
selves cannot do it, much less their servants. 
Government is organized with a view to their 
peraervation, and cannot divest Itself of the 
power tn provide for them, — U. S, Supreme 
Court, Stone vs. Mississippi. 

For we cannot shut out of view the faot, 
within the knowledge of all, that the public 
health, the public morals and the public safety 
may be endangered by the general use of in- 
toxicating drinks; nor the faot, established by 
statistics accessible to every one, that the dis- 
order, pauperism and crime prevalent tn the 
country are, in some degree, at least, traceable 



to this evil. — U, S. Supreme Court in Kansas 
Gases. 

The statistics of every State show a greater 
amount of crime and misery attributable to the 
nee of ardent spirits obtained at these retail 
liquor saloons than to any other ►onrce. — U. S. 
Supreme Court, California vs, Christiansen. 



Flower Thoughts. 

[Written by Mrs. Asios Ad4M8, Lecturer of Eden Grango, 
and published by rei|uest of the Grange.] 
The sweet-scented, many-hued flowers, 
That brighten our beans day by day, 
We gather from rich laden bowers, 
And scatter along on our way. 

What matter if sorrow and sadness, 
Should come to us all now and then, 

They fill us with joy and gladness, 
And sometimes with wonderment, when 

We think of the power that formed them. 
And filled them with fragrance sublime, 

.^nd with language that tells us often, 
They come from a presence Divine. 

How few there are on the earth plain. 
That learn the sweet lessons given. 

Their thoughts are intent on this world's gain. 
Forgetting these blessings from heaven. 

They gazs on these heaven-born beauties, 

The snowy white lily so fair. 
The roses, the violets and pansies, 

With a careless, indifferent air. 

Ne'er thinking that each lovely blossom. 

Is a breath of Infinite life, 
A beautiful spirit that has come 

To bloom midst their sorrow or strife; 

To teach them to open the windows 
Of their souls, that the light from heaven 

May come and bless, e'en though sorrow 
Most bitter to them, has been given. 

When the cold, chilly winds of winter 

Make them droop and fade from our sight, 

1 heir beautiful spirit can enter 
The home of the angels of light. 

And blossom again in such beauty. 

That heaven alone can call forth, 
And the angels know the duty of each. 

And their marvelous worth. 

Then cherish the beautiful flowers 

That God in his love has given 
To all in such plentiful showers, 

To carry our thoughts up to heaven. 

Pluck the flowers, inhale their sweetness, 

Their life will pass into your own; 
And their delicate fragrance will bless 

Your life with the seeds they have sown. 



Work tor the Sisters to Lead. 

The following from a report of the Com- 
mittee on Women's Work in Normal Grange, 
Ohio, is an excellent outlining of the work 
that may well be led by the Sisters of every 
Grange: 

1. To labor to increase the membership of 
our Grange by soliciting wothy persons that we 
have reason to believe would be a benefit to 
our Order. We are confident that many would 
join the Grange, if the objects and parposes of 
the Order were fully explained to them. We 
should call the attention of those we solicit to 
become members of our Order to the Social and 
literary advantages of the Grange, rather than 
to the financial Ixenefits. 

2. The children in the Grange shoald not be 
overlooked. We should endeavor to instill into 
their youthful minds the principles of the 
Grange, and impress them more fully with the 
beaaty of the country and the dignity of labor. 
At least one meeting a year should be held for 
the children with juvenile entertainments, so 
conducted as to please the children, and teach 
them some useful lessons of life, oaloulated to 
inspire them with a greater love for their 
country homes. 

3. Temperance is a subject that shoald en- 
gage the attention of the ladies of the 
Grange. We should endeavor to impress the 
minds of the young with the magnitude and 
danger of the great evil of intemperance. 

4. We would snggest to members to bring 
specimens of their ohoioest fruits, in their 
season, as an offering to Pomona and for the 
iospeotion of the members of the society. 
Much useful information may be derived from 
an examination and comparison of the varietiei 
of fruits exhibited, "rhe discussion of the 
relative value, merits and mode of cultivation 
will afford much nsefnl information to the 
members of the Grange. 

5 We want to encourage the cultivation of 
flowers and would respectfully solicit contribu- 
tions of them at each meeting during the season 
of dowers, we should learn to cultivate the 
beautiful flowers, twining vines and gracefal 
plants to beautify and adorn our homes, and 
make them the abode of sweeter affections and 
more radiant virtues. 

6. We want to honor Ceres equally with Flora 
and Pomona, with contributions of the choicest 
seeds and products of the farm and garden. 

7. We would advise the decoration of the 
Grange hall with appropriate emblems, par- 
ticularly on pnblio occasions. 

8. We would request the Worthy Master to 
hold one or more open meetings during the year, 
and invite the farmers of the vicinity to attend 
the meetings. A good literary program con- 
sisting of select readings, recitations, essays 
and addresses should be prepared for the enter- 
tainment of visitors. 

9. We would recommend an exchange of 
suggestions and programs with other Granges, 



INDEPENDENCE CIRCLE. 

All-Aruund Orange Oorrespondence. 
Thanks to Patrons who have nobly supported 
Worthy Master Davis' request to hear from all 
Granges through the Pre.ss in Fourth of July 
week. We regret that there shoold be a single 
Grange unrepresented in tO'day's issue, and 
shall hops that every Grange out of the circle 
this week will fall in with at least a short 
communication for onr columns soon. With 
the Master, we desire that the long-silent 
Granges be put on record by some members, 
and heard from more frequently hereafter. 



Waterloo Grange Awake. 

Dkar Press :— The Worthy Secretary of 
Waterloo Grange is busy in the harvest field, 
and as we feel we must be represented In your 
Independence edition, I have ventured to act 
as his substitute, and the result Is the enclosed 
"rfTort." Mary T. Merrill. 

Waterloo June S8, 1S91. 

"The Farmer Made Us Free," 

When first the light of freedom's day 
Broke o'er this Western world, 

When first the flag that freedom loves 
Was to the breeze unfurled 

When " Minute men " of olden time 
Poured forth from hill and dell. 

And echoed bick the loud alarm 
Of Freedom's natal bell. 

The farmer left his field untitled, 

He left his fireside bright. 
With sturdy arm and fearless heart 

To battle for the right. 

The links within the tyrant's chain 
Were forged full well and strong, 

Each link was insult long endured. 
Foul hate and monstrous wrong. 

But the flint-lock in the farmer's hand 

Soon forced the links apart. 
His brave right hand was strong to free. 

Nerved by his manly heart. 
And now when tyrants, fierce and bold, 

Have forged the chain anew, 
The farmer once again must come 

With honest heart and true 
To break the chain which wealth and power 

Have bound round Liberty, 
li\s J!int-iock is his honest vole, 

'I'will set the bondsman free. 
Then shall once more effulgent shine 

Glad Freedom's glorious ray, 
Once more the freeman's shout will greet 

The nation's natal day. 
The bells once more like Bell of old. 

Shall " ring for Liberty," 
Once more a grateful land shall say 

The farmer made us free, 

Locketord Grange. 

Editors Press : — Agreeable to a call for a 
word from all the Granges to make up a Fourth 
of July number, we submit the following: 

Lockeford Grange is still flourishing and in- 
terest unabated. Of course the busy season 
just now keeps many of the farmers from the 
meetings, but they have the cause still at heart. 
This is shown in working up the good cause 
and solioiting new members. We have quite a 
long list of names, which we hope to add to 
our membership as soon as the busiest days are 
over. Almost every meeting records some of 
the degrees taken by new members. 

We have introduced into our Grange, under 
the head of Good of the Order, programs for 
those meetings that are not filled up with im- 
portant business, consisting of apeechef, recita- 
tions, songs, etc, by different members chosen 
by a committee. We find this very profitable 
as well as interesting. Some of our members 
accepted an invitation from the Stockton 
Grange to visit them at their last meeting, 
when the third and fourth degrees were con- 
ferred on new members. We were pleasantly 
entertained, after the work was done, with ice- 
cream and cake. The day being exceediogiy 
warm, it was all the more enjoyable. These 
little exchanges of visitt with different Granges 
keep alive the interest, and is really a help to 
all. S. L, Locke, Seo'y. 

Lockeford, June S9. 



Merced Grange. 

As I was reading over the Pacific Rubal 
Press, I noticed that the Worthy Master re- 
quested something from every Grange for the 
Fourth of July number, so I endeavored to 
write on The American Flag. 

The resolution introHu'^ed into the Conti- 
nental Congress in 1777 legalizing the flag 
created quite a sensation and a great deal of 
enthnniasm. It was resolved that the flag of 
the United States be thirteen stripes, alter- 
nate red aud white; that the Union be thirteen 
stars, white, in a blue field, representing a 
New Constellation, the words meaning " Her- 
aldry." 

After accepting tbe design for the flag of the 
Union, the next thing was to provide for some 
one to carry it aloft and exhibit it in every 
Und. This feat was entrusted to John Paul 
J oneo, commander of the American man of 
war Ranger. 

There have been several songs written on 
the flag. Among the number is the " Rtar 
Spangled Banner" by Francis Soott Key, 
written in 1814. Mr. Key was a well-known 
lawyer of Baltimore, Md, At the time he 



wrote the verses he had gone to the British 
fleet under a flag of truce to secure the release 
of his friend, Dr , Beans, who had been captured 
by the E aglish and was on board of the flag-ship. 
The negotiation was successful, but the 
British, being about to make a combined attack 
by sea and land on Baltimore, detained Key, 
lest he should carry intelligence of their scheme 
to his countrymen. Being a noncombatant, he 
was not made a prisoner of war, but was sim- 
ply detained on shipboard a few days. He 
then, with his frinnd, witnessed the bombard- 
ment of Fort Henrv, and while watching to 
see if the flag still floated over the fort, be 
wrote on the back of an envelope with a lead- 
penoil the exact words of the song we sing to- 
day. The next day the song was approved and 
printed, and then distributed in all directions 
so that every one might know the song. It was 
hailed with enthusiasm, and was so regarded 
as America's favorite anthem. 

The flig that inspired the "Star Spangled 
Banner" was made by Mrs. Mary Piokersgili, 
who made the first fl»g of the Revolution un- 
der Gen. Washington's direction. The length 
was 40 feet, and width 29 feet. It had 13 
strioes, each stripe being two feet wide. It 
took 400 yards of bunting. It was so large 
that she was obliged to obtain a large room in a 
malt-house to make it. She worked many hard 
nights until 12 o'clock to complete it within 
the given time. The flag Is now in possession 
of Mr. Eben Appleton of New York, whose 
grandfather was the gallant defender of the 
fort during the bombardment. 

I wonder how many of onr Granges have tbe 
American flag in their halls? I think every 
Grange should have one draped In their hall. 
If they cannot secure a flag, get the national 
colors and ui>e them. 

As the public schools have flags to remind 
the children of their patriotism, why should 
not the Granges also have one to keep the 
minds of the members on their patriotism? 
Fraternally, Mi.ss Emma F. Perry, Flora. 

Eden Grange. 

Editors Press :— Eden Grange had an inter- 
esting meeting on June 13th, but some manu- 
script to be sent with the report oame to hand 
too late to appear in-an earlier issne of your 
paper. 

Bro. Blackwood's report of the meeting of tbe 
Farmers' Institute at Niles containing a full 
explanation of its objects and his hopes in its 
future, called out an Interesting talk from W. 
M. Amos Adams about the Agricultural College, 
and its student's profession in life after leaving 
the College, and created quite an interest in tbe 
Institute, which Is to be held August 7th 8th. 

Sister Adams called attention to the flower 
season and read some beautiful thoughts In 
verse appropriate to the occasion. 

To-day our meeting has been equally inter- 
esting. Bro. A. Adams read an original essay 
on hneks. The different subjects mentioned in 
the paper created a friendly discussion. The 
one regarding the Agricultural College and how 
to get a recompense for the taxes paid for its 
sunport proved very interesting. 

Sister Lena Gading's rendering of "Home, 
Sweet Home " on the guitar was followed by 
a reminiscence on the life and sad death of ita 
gifted author, by the W. M, 

A question-box was a new feature, some two 
doziU question*, ranging from the founders of 
ancient Rome to the laying qualities of the 
feathered tribe of the present day, received dae 
attention and was Instructive as well as amaa- 
lug. 

A Reception Committee for providing accom- 
modations for the St.ite Grange was appointed, 
consisting of Bros. Hollister H. Monsen, and 
Sister R. Dennis. Any communication con- 
cerning board and lodging for tbe State Grange 
in Oatober next, if addressed to Julius Hollis- 
ter, Haywards. will receive prompt attention. 

Haywnrds, June £7. J, g. 



Merced Grange Visits Stockton. 

Editors Press :-I feel that I am rather 
late in giving expression to the sentiments of 
Merced Grange and its invited guests to the 
Grange meeting at Stockton cn May 2d, but 
we feel that the reception and entertainment 
given by our brothers and sisters of that place 
is worthy of more than a passing mention, Onr 
Sscretary, Lecturer and Chairman of the 
Committee on Arrangements were present, 
and as a matter of conrse we expected to 
hear from one of them on the subject, but we 
have waited until I am tired and ashamed and 
have resolved (as a member of the committee) 
to apologize to oar Stockton friends for the 
oversight. 

Ninety-three nf us boarded the train at 
Merced on May 2d, arriving in Stockton at 9 
o'clock A, M,, where we were met by Bro. 
Overhiaer and members of that Grange, They 
soon fcrmed us in line and Ld the way direct- 
ly to their hall, where we listened with deep 
interest and pleasure to an address of welcome 
by Bros. Overhiser, Mcintosh aud others. We 
were also treated to a reading of welcome by 
tbe lady Lecturer. Their addresses made us 
feel glad that we had come. To say the least 
of it, we were royally entertained, and in con- 
clusion I would say to our Merced friends in 
the language of one of old, "Go thou and do 
likewise." Fraternally, 

Mrs, John A. Perry. 

Mereed, June SC, 1801. 

(Continued in our Orange Edition.) 



July 4, 1891.] 



pAClFie I^URAb PRESS. 



Farmers' Alliance. 



Alliance Edition. 

Bubacribera can reneive our Farmerh" Alliance Edi- 
tion without EXTRA. COST, by applying for the same. 
That edition contains several supplemental pages of Alli- 
ance matter, in addition to that which appears on this page 
through all editions. 

The Sub-Treasnry Discussion. 

Editors Press:— Mr. Barwlok'a letter, I see, 
hag created considerable dUoaaaion on the 
money qneatlon. I am glad to see this, for the 
more light thrown on this question the better 
it will be for the Farmers' Alliance. Mr. Ber- 
wick does not treat my letter entirely fair. I 
never said "No sensible man can see how a 
Government can lend money at two per cent 
while borrowing at three." Let me repeat 
what I did say: " Mr. Bsrwlck evidently has 
not learned his A, B, O's yet in Alliance princi- 
pies. He says: ' I don't see how a Govern- 
ment can borrow money at three per cent and 
loan it to the farmers at two per cent.' My 
dear sir, no seniible man can see how that can 
be done. Putting the Alliance demand in that 
light is to make it ridiculous, and no well- 
informed person in the United States will put 
it so." That is what I said. I never inti- 
mated that "it," the money borrowed, should 
be loaned to farmers, but distinctly stated that 
the farmers demanded mort money put in cir- 
oalation. I even went so far as to state that 
the business of the country could absorb five 
dollars for every one now In circulation. 

Mr. Berwick says he has been in California 
over a quarter of a century; and from his letter 
I would judge he has been most of that time a 
banker, at least he shows all the symptoms of 
such in his statements of his questions. He 
says: " I would like to ask him whence Gov- 
ernment is to obtain more money to put in cir- 
culation." My dear sir, have yon not read 
upon the subject? The air is full of schemes. 
I will name some (they are all published, and 
you can get copies if you wish): "The Sub- 
Treasury bill," "Stanford's bill," "Feather- 
stone's bill." These are now before Congress, 
and are favorable to farmers. The bankers, 
however, are not idle. St. John of New York, 
Edward Atkinson, J. W. Treadwell, editor of 
the Banktrs' Magazine, San Francisco, J udge 
Widney, president of the University Bank, 
Los Angeles (this last is of such merit that I 
will mail you a copy). All these nohemes will 
tell yon how the Government can put more 
money in circulation. 

You say " It seems to me that the Govern- 
ment obtains its funds in one way, and in one 
way only. That only way is by taxing the 
people." I am astonished to hear you say this, 
and I must be mistaken in saying you have 
been a banker, for all bankers know that there 
is now in circulation over $700,000,000 which 
the Government made from paper, and which 
was not collected from the people in taxes. 
They also know that the Government la the 
only power in this country that can make 
money; and they alao know, that until the 
Government makea the money, the people have 
none with which to pay their taxes. You ad- 
mit further on that the Government can make 
money, but say it must redeem It in "solid 
value, which solid value is always wrung from 
the people by taxation." Now let us see if this 
is so under the farmer's scheme. Say that you 
mortgage your farm for half its assessed value — 
$10,000. The Government issues to you that 
amount of treasury notes, to run not more than 
20 years, you paying the Government two per 
cent interest for its use, as well as taxes. 
When you cannot use that money at a profit, 
yon will return it to the Government; and now 
what does the Government do ? Tax the peo- 
ple to raise solid values to redeem the notes she 
has issued to you ? Is that what she dcos ? No. 
She surrenders to you your mortgage, and the 
debt is canceled, you have had the use of the 
money say ten years, and the Government has 
received a revenue from the loan and the poor 
people have not been taxed a cent to redeem 
the notes. That ia the Farmers' Alliance 
scheme, and when the people understand it 
thoroughly, "Death and hell shall not pre- 
vail against it." It is the key that unlocks 
the great wealth of this coast, and will develop 
the great natural resources of the United 
States. It is for the benefit of the Govern- 
ment aa well as the great industrial classes who 
are now struggling for an existence, and mark 
my words it will come soon. 

Yon say : "Mr. Cannon argues that I could not 
borrow money on my farm at two per cent and 
lend it to some " other fellow " at seven per 
cent, because the Government loans would fix 
two per cent as the maximum rate all over 
the United S kates ." E ven granting this, would 
it be impossible for me to find the "other 
fellow" across the border or in Australia, 
Earop", Asia and Africa 1 No, it is not im- 
possible; but don't you think the fool " fellow " 
would have sense enough to come here and get 
it for two per cent t If not, and you could 
make Europe, Asia and Africa believe that our 
Treasury notes were gilt edged, we would then 
aoon become the banker of the world, and in- 
stead of paying $60,000,000 per year to 
Eflgland in interest and dividends, we would 
draw interest from all the nations of the 
earth. This letter is now too long and 1 must 
close, with the hope that the light may come 
to you even brighter than It did upon Saul on 
his way to Damascna. Mariok Cannon, 
Ventura. State Pres. F. A. & I. U. 



New Work in Lake County. 

Report of Wm. H. Osborn, Deputy State 
Organizer of the F. A. & I. U., June 11. 
1891. 

On my way to work in Like county, in com- 
pliance with instructions from Bro. Cannon, I 
met a few of the good farmers of Cloverdale, 
Sonoma county, and organized an Alliance 
with the following list of officers: E. G. Fur- 
her. Pres.; J. W. Porterfield, V. P.; H. Wam- 
bold, Sec.;C. Hachel, Treas.; T. M. Leane, 
Chap.; J. H. Heald, Lect.; E. P. Passmore, 
Steward; G. Whittaker, D. K.; J. H. Turner, 
Ass't D. K.; and G. E. Lile, D. M. Wamble 
and Paul Liroux. 

On entering Lake county, and after consult- 
ing the Farmers' Club of Lakeport who had 
voted their organization in the Alliance, I pro- 
ceeded to the northern part of the county, and 
in Bachelor valley organized, on June 15tb, 
Bachelor Alliance, No. i, of Lake county, with 
the following bachelors, who, when their wives 
come in, who are expected at their next meet- 
ing, with their neighbors, will make the most 
social and earnest bachelor club in the State: 
Henry Geer. Prea.; W. Woodard, V. P.; T. A. 
Burke, Soc; R. J. Ohriaty, Treas.; N. Graham, 
Chap.; H. C. Thompson, Lect.; W. N. Gra- 
ham. Steward; Nathan Smith, D. K.; R. G. 
Wilson. 

After visiting Upper Lake and working up 
an interest there, I went to Lower Like and 
found that no general notice of my meeting had 
been given, but I got a few citizens together. 

On June 18 held a meeting addressed by our 
Granger State Representative froji Sacramento, 
Bro. Doty. The next day (June I9lih) I met a 
few farmers in Kelseyville in a billiard hall 
(the halls of the town were destroyed by fire), 
with a pulpit so large that it is not to be won- 
dered at that your small speaker appeared 
smaller. 

It waa deemed advisable to organize the 
farmers in one organization at Lake Port, which 
was done on Saturday, June 20th, with 16 
members. B, Hamilton, Pres, ; G. W. Ham- 
mack, V, P.; John Rslmers, Sec; Wm. Gess- 
ner, Treas, ; E, C. Riggs, Chap. ; D. T, Seeley, 
Lecturer ; C. L. Ingram, Steward ; W. D. 
Rantz, Doorkeeper ; J. W. Fees, Assistant 
Doorkeeper ; Jas. H. Combs, A. N. Poe, Jonas 
Ingram, W. H. Manlove, J. D. Hendricks, A. 
Benson and H. N. Maybee. The members here 
are not bachelors and their wives will be with 
us soon. The other members of the olub will 
all be in soon and make a strong Alliance. 

On June 22d we arrived in Glen Eden, where 
the fraternal feeling is strong, and where we 
had a grand meeting, consiBting of the entire 
settlement. Grand Army boys (Bro. Oiborn is 
a G. A. R. member — Eds, Pre.ss) and South- 
ern Chivalry took positions in our ranks, and 
without asking any to retire, we, as they ex- 
pressed it, hit their previous sectional feeling 
such a heavy blow that they love their " Eden " 
better than ever. A. W, Coats, Prea.; 
Mrs, N. I. Williams, V. P.; C. Hoag, Sec'y; 
Geo. Williams, Treas.; Jno. 8. Marsh, Chap.; 
Mrs, Clara Coats, Lecturer; G. R, Goodman, 
Steward; Mrs. Anna Hoag, Door Keeper; 
David Sloan, Ass't D, K, 

While unable to get subscriptions to our 
papers owing to hard times, I believe sample 
copies distributed here will repay the pub- 
lishers and do untold good, and recommend 
that sample copies be sent to the Presidents, 
Secretaries and Lecturers for distribution. 

I will continue to work In this county and 
report more anon. W. H. Osborn, 

D. 8, Organizer. 
[Thanka to Bro. W. H. 0. for his well-ren- 
dered report Indicating so much good work. — 
Ed,s.] 

Two Good Ones in the Field. 

Inaugurating The Lecture System. 
The Farmers Alliance of Ventura county will 
hold meetings in this town on Monday and 
Tuesday the 6th and 7th of July. Monday 
night an open meeting takes place, at which a 
regular program will be carried out, comprising 
speeches, music, singing etc. The audience 
will be addressed by J, L. Gilbert, State Lec- 
turer, Marion Cannon, Stato President and 
other prominent speakers. These meetings are 
held aimultaneoualy by the Alliance Aasociation 
throughout the state, and will be of more than 
ordinary importance from the fact that the 
general lecture system, lately established, will 
be inaugurated at that time. 

The State Lecturer and State President will 
leave Tuesday the 7th for Los Angeles, where 
they will participate in a meeting of the Alli- 
ance the same night, and the following evening 
they go to Santa Ana, Orange county, to be 
present at a meeting there. President Cannon 
says he has his pockets crammed with corres- 
pondence and mind loaded with business con- 
nected with the organization of which he ia the 
chief head in the State, but that he has enlisted 
for the war and is willing to sacrifice a share of 
his personal comfort and private interests for 
the good of the cause. As a prominent and in- 
telligent Alliance man from Fresno remarked 
in Ventura the other day; "Cannon is doing 
nobly and the Alliance people in every part of 

Ithe State admire his leadership and appreciate 
the splendid work he is doing on their behalf.'' 
— Ventura Free Dtmocrat. 



Alliance County Notes. 

Butte. 

Gridley Alliance has an active memberehip of 
43. They have elected the following officers: 
Preaident, George Thresher; Vice President, 
Jas. S. Crain; Secretary, J. W. Long; Treasurer, 
Chas. A. Moore; Lecturer, C. W. Thresher: 
Steward, Chas. Wilkerson; Chaplain, Mrs. Geo. 
D. Wickman; Doorkeeper, Mra, I, Henninger; 
Assistant Doorkeeper, M, J. Bigelow, Dal- 
egatea to the county convention, James Hen- 
ninger, Ed. Fagan, Wm, Spence, Dr, J. R. 
Todd, C. A. Moore and Mrs. Issao Henninger, 
Liberty Alliance at Butte school house, ia in a 
prosperous condition, gradually increasing 
both in interest and members. Three new 
members were admitted, June 20, making a 
total membership of 26. The following offioers 
were elected: President, J. V. Moore; Vice- 
Prealdent, A. M, Gridley; Secretary, Jas. 
Myere; Treasurer, F. J. Gebhart; Lecturer, 
Jesse Hobaon; Assistant Lecturer, W. H, Kin- 
kade. Delegates to the county convention: J, 
V, Moore, F. J, Gebhart, Jease Hobaon, C, D. 
Gridley and Miss Leona iBrown. — Gridley 
Herald, 

Butte. 

Editors Press : — Butte County Alliance, 
F.A.&I. U.,wili convene at Biggs on Tuesday, 
July 7th, when Bro. J. W. Hlnea of San Jose 
will be present. He will also be present in 
the evening. — James Myers, Oridley, June 30. 

Del Norte. 

The people of Del Norte are waking up to 
the Alliance work. At Requa a full list has 
been made up and an organizer sent for, who 
will organize at that place on Saturday, July 
ISth. Other sections of the county are being 
canvassed, and getting ready to take their place 
in line with the Order throughout the State 
Del Norte has good material for reform, and 
all that ia required Is organization, Del Norte 
ia now on the move in that direction, — West- 
ern Watchman. 

Fresno. 

The ,July meeting of the Fresno County 
Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union will be 
held at Malaga, on Tuesday, the 7th day of 
July. At this meeting, besides other import- 
ant matters to be discussed and settled, the 
regular election of officers of the County Alliance 
for the ensuing year will be held. A full at- 
tendance of delegates at the forenoon session — 
10 o'clock — is desired. — Central Califomian. 
Lake. 

On June 20 the members of the Lakeport 
Farmers' Club and other farmers met at Fraser's 
Hall and organized the Lakeport Farmers' 
Alliance and Industrial Union, which makes a 
good beginning with 16 members. The officers 
elected were as follows, viz: B. Hamilton, 
President; George Hammaok, Vice-President; 
John Reimers, Secretary; Wm. Gessner, Trea- 
surer; E, C. Riggs, Chaplain; D. T. Seely, 
Lecturer; Charles Ingram, Steward; W. t). 
Rantz, Doorkeeper; J. W. Fees, Assistant Door- 
keeper. Meetings will be held twice a month. 
The next regular meeting will be held in Fra- 
ser's Hall on July 11th, at 2 p. m. W. H. 
Oaborn, an organizer of the State Alliance, 
presided at the meeting and informed the 
officers of their duties. — Avalanche. 

Los Angeles. 

At the last meeting of the Alliance the follow- 
ing officers were elected for the ensuing term: 
J. K. Bashor Preaident, I. M, Bartley Vice- 
President, J, R. Hodgea Secretary, J. H. 
Coolman Treasurer, A, M. Cook Doorkeeper, 
Marion St. Clair Assistant, W. H. Potter, 
Steward, S. H. Eye Chaplain, Dr. Hostettler 
Lecturer, T. F. Griswold Assistant. The new 
officers will be initalled at the next meeting 
July lat. — Covina Argua. 

San Luis Obispo. 
Work ia being vigorously pushed on the 
Farmers' Alliance mill. The main building 
will be 30x40 feet and three stories high, with 
a wooden frame, and covered and sided with 
corrugated iron. The engine room will be 
24x30 feet. At the present rate of progress 
it will not be very long until we will have a 
mill. This is an institution that San Miguel 
has ijeen in need of for several years, and one 
that we may jaally look upon with pride. — 
Courier. 

The people of Estrella will celebrate July 4th, 
by a basket picnic, given under the auapicea of 
the Estrella Alliance No. 18. The grounds 
chosen are on the south side of the creek, just 
opposite the Estrella postoffice. A suitable 
program has been arranged. 

The Alliance meeting at the old adobe church, 
Estrella, was largely attended, and the utmost 
enthusiasm prevailed. 

San Mateo. 
A Sub Alliance was organized at Halfmoon 
Bay on the 26th. The following officers were 
elected: G. W. Hall, Pres.; P. McGarvey, 
Vice-Pres.; W. V. Grimes, Sec, M. Sullivan, 
Treas,; Michael Knoff, Chap.;R. H. Hatch, 
Lect. 

Santa Clara. 
At the last meeting of the Meridian Alliance, 
a large attendance is reported. The following 
delegates were elected to the County Alliance 
to meet on July 3d, at San Jose: 

Eugene Bandel, J. W. Lovell, W. H. Davis, 
G. A, Enright. Alternates, F, A. Alien, Mrs. 
G. A. Enright, Miss Nelite Hebbert, Miss Ida 
Seely. 

The Alliance at Gilroy is booming. The im- 
petus given to it by the agitation of the new 



mill has set the people to thinking, and the 
result is i-n increased interest in our work. 
The attendance Saturday evenings are large. 
The new officers were elected and will be in- 
stalled at the next regular meeting (July 4). 
Officers elected are as follows: Jeff. Black well, 
Pres; Nettle Oavanagh, Vice Pres.; W. H. Dax- 
ter. Sec; Minnie Cavanagb, Treas,; Mrs. M. J. 
Gruwell. Chap.; Lyman Wilson, Steward; John 
White, Doorkeeper; George Mason, Assistant 

D. K, ; Df. J. Doan, Lecturer, The delegates 
to the County Alliance were Nellie Rice, Katie 
Turner, James Phegley, E. R. Maze, Frank 
Wilson and William Hosclaw. — Garden City 
Alliance. 

The Madrone Band, in connection with the 
Madrono Alliance, is to celebrate the glorious 
Fourth by a grand barbecue at Glen Willis. 
Dancing and barbecued meat will be indulged 
in free to all. The Madrone Band is trotting 
along the musical road at a rapid rate under 
the teachings of Prof. C. E. York, of San Jose, 
and is composed of 18 members, one-half of 
whom belong to the Alliance. 

The Farmer's Alliance meeting at San Jose, 
June 22, was fairly attended. Matters of the 
most vital importance were discussed, and 
plans set on foot to advance the interest of the 
Order. G, B. Johnson ably and warmly advo- 
cated the mill project. It abo waa evident that 
San Joae is going to do her part in the new 
enterprise. The following persons were elec- 
ted delegates to the County Alliance July 3d,, 
at 8:30 A.M.: D. 0. Feely, G. B. Johnson, 
Mrs. D. 0. Vestel, L. A. Talcott, Mrs. J. H. 
Farrell, and alternates — Leslie Orontt, Elgin 
C. Hurlbert. 

Sonoma. 

Oa June 25th. a Farmers' Alliance waa organ- 
ized at Cloverdale, with a membership of 12. 

E. G. Furber was elected President and H, 
Wambold Secretary. 

Sutter. 

Sutter Co. Allianoe will assemble at Yuba 
City on Friday, July 3d. 

Tulare. 

The Tulare County Farmers' Institute that 
meets at Visalia, July 2ad (the day following 
the quarterly meeting of the County Alliance) 
should have a full attendance, and each atten- 
dant should have something to offer on the 
occassion, as giving value for value to be re- 
ceived. Nut^one in 50 of our people have ever 
attended these Institutes and do not, there- 
fore, appreciate the benefits to be received. 
It is noticeable that those who attend soon 
become interested, and set aside less important 
matters to attend to this. Delegates to the 
County Alliance have a good opportunity to 
be present and should, if necessary, remain 
another day to attend the Institute, — Porter- 
vllle Farm View. 



State Alliance Meetings. 

The subjoined State Alliances will meet at 
the dates and locations following: 
Alabama, Montgomery, August 4, 
Arkansas, Little Rock, August 19. 
California, Los Angeles, October 20. 
Colorado, October 3, 
Georgia, Atlanta, August 19, 
Illinois, Springfield, October 27. 
Louisiana, August 4, 
Maryland, Baltimore, August 11, 
Michigan, Lansing, October 6, 
Missiaaippi, Starkville, August 25. 
Missouri, Pertyle Springs, August 25. 
North Carolina, Morehead City, August 11. 
North Dakota, Grand Forks, June 23, 
Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, November 10, 
South'Carolina, July 22. 
South Dakota, Huron, date not fixed. 
Tennessee, Nashville, August 11. 
Texas, Dallas, August 18. 
Virginia, Richmond, August 18. 
Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, August 18. 



Addresses for Reform. — The Paoifio Grove 
Retreat Association, realizing the importance 
of the Farmers' Alliance agitation, have pro- 
vided for a number of lectures for the reform 
movement during the lecture season at Pacific 
Grove. The following is the list of lecturers: 
Monday evening, August 3d, J. W. Hines; 
topic, " California State Farmers' Alliance.* 
Tuesday evening, August 4tb, Joseph Legget; 
topic, The Single-Tax Theory." Wednesday 
evening, August 5th, Thomas V. Cator; topic, 
"The Emancipation of Toilers," Thursday 
evening, August 6th, Rev. D. A. Dryden; 
topic, " Brotherhood of Co-operation," Friday 
eveoing, August 7th, J. B. Rigdon; topic,' 
"What is the Matter with the Farmer?" 



Though the Alliance may slow down and 
even wane in some places and give the enemy a 
little comfort, it will be of short duration. 
There is a settled determination of the industrial 
elements to unite in one form or another, and 
it will be done. The Knights of Labor, the 
Trade Union and other officiating Orders may 
each have its pull back, but the individual 
membership can never be driven back into the 
old shearing pens. There is unity of mind, and 
there will bo unity of action. 



The election of the delegates to the State 
Allianoe will take place at the October session 
of the county quarterly neeting, which con- 
venes in the first week of October, The State 
meeting occurs on the 20th of that month. The 
installation of officers of aub-alliancea takes place 
at the first regular meeting in July. 



6 



fACIFie 



RALd f ress. 



[July 4, 1891 




Love. 



iWrltten for the RuRiL Prkbi by C. P. N.] 
I. 

SELFISH. 

Thv love to me and mine to thee 
Fills high each cup of joy, love, 

And men may do or false or true 
But nothing shall annoy, love. 

The sad old earth may know not mirth, 
Proud sin may sneer at truth, love. 

But shall we Ihink while love's life brink 
Far stretches from our youth, love I 

Let other men all knowledge ken. 
Let hearts be cru'h--d wiih prief, love. 

Let foals aye p'od in vain for God, 
We'll not reach out relief, love; 

We have no time while love sublime 
Pours out its wealth of joys, love; 

Eanh-'ife is short, vine men exhort 
To pleasures, not annoys, love I 

II. 
PURE. 

Dear bOoved, thou must know that all men and all 
things 

On the earth, in the heaven, yes, down deep in the 
rings 

Of that horrible hell Dante saw, losing strength, 
All the absolute Ens, has been changed through 
love's eyes, 

Till a pity and love that shall last with the length 
Of my love for thy soul, from my heart birth and 
rise 

For whatever is; ah, 'tis love make's us wise. 

Can true love lie content to be blessed all alone ? 
Love hughs at the thought, she will not seek her 
own, 

She niu't serve, she must bear, so her blessings 
shall fl )w 

Far beyond the beloved, in love's transport of joy. 
The true love may be known by the strong, tender 
glow 

Reachirg forth to all men, by the earnest employ 
All God's good to impress, all man's ill to destroy. 



The Dress and the Body. 

[Writ'.en for the Rural Press, by Ohirloiti Pbreiks 
Stutsok.) 

Atnong the mlllioDS of thtoga that people do 
not realize — and indeed we liveeo apathetioally 
amiDg the mtracaloas facta of life that there la 
Boaroely anything we do reallza beyond a few 
peraonal appetite! — Is the strange way in which 
clothes have come to be part of the body in 
our estimatioD. 

The body withont clothea is a thing a* 
foreign and unknown to our mental universe as 
a turtle withont a shell, 

I do not mean that we ooniider the haman 
body as essentially Indecent, tboagh many of 
n« still do tvtn that; but that we do not 
consider it at all ! It has no existence in onr 
minds save as the skinned anatomical figures 
exist for the use of the student. 

In art. In medicine, In comparative ethnol- 
ogy, the hamaa body still lives; and clothes 
are added to, or tak'-n from it at will. 

Bat in oar daily life, both the toner realities 
of thought and the outer realities of fact, there 
li DO such thing! 

The men and women in street and parlor, at 
work, at play, in all the countless phases of 
modern life, never think of each other save as 
head, hands, and feet, with sn tndi finite mass 
between called "the figure," which Is shaped 
and sizad and colored a thousand ways, to salt 
the ohaoelog fashions. 

This fliotutting outline is so wholly and 
essentially human to our thinking that the body 
itself impresses us with a painful sense of loss 
and inooirpleteneai. 

We do not think of a body clothed as some- 
thing mort than a bndy, but of a body un- 
clothed aa something less than a body. 

Liok about yon in a horse-car — anywhere 
that people are visible. Here Is a beautiful 
young girl; that Is, her face la beautiful. It is 
all yon can see of her. She is collared to the 
chin, gloved to the elbaw, covered utterly. 
Bit are you anything of an artist? Hive you 
been trained to know what human beauty is, 
and to follow a line by indication; unravellne 
the "pure form" beneath from the "bad art*' 
of the confused mass of cloth, the cantra- 
dlctory lines of which bewilder the most ex- 
perlf need eye a little ? 

Tols damsel bears herself well — from a dry- 
goods point of view. Her pose, expression, 
everything about her, depends on that amor- 
phous mass below. 

The bead is held to accommodate the hat, a 
wide and shapeless hat, whose Intricate convo- 
lutions apologizj for the lack of proportion and 
besnty in the head and hair. 

Siie never thinks of her bead, as a A«ac/, with its 
laws of perfection, and dreeses her hair to suit 
It, Her hair Is dressed to suit a prevailing 
style, regardless of anything else; or to fit the 
hat, which Is also a prevailing style reeardless 
of anything else. Her neck Is too thin, her 



chest too flat, shoulders a little stooping. The 
dreasmaker has put a little cotton in the 
boUowest places, but this terrible trained eye 
can tell the diffjrence between cotton and 
muscle, or even cotton and fat I 

Her arms are bad. There is scarsely a 
practical muscle on the upper arm, and the 
deltoid is almost extinct. The lower arm la a 
la; but the trained eye can easily subtract that 
little better, presumably from piano praotlse. 
Disproportl jnate however — a bad arm. 

From shoulder to hip we have, of coarse, only 
a conventionalizsd outline, and a hideous one It 
smooth stiffness, and see what painful defi- 
ciencies follow the subtraction. 

Below this It is still harder to follow, the 
lines are so numerous and oontradtctory ; they 
mske good points bad and bad ones worse; but 
th» trained eye has struggled long with this 
difficulty; and It caa see well that the legs are 
tio heavy for the meager shoulders and fl ashless 
ribs, and that their plumpness has neither 
strength nor agility to jastlfy It. 

The feet come last, a ad deaervedly, for they 
are positively deformed. BaautifuUy cha\iaee, 
but lacking in every characteristic of the 
perfect foot. Too small to begin with, too 
narrow In proportion to their leuKth, spreading 
where they should ba narrow, and narrowing 
where they ought to spread. They are not 
really feet, human feet, which are allied in 
smooth suppleness and varied freedom of 
movement to the paw; but a species ol 
ludimentary hoof, small, black, shiny, hard, 
accurate In their limited motions, click- 
clicking like the steps of an antelope on the 
rocks. 

All this, which the trained eve sees and 
suffers In the seeing, la the rtal girl. But does 
any one else see It T Djesshd? Not the lea«t 
in the world. To them and to herself the 
dreis Is the girl. To think of what is ander- 
neath la not only an Indelicacy — It la an inac- 
curar^— there ia nothing underneath which la 
complete In itaelf. 

Now look abjut yon further. 

There ia a man, hollow-chested, bent-ahonl- 
dered, with a ecrawoy neck, and gaunt legs 
crotaed starkly before him. 

There la an older man, with a thick neck, 
creased horizontally In the back, a barrel of a 
body, and huge, shapeless legs. 

There is a pursy little woman, with a face 
full of satitfi^d vanity, and yet the cieature Is 
poiltlvely revolting In her formless rotundity; 
chubby, soft, short-legged to the verge of de- 
formity, jaet a round little bundle, wrapped 
tightly In bright silk and hung about with 
manifold trimmings — but does she care ? Do 
any of them care ? Not the least in the world ; 
neither they nor their beholders — for are they 
not well dresstd ? 

Her dress "fits" beautifully. Fits what? 
one will say In criticism. Another will own In 
becoming modesty, that " she has a wretched 
figure;" but they don'c care. 

If that man or that girl or that woman were 
conscious of any defect in costume which placed 
them below the average and rendered them ob- 
j^cts of criticism, they would never have 
stirred abroad till the lack was supplied or the 
change effected. 

But as to taking thought and doing work to 
Improve their own beauty, or even to see the 
lack of It — it never enters their heads. 

Each sex has some dim notion of a standard 
of beauty In themselves and each other, but 
there Is no true standard, no knowledge of 
what real human beauty Is, and how to get it. 

S>'d a nice girl to m^, gazing doubtfully at 
the Venus of Mile: "Da you really think her 
pretty ? " What could one say ? 



An Easy Remedy. 

[Written tor the Rural PREes by Mas. J. M. K.J 

In a late Rqral, Mr. James Shinn claims to 
have found the cause of hard tlmea all in one 
word, "Overproduction." Well, the good 
book tells as we hare gifts differing one from an- 
other; so let us grant Mr. Sblnn his grand dis- 
covery and look with Interest for his promised 
remedy. Still, as nature seldom bestows all 
knowledge upon one person, possibly some one 
else oould carry the Idea on better than Mr. 
Sllnn himself. Indeed, I feel inspired to take 
up the work myeelf. 

Now, brother and slater producer, It Is al- 
ways well to look at the bright side, and this 
Idea that overproduction Is the cause of onr 
troublea, rightly viewed, is a very comfortable 
one. When we look for the trouble in unjust 
laws and try to educate all the people up first 
to see the difficulty and then Intelligently apply 
the remedy by OTerthrowtcg a colossal, long- 
established wrong, you can plainly see we have 
a stupendous task on hand, and relief Is neces- 
sarily far in the future. 

On the other hand, if overproduction be the 
cause, the remedy lies with ourselves, and fields 
lying fallow one season should bring relief. 
Glorious news I FdUow-tollert, let us hie away 
to the mountains, build ourselves booths and 
keep a year of jibilee, as did the Israelites of 
of old. On? year of rest, of intellectual and 
spiritual uplifting, ol social ioterconrse, and 
then to our homes again to ec joy the prosperity 
that surely would follow, fur no doubt the 
troublesome overplus would all be consumed. 
And then, oh, consoling thought I no more 
hard times, for this happy experiment could be 
repeated as often as we were presaed by hard 
times. 

TVocy. 



Hope and Try for the Best. 

The day of deliverancs from mm may seem 
still far away to those who are working for 
prohibition, says the Toledo Blade, but If they 
will cast their eyea backward and recall the 
great changa that haa come over the American 
people regarding the drink habit, they will find 
much cauae for encouragement. Fifty years 
ago drinking was respectable, because every- 
body Indulged-more or leas. Drunkenness was 
regarded as a sign of weakness in a man, but 
no giaver consequences resulted. The drinker 
was not barred out of decent society as he Is to- 
day, nor was hU vice made an obstacle to his 
advance In life, especially In the political field. 
Look at the changed conditions to-day. A 
very large class of people do not drink at all; 
other classes drink on occasion, but not to the 
degree of becoming Intoxicated, and the drink- 
ing habit is largely confined to the less cultl 
vated and uneducated classes. There la a vast 
b idy of oppojltlon to dr.nking, and the man 
who Is known as a drinking man finds many of 
the avennes ol lucrative occopttlon closed to 
him, and especially la this true of positions of 
trust or fiaanclal responsibility. Njbody 
wants a man who Is addicted to rum In such a 
place. The tremendous crusade against rum 
which began with the passage of the Maine 
law Is to be credited with the most of this 
great change In public sentiment. Hid It not 
been for the enormous foreign Immigration dur- 
ing all these years — had the Increase In our 
population been due to the natural excess of 
births over deaths — rum to-day would be ban- 
ished from the greater portion, if not all, of 
the United States. Bat these foreign-born cit- 
izens, coming from countries where the drink- 
ing of rum In some form Is aa common aa It was 
here a half-century ago, and looked upon as 
leniently, have largely settled in onr oitler, 
and made them the atrongholda of the rum 
power. — Farmers' Review. 



Ls Culture Hekkditary ?— P/of. L;ater F. 
Wiod. says mat the whole point at Issue is 
whether there is a casual relation between the 
cnltivatlon of the mental facnltlea and their 
development; In ether words, whether the In- 
crement gained by their exarolse Is transmitted 
to posterity. PrOf. Welemann and most of bis 
followers, constituting what Is now generally 
known as the school of Nao-DArwlniana, deny 
sjch tranamisalon. If they are tight, trduca- 
lion has no value for the future of mankind, 
and Its benefice are confined exclusively to the 
generation receiving it. So far as the Inculca- 
tion of knowledge ia concerned, this has always 
been admitted to be the case, and the fact that 
each new individual must begin at the begin- 
ning and acquire all knowledge over again for 
himself Is suffiolently discouraging and has 
often been deplored. Bat the belief, though 
vague, has been somewhat general that a part 
at least of what Is gained In the direction of 
developing and strengthening the facultlea of 
the mind, through their life-long exerolae In 
special fields. Is permanently preserved to the 
race by heredity transmiaslnn to posterity of 
the acquired increment. We have seen that 
all of tbe facts of history and of personal ob- 
servation sustain this comforting popular belief, 
and until the doctors of science shall cease to 
differ on this point and shall reduce the laws of 
heredity to a degree of exactness which shall 
amount to something more like a demonstration 
than the current speculations, It may perhaps 
be as well to continue for a time to hug the 
delusion. 

EvoLDTiON OP THE Knife. — " Thls caae full 
of luipUments which we have newly placed on 
exhibition Is designed to ahow tbe development 
of the tool which we call the knife, beginning 
from the earliest times," said Prof, Mason at 
the National Museum to a Washington Star 
reporter. " First, you observe. Is the frag 
ment of flint wbioh the savage spilt by banging 
it on the top with a stone hammer Into a num- 
ber of flakds. The smaller ones were used for 
arrow points and the bigger ones for knives, 
their edges being spilt off so sharp that you 
might almost ahave with some of them. Next 
you see the flint flake Inserted Into a handle of 
split wood or bone, and, as further improve- 
ments, the fastening of this primitive knife in 
tbe handle by tbe rosin of trees and by cord of 
one sort or another bound round to secure It. 
The moat beautiful knife in the collection ii tbe 
exquisitely molded blade of greeciih j tde be- 
longing to the stone age branded with a walrus 
tuek. Vou can hardly find a more admirably 
formed weapon among the products of modern 
cutlery wares. Most curious of the modern 
tools here is the sailor'd knife, cqcare at the 
end Instead of pointed, to prevent s'abblng In 
a row or the dangerous falling of the weapon 
from aloft. Its blade drops cat at the end of 
the hatd'e when a catch is touched, so that 
Jack can hold a rope with one hand and open 
the knife for service without the need of ten 
fingers." 

A ORIM stroke of bnmour Is being attributed 
to the Marquis of Ailenbury In Wiltshire, A 
large supply of handgrenadea for extlngnlshing 
fire had been ordered for the mansion at 
8-vernake. After all the corridors had been 
SLffiolently supplied, there were alx of the 
grenadea over. A servant aaked the Marquis 
what should be done with them. His lordship 
reflected a moment, and then replied, "I 
think yon had better put them in my coffin I" 



Can Monkey.s Talk? 

In a recent exchange an article appeared 
under the heading of " The Language ol 
Monkeys," in which a somewhat extended 
notice waa given of a very Interesting stady, 
which was being prosecuted by Prof. R. L. 
Oarner, of the Smithsonian Institute, in regard 
to the language of monkeys. The professor 
had already become satlafied that the monkeys 
were In posesslon of a language that waa under- 
stood by themselves, and which he thonght he 
would eventually he able to so interpret that it 
might be also understood by man. The profes- 
sor has continued his Investigations with what 
he evidently considers a marked degree of 
success. Q lite recently he has written to the 
New York Herald that his Investigations of 
sounds made by monkeys convinces him that 
they articulate speech from which the tonenes 
of mankind could have been developed. They 
uae their lips very much as men do. 

In his Investigations he makes use of the 
phonograph, and cays: "The monkey tongue 
has about eight or nine sounds which may be 
changed by modulation Into three or four tlmea 
that number. They seem to be half way be- 
tween a whistle and a pure vocal sound, and 
have a range of four octaves, and they all chord 
with F. sharp on the piano. Faint traoea of 
consonant sounds can be found Inwards of low 
pitch, but they are few and quite feeble, bnt I 
have had cause to believe tney develop In a 
small degree by a change of environment. In 
their present state their speech haa been 
reached by development from the lower form. 
Words are monosyllabic, ambiguous and col- 
lective. Having no negative terms, except of 
a resentment phonic character, their speech ia 
very much the aame as that of children in their 
early efforts to talk, except aa regarda pitch. 
Their language seems to obey the same laws of 
change and growth as the human speech. 



Chaff. 

An old maid asks — If whatever ia ia right, 
how does it happen that I'm left? 

MARBTiyo rich widows, like drinking llqaor, 
la often done eolely for the efiiCts. 

W'hen you hear a man aay he haa a bad wife, 
just atk him what he haa done to make her a 
good one. 

' The world can't come to an end." Why 
not? ' "Ita a globe, and consequently there'a 
no and to It." 

Visitor — How much the baby resembles it's 
mother. Father — Yes it talked when It wm only 
six montbsold. 

Geokoie— What makes the old cat howl aoT 
Dickie — I'd guess you'd make a noise too If yon 
was full of fiddle strings Inside, 

Most people think that a rumour la like a 
snbaoription-list. E/ery time It comes to them 
they add something to it and pass it along to 
the next. 

HuusEKEEPER — Norab, yon must always 
sweep behind the doors. New servant — Yes'm, 
I always does. It's the aalest way of gettin' 
the durrlt out of sight. 

Is a woman was as careful in selecting a 
huebind to match her disposition as she Is In 
stUotlngia dress to match her complexion there 
would be fewer unhappy marriages than there 
are. 

He — What does the poet mean by an aching 
vole?" I c«n't understand what It can possibly 
be. She — Why, I should think you ought to 
know. Have yon never had a headache? 

Justice — Yon say that yon did not know that 
you were violating the law. Ah but, my dear 
sir, ignorance ol the law Is no exonse to ftny 
man. Prisoner — That's rather rough on both 
of us, ain't it, your Warship? 

Save us from the girls and matrons who, dull 
In arithmetic and nowhere In Ezclld, yet Invar- 
ably solve tbe problem of putting a nnmbsr 
five foot In a nnOober three boot and a 24 Inch 
waist into an IS Inch cortet. 

Landlady — That new boarder needn't try to 
make me think he la a bachelor. He's either 
married or a widower. Millings — How canyon 
teli? Landlady— Hi alwaya tuin^ his back to 
me when he opena his pocket-book to pay hia 
board. 

Attorney — My dear madame, I find that 
your estate is heavily encumbered. You will 
have enough to live upon. But you must hoa- 
band your resources, Widow — Well, my 
daughter Mary Is mv only resource now. At- 
torney — Exactly. Husband her as soon aapoa- 
slble. 

"My dear," said the caller, with a winning 
emlle, to the little girl who occnped the atndy, 
while her father, the eminent litcary man, was 
at his dinner, "I suppose you assist your papa 
by entertaining tbe bores." "Yes Sir," replied 
the little girl gravely; "please be seated." 

A man's fuony bone, we presnme, enablea 
him to "laugh In his sleeve." 

In many transactions the middle-man very 
soon eets into the first plsoe, 

A MAN looks for the path of dnty afar off, 
yet it passes right by hla door. 

Waiter (at the olut)— There's a lady ontslde 
who says that her bnsband promised to be 
home early to night. All (rising)— Exouae me 
a m mont. 

A Correction. — "It Is fate," aald the young 
officer, as be taw the footprlnta in the eaod. 
"Thrue, but ungrammatlcal,'' said Major 
O'Down. "Ye should have said, 'They are 
fate.'" 



Jolt 4, 1891] 



PACIFie F?.URAIo PRESS. 



"yOUJ^JG JEIOLKS' QobUJVIN. 

A Tale of Hearsay. 

Written <or Our Young Folks by Adah PAiRBAMKn 
Batslle.] 

"How does Tina like the Eohool?" 
"Finel;; bnt Angle thinks she haa to work 
too hard." 

"Did the girla write anything about onr 
boys t" 

" Who, Jo and Walter T Yes, they 8»w 
them at the Epsllion Clab, and they met that 
Mercer boy, too, bnt they don't fancy him, 
Do you know him?" 

" I don't know Paul Meroer, bnt 1 know 
his father by sight." 

"Isn't he pretty fast ?" 
" Why ?" 

" Oh, I thought so from what the girls said. 
He is ever getting into tronble and might get 
sent home if his father wasn't rich." 

Maud Hughes had been a silent listener. 
She raised her great brown eyes, saying reprov- 
ingly, " Why, it ought not make any difference 
whether a boy's father is rich or poor, I 
thought everybody stood on hia own merits at 
oollege." 

Wilbur laughed. Had be been aufiBoiently 
acquainted, he would have said: "Poor in- 
nocent chicken, you will change your mind 
when yon know aa mnoh aa I do." As it was, 
he said reepeotfally : "They ought to stand 
on their own merits. Miss Maud, but as it is 
I'm afraid they don't — always." 

The worldly wisdom of a yonth of seventeen 
is Bometimea amazing. 

"Who ia this Paul Mercer?" asked Maude 
afterward of Bessie Gray. 

"Ob, a kind of wild fellow, I gaesa. I've 
met him several timea and he is pleaaant 
enough, but thia is the second school at which 
he haa got into trouble. Lota of the oollege 
boya are wild, ao that's nothing." 

Miss Oray went on to speak of this particu- 
lar college boy in a way that did not raise him 
in Maud's estimation. Bessie Gray had taken 
upon herself the pleasant task of making Maud 
feel at home in the little village of Hearsay, as 
South Haven was often called, and Maud 
looked to her for explanation of all the names 
and remarks that were strange. 

It was not long alter that the paper gave no- 
tice of the death of Mrs. Mercer. At the time, 
Maud heard much about the family, Mra, 
Mercer had been loved and reapected in ber 
neighborhood. She left one obild, " who needs 
her care to keep him ateady," aome one aaid 
ominously, Mr, Mercer was rich and a promi- 
nent man. This and other things, kind and 
crnel, Maud heard, and wondered If it were 
right to aubjeot a family to free discussion in 
the hour of bereavement. But she read the 
paper enough to see for heraelf that any event, 
death, accident, tragedy, sudden riobea or 
honor lays any American family liable to be- 
come a nine days' wonder for the dissection of 
the reporter. Perhaps the whole had ita roots 
in neighborly interest, Maud thought it might 
be so when she came to feel an acquaintance 
with the Mercer family, became of knowing a 
few facts abont them. 

"I've never seen one of the Mercer's," she 
said to Miss Gray. 

"No, there are only two now, you know. 
They aay Mr, Mercer goea out only on busi- 
neaa, of which he haa a great deal, and Paul ia 
atiU away — wilder than ever, I ve heard," 

Bjasle waa somewhat oracular, and Mand ac- 
cepted ber news an authoritative. When Mias 
Bassie asked, "Are you going to the Cobweb 
Social over at Cherry Orchard?" Maud had 
said, " I think not," 

That evening, however, her brother Sidney 
asked her to go with him, saying: "It will be 
the only thing of the kind before I go, and I'd 
like to take you," 

Mand never failed to accept one of Sidney's 
Invitations, and Friday evening found them 
among a bright throng at the Orchard, Sitting 
quietly in her corner, Maud was sarprleed to 
nad how many hunted her out to speak a wel- 
coming word. Then Sidney bronght his 
friends, and Sidney always had many friends, 
though be might be In a place bnt a little 
while, Maud felt confidence in any one be in- 
troduced, knowing he would present no one 
with whom she could not be social. After car- 
rying her ice-cream plate away, be came back 
with a modest-looking, bright-faced boy, ap- 
parently not much older than herself. She had 
seen bis face once before that evening — a broad 
forehead, honest eyes, and a good though not a 
atrODg mouth, 

"Sister,' aaid Sidney, "Let me introdnoe 
Mr, Paul Meroer." 

Maud spoke in her usual quiet way and tried 
to be pleasant, bnt her surprise almost over- 
mastered ber, Uooonscionsly she Imagined all 
hid people as repulsive, at least to the refined. 
This quiet, frank-faoed bey was very different 
from ibe " tmarty " she had fancied. 

She liked to discuss persons with Sidney. He 
never based oonolusions on what people said in 
a gossipy way. On their way home, Mand 
asked: 

" He oan't be the hoodlnm some people think 
bim, can he T " 

"He la not a bad fallow," aaid Sidney jndi- 



daily, "I don't believe there ia anything bad 
about the boy. It may be a case of Tray in 
in bad company. He haa not a atrong chin, 
and that accounts for something," 

" Yon are like Street Cicely's Aunt," laughed 
Mand, always looking anxiously at weak 
ohina." 

When Sidney had gone to his Ogden position, 
Maud's casual attention to the character of 
young Mercer was changed to surprise at the 
marriage of Mr. Meroer the elder. 

Of oonrse there were the usual unkind re- 
marks and criticisms, and Mand felt herself 
jnatified in declaring to BeasieGray: "She 
mnst be very foolUh or very mercenary. Why, 
she ia only twenty-three and he is gray-haired. 
What can a girl be thinking of to do such a 
thing 1 " And Miss Gray agreed aa to the folly 
of it. 

Most of Maud'a mental pictures of persons 
were built out by suppositions, as a hasty 
sketch may be improved by the imagination of 
the artist. Among her obaraoter atudiea, Mra. 
Mercer waa Maud'a pet aversion. 

"I ahould not even want to meet her," she 
aaid to heraelf, "for I thought Michigan had 
exceptionally senaible girls, bnt there I was 
mistaken. And I suppose there are other 
girls in our Wolverine State just aa fierce 
for gold; plenty who would marry Cioema 
though he were ninety." 

Waa it odd that Mand, in her love for her 
State, thought ita people were all worthy ? 
Dearly aa abe loved Michigan, she could not 
refuse to leave it when Sidney wrote asking 
her to come all the way from her dear lake to 
Ogden. 

" Yon are old enough to travel alone, little 
sister," he wrote paternally, "and I will meet 
you at Green River City." 

So it was that Mand found herself alone in a 
crowd at the station that morning — and where 
can one be so utterly alone as in a crowd ? 
Ticket and baggage secured, she walked alowly 
through the cars till abe entered the last one — 
not one familiar face. What a lonely jonrney 
it would be t She chose a seat in the rear, and 
sat looking out of the wlodow. Dear little 
South Haven, warmer than ber native Mar- 
quette I In her short residence, she had grown 
to love the little place set so cczlly on the 
lake; and in a few minutes she would be go- 
ing from it, all alone. 

The car waa faat filling. The aeat in front 
of her was taken by a middle-aged gentleman 
and a young lady, "Dsn't you think, Alpha," 
began the gentleman — Maud did not hear the 
rest. The name recalled a marriage notice in 
the South Haven paper, and she looked scru- 
tinlzingly at the possessor of the seat in front. 
She was not objerving In regard to people's 
face,- and it did not come to her for more than 
a minute that this was Mr. Lawrence Mercer 
and his young wife, Maud remembered that 
she had met Mr, Mercer shortly before his 
marriage. In her forsaken way of traveling, as 
she called it, she almost wished that she could 
renew the acquaintance. " I'd pet even a yel- 
low dog if he came from South Haven," she 
said to herself aa the village faded from sight. 
Her conscience waa not one of those convenient 
ironclads. She felt almost guilty to be wish- 
ing to speak to people abont whom she had 
made such uncharitable remarks. 

Mr. Mercer had settled bla belongings and 
was taking a survey of the car. "I am sorry. 
Alpha," be said, "that we are not going ont 
with a party of acquaintacces. However, we 
shall meet pleasant people, I don't doubt," 
Just then be turned and saw Maud, He ex- 
tended his hand, " I am very glad to find yon 
going cur way. He presented his wife in a 
courtly manner, and the three were soon obat> 
ting pleasantly. 

Mrs, Mercer was a bright young woman to 
whom Maud was irresistibly attracted. The 
kindness, freedom from affectation and perfect 
self-poise would have won other than the home- 
sick girl. All the way tbey were together. 
Mr. Mercer had been to California and could 
tell the interesting things that travelera learn 
abont places along the rente, Mrs. Mercer 
had bright remarks and amusing questions, and 
Maud listened and learned, meanwhile conning 
a more valuable leaaon. 

The Mercera were bound for San Diego, Cali- 
fornia, and expreased their regret on finding 
that Maud went only to Ogden. "I ahould 
like to go farther with you, you have made my 
trip 80 pleasant," said Maud frankly to Mrs. 
Mercer, She felt that the sincere words were 
all the reparation she conld make, 

Nearing Green River City, it required all 
Maud's patience to refrain from taking her 
place on the platform to watch for her expected 
brother. She felt richly repaid for leaving 
Sonth Haven and starting out alone, when 
Sldney'a voice spoke the well-known words, 
" Little sister," and Sidney, stronger and 
browner than at their last meeting, stood beside 
her, 

" Mr. and Mrs, Meroer, this ia my brother," 
was Mand'a rather peculiar introduction, which 
was sufficient, for the Mercer's already felt ac- 
quainted from Maud's frequent allusions to 
Sidney. 

Just before they reached Ogden, Sidney 
asked: "Where is your son Paul, Mr. 
Mercer ?" 

A feeling of reproach touched Maud. She 
had avoided'speaking of Mr. Mercer's son. She 
hardly knew why — a little of the old feeling of 
disapproving judgment, perhaps. It certainly 
waa not courteous. 

"Paul haa a poaltlon with the Oentral 
Lumber Co.," replied Mr. Mercer, and ie doing 



well, very well Indeed, I admit," lowering hia 
head confidentially, "that Paul haa made me a 
great deal of tronble. He haa changed entirely 
— ateady aa a clock," 

"I am very glad to hear it," aaid Sidney, 
earnestly, "there's good material in Paul." 

" We have Mrs, Mercer to thank for bring- 
ing it ont," said Mr, Mercer, proudly, " She 
has more Inflnenoe over the boy than any one 
else has," 

When Maud and her brother were in Ogden 
and the Mercers had gone on their way, Sid- 
ney said, quizzically, "I thought those were 
the people you did not even want to meet," 

" Bnt, Sidney, I'd heard so much abont them 
and I was prcjadioed just from hearsay. I did 
not know anything about them." 

"Well, little sister, you are out of the town 
of Hearaav; don't take up your abode there 
again. Very often hearsay is not more 
than scandal with its best clothes on. Let's 
remember that if no one heard what is said, 
there would be no town of Hearsay," 



X)0MESTie QCOJSIOMY 



Ginger Cakes, — Three pounds of flour, one 
pound of brown sugar, one pound of bntter, 
one quart of molasses, one cupful of ginger; 
flskvor with grated lemon pael, mace and cinna- 
mon, two tablespoonfnls of lard rubbed through 
the flour. 

Corn Cake.— One cupful of Indian meal, 
one-half cupful of flour, one teaspoonful of 
cream tartar, one-third teaspoonfnl of soda, 
one egg, two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Mix 
with milk, thin, Tableepoonful of melted lard 
last. Bake In sheet. 

Potato Tobnovers, — Mix abont a pint of 
hot mashed potato with one egg,seaBon to taste, 
and roll it in flour. Make it into balls and 
press or roll them out thin; put a tablespoon 
of meat, minced and seasoned, on one half; 
fold over and press the edges together, and 
brown on each aide in butter or aauaage fat. 

Hasty Cakes.— These plain cakes anawer 
nicely for tea when in a hurry. Take one and 
one- half teacupfnis of sugar, one-half cupful of 
butter, one small cupful of sour milk, one tea- 
spoonful of saleratns, with flour to mix to about 
the consistency of cookies, or a little thinner if 
you ;can manage it well; season with grated 
nutmeg, roll and out in round cakes one-half 
an inch thick; bake in an even, hot oven. 

Rice Pcddino With Fruit.- Put your rloe 
in a etewpao, with very little milk, that is, 
to one oup ot rice one gill of milk. Stand It 
where it will be hot, but not boil; when the 
rice has absorbed all the milk, add to it a 
quarter of a pound of dried currants, and one 
egg, well beaten. Boil it in a bag till the rice 
is tender, and serve it with sugar and cream. 
More fruit may be added to the rice if it 
should ba preferred. 

Ego Sandwiches. — Ohop the white of hard- 
boiled eggs very fine. Mash the yolks and mix 
them with melted bntter, salt and pepper. 
Then mix all with the chopped whites and 
spread It on bread. Take a long, narrow loaf 
of bread, ahave cff the cruat till the loaf la 
ahaped like a cylinder. Then slice as thin as 
possible from the end. Spread with the egg 
mixture; put two together and arrange them 
on a plate, one overlapping the other. 

Lemonade — This favorite and well-known 
drink ia very delicious when well made. Take 
four lemons to every quart of water, and eight 
tablespoonfnla of sugar; rub or equeezs the 
lemons soft, and slice them upon the sugar; 
pour over them a little boiling water and let 
them stand fifteen minutes; then add the nec- 
essary amount of water, well Iced, stir well 
and serve. Orangeade Is made In the same way, 
substituting oranges for lemons, but much less 
sugar is needed. 

Baked Tomatoes.— Select smooth, round 
tomatoes, of uniform size, not very juicy. 
Put them In hot water, remove the skin, cut 
them in halves and scoop out all the seeds. 
Chop, and rub to a powder one-third of a cup 
of boiled ham or tongue. Add two-thirds of a 
cup of soft bread-crumbp, one teaspoon of 
chopped parsley or one saltspoon of thyme, a 
little pepper and sufficient melted butter to 
moisten. Fill the tomatoes with the mixture, 
place them in a shallow disb, and bake fifteen 
minutes. 

Bananas in Jelly. — Make a mold of lemon 
jelly. Cat bananas in slices, and line the bot- 
tom and sides of a mold. Pour the jelly in 
slowly, that it may not float the fruit. Keep 
in ice water until hard. If you have no mold, 
use a small, round, glasa dish. Put the sliced 
bananas on the bottom, then turn in a little 
jelly; when hard, put a row round the sides 
with spaces between, and fill the center with 
bananas; add more jelly, enough to cover. 
Reserve a cupful of jelly, and, when ready to 
serve, break this up lightly and scatter it over 
the top. 

White Mountain Rolls. — Four oups of 
flour, one onp of milk, one- quarter oup of but- 
ter, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, one-third cake 
of compressed yeast, half-teaspoonful of aalt, 
white of one egg beaten atlff. HiVe the milk 
warm. Add the bntter melted, warm but not 
hot, salt, sugar, yeast and the flour. Mix well; 
then the white of the egg, the last thoroughly 
mixed in with the band. Let them rise over 
night. In the morning roll into shape, ont and 
fold over or make in any other form. Bake la 
a quick oven after tbey have stood one honr. 



G[00G) ]EiEALTH, 



A New Disease of the Strawberries. 

According to the Philadelphia Record, a 
comparatively new disease has made its ap- 
pearance in the Qaaker city. 

"Strawberry rash" is the name given to the 
epidemic which has appeared this season to an 
unusual extent, Piiysiclans claim that while 
the disease, which takes the form of a rath, 
has in previous years made its appearance at 
this seasoD, never before haa it been so 
prevalent. The rash attacks the skin, which 
breaks out in large red blotohea similar in 
color to the berry from which it takes its 
name. It is no respecter of age, attacking 
young and old alike, 

"There is no known cause for the ailment," 
said Dr. J, C. Wilson, when approached upon 
thp subject, "I, myself, am subject to it, and 
in consequence am obliged to refrain from eat- 
ing Btrawberrie?, I don't know why some 
people are subject to it and others are not, any 
more than why some people are liable to oatch 
rheumatism or any other disease, while other 
people, under the same ciroumstanoes, are 
exempt. I only know that the rash exists, but 
I don't know why." 

All over the city people are soS'sring from 
the effects of the luaoicus berry. In several 
ca«eB whole families have it. While not In- 
terfering with the general health. It is ac- 
companied by an itching sensation that renders 
it annoying in the extreme. Many people are 
Ignorant of the cause of the suffering. Others, 
having heard of the existence of strawberry 
rash, have tabooed the berry, and fiod them- 
selves benefited by abstaining from it. 

Physicians unite in saying that the rash has 
never before appeared to such an alarming ex- 
tent. Nearly all the doctors in the city have 
several cases on their bands, and there are 
many instances which have failed to come un- 
der their notice. In every instanoe where the 
patient has stopped eating strawberries the 
rash has greatly diminished or entirely disap- 
peared. Whether there is any germ of the 
disease in the berries which have come to this 
maiket is a matter of conjecture. 



iNvt STiGATiNO Le PROSY. — The rapid Inorcase 
of leprosy in India has Induced physiciana 
there to make a special atudy as to ita origin, 
and, if possible, cure. It is now aaid that the 
Commiseion of Investigation, which was some 
time since appointed In Allahabad, in North- 
west India, have succeeded in isolating and 
cultivating the bacillus of leprosy. They ac- 
complished this in an artificial medium, con- 
sisting of bouillon and gelatine, with which 
they inoculated a rabbit. The animal speedily 
developed leprous nodules under this treat- 
ment, Thia is the first time the bacillus of the 
terrible disease has been successfully grown 
outside the human subject. It is not improb- 
able the researches and experiments of the 
Commiaaioners will lead to exceedingly intereat- 
ing, if not wholly practical resulti. 

This committee is preparing a report which, 
it 1b said, when printed, will prove very inter- 
esting reading to the medical fraternity. It 
will present the moat complete, aclectifio study 
of the subject ever given to the world. The 
Oommission, which is composed of medical ex- 
perts, has visited leper hospitals and studied 
the condition of lepers in prieoo, in streets and 
in some of the isolated places. Every part of 
India where leprosy prevails has been locally 
studied with a view to ascertain how far the 
conditions of environment aesiat in propagat- 
ing the disease. Some thousands of caees have 
been examined. Microecopio researches made 
into the distribution of supposed bacillus of 
leprosy and a series of bacteriological inveati- 
gationa were conducted which are aaid to have 
given aatonishing results, promising a cure of 
this hitherto irremediable curse. 



Is Egyptian Corn Poisonous?— No little 
excitement has been creaied in the vicinity of 
Red Bluff during the past few daya, growing 
ont of the poisoning of a large number of cows 
which had been feeding upon growing Egyptian 
corn. A Mr. Wilton first lost 30 oowa, who 
died almost immediately after eating the corn 
in the field. At first it was thought poison 
had been maliciously or otherwise scattered 
upon the corn, but a day or two afterward 
under sheriff Fish of Red Bluff lost two cows in 
the aame manner several miles from the local* 
ity of the first case; and now oomes a Kansas 
man who says that Egyptian corn will kill 
cattle very auddenly if eaten at certain atagea 
of ita maturing growth. The case ia an inter- 
esting one and ahould be carefully ic quired 
into. 



Koch's Lymph. — Late reporta from Port- 
land, Oregon, atate that Koch's lymph la no 
longer an experiment, for two patients who 
were given the treatment in St. Vincent Hos- 
pital have been discharged cured. The phyai- 
clans are surprised with the success of the 
remedy, and believe that the lymph Is a specific 
for tuberculosis if given the patient in time. It 
is a significant fact that only in these two 
cases were the physicians satisfied that the 
disease was genuine tnberculosis. In the other 
cases undergoiDg the treatment they have thus 
far been unable to discover any baccilli, Eut- 
em papers state that important improvements 
have recently been made in the manufacture ot 
the lymph. 



8 



f ACiFie i^uraid press. 



[July; 4, 1891 




A. T, DKWEY. 



W. B. BWEB, 



Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Oflct, 220 Market St., N. E. cor. Front 8l. ,S.F. 
gr Take the Klevator, Ao. H Front St.'m 



Our Subscription Rates, 

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year. While this notice appears, all gabscrlberB pay- 
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JLOO In advance, five months. Trial eubsorlptlona tot 
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aeents and clerks arereqolred to adhere to these terms. 
No new names enterea on the list without payment In 
advance. Our premium oflerln((s are subject to these 

AdverttalnB Bates. 

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Iiarice advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
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In extraordinary type, or In particular parts of the paper, 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated In a month. 



•nd in some cases there mlKht be losses from 
this fact. As we write, however, the tem- 
perature seems to be fallinf; and the uoasaal 
hot spell seems to be passing along. 



Otir latent forms go to press Wednesday evetung. 



SCIENTIFIC PRESS PATENT A9ENCT 
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Registered at S. F. Post Office as second-class mail matter. 
SAN FBANOI8CO: 

Saturday, July 4, 1891. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS —Washington, 1. The Week; 
ThuutihtB for the Fourth; The Sugar Bounty; Co- 
Ou«iation Fruit Handline; Raisin K.tes, 8 

ILiLiUSTBATIONS.— The Washington Monument 
at the National Capi al, 1. The J jppa Orange; The 
Ostriches --t Home; The Dog as a Herder of Young 
Oil riches, 0. 

BU" Ab IMPROVEMENT.— Suggestions for Cal- 
ifornia, 2. 

THE VETERINARIAN. — Tjmpany, "Hoven' or 

" Bl a ; " Tape W . ms, 2 
THE FIELD. - Count Supervisors and District Fairs, 

2 A Word » ith Our Hi p Growers, 3 
THE IkRIGaTOK.— li.form»tion on the Stability 

of Calilornii Irrigation lii.terprUes; Lassen Irrigation; 

Irricati n bv Pumps, 3- 
PATRONS" OP HUSBANDRY. — The Master's 

Desk- Flo* er Tnouglits; Work lor the Sisters to Lead; 

Independirico Circ e; Eden Grange; Merced Grange 

Visits Stockton, 4. . „ 

FARMERS' AtjLI*NGB. — The Sub-Trea«ury 

Discussion; New Work in Lake County; Two Good 

Ones In the Fi Id; Alliance County Notes; State Alii 

an' e Meetings; Mlsc'Uaneous, 6 
THE HOME CIRCLE. -Love; The Dress and the 

BjUv; An Easv Remedy; Hope and Try for the Best; 

Can'Monkevs talk? Chaff, 6. 
YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.-A Tale of Hear- 
say, 7. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. - Sundry Recipes. 7. 

GOOD HEALTH.— A New Disease of the Straw- 
berries; Investitating Leprosy; Is Egyptian Com 
Poisonous? Koch's Lymph, 7. 

HORTICULTURE. -The Jorpa Orange; Exhibit of 
Calif irrna Producta Desired; Meeting of Olive Oil Pro- 
ducer^, 9. 

QUERIfS AND REPLIES.— Castor Beans for 
the Gopher- Ph' Sphorous Squirrel Poison, 9. 

AGRICULTURAL NO'i'ES.-From the Various 
Counties • f California, lO. 

MISCSLLANEOUS. — Monterey County — Some- 
thing Besides Pleasure Reaoris, 1 2. 



Business Annonncemeiits. 

[NEW TUI8 ISSUE.) 

Feed Mills, Ftc— Jos. Wagner Mf*. Co. 
Carls, !-p'lng Wagons, ttc— FianK Brothers. 
Rupture Cured— 1 he K. Miller Co. , Portland, Or. 
Fruit P.ttt-r and S'ep Ladder— G. G Wicks 'n & Co. 
Wind Mills-Challenge Wind Mill Ji Feed Mill Co. 

tavia, Illinois. 
Fruit Trees— W. H. Pepper, Petaluma, Cal. 

tarSee Advertising Columns. 



Ba. 



The Week. 

Heat beyond the records of reoent years and 
giTing ohiUs to the traditions of the pioneers, 
has visited Oallfornia during the past week. 
A hundred degrees in the shade upon the top 
of a high bailding, and worse in the pent-up 
streets below, has been the 6gnre for San Fran- 
olsoo. In the interior valleys the thermometer 
has 'not been content with snoh limits, bnt baa 
soared at will. 

It has passed as a good hot-weather joke 
that the weather has taken on snob behavior to 
oelebrate the fact that to-day (July Ist) the 
oiiiQial weather servloe becomes a part of the 
work of the Department of Agricaltnre instead 
of the War Dapartment, and It made It very 
hot (or Mars during the last week of his 
guardianship. 

Fortunately the cereal crops are chiefly too 
far advanced to be shriveled by the hot|weather. 
In f raits there has been fear of injary which it 
ii now too soon to measure, bat small fruits, 
esceoially berries, are likely to be out short. 
Other frnita are being hurried on to maturity 



Thoughts for the Fourth. 

Though the modern observation of the Na- 
tional holiday is confined chiefly to the two 
"R's" — racket and recreation — no citizen 
shonld pass the day without at least one ear- 
nest thought of the real significance of the 
occasion. We are not naturally pessimistic; 
we would rather laugh than oroak, and we 
vastly prefer confidence to foreboding. We 
rejoice as keenly as any one in contemplation 
of national greatness and prosperity, and of 
individual comfort and enjoyment, bnt it is not 
wise to forget that neither in nation nor indi- 
vidual are the days of material satisfaction 
necessarily the best days. Both philosophy 
and common experience prove that a certain 
degree at least of hardship has k purifying and 
elevating tendency, and affirm the wisdom of 
the prayer of Agur; "Give me neither pov- 
erty nor riches." Boch was the portion of the 
founders of the republic, and since then our 
people have quickly extended in both dlreo- 
tions from their status. We have heaped up 
wealth beyond the dream of the wildest vision- 
ary of the last century; we have sunk Into 
poverty, degradation and oppression which 
even half a century ago could not have been 
pictured. 

In our Fourth of July orations, there will be 
great prominence given to the good things 
which have been achieved, and It is well, of 
course, thus to set them forth; but though the 
orator on such occasions can find no inspiration 
In the antithesis, the people who listen shonld 
not forget it altogether. The fact is, that 
while we have been going forward gradually in 
induttries, In education, in culture, we have 
been receding in other affairs which are quite 
as needful to our future. There are many 
wrongs to be righted, and each can recall 
enough of them to furnish food for sober 
thought, without any attempt on our part. 
There Is, however, a general tenor of the peo- 
ple toward public affairs which should be in- 
stanced as especially worthy of sober reflection 
and of efforts which shall work a transforma- 
tion. A paragraph in the Jaly Lippincott's, 
will serve well to enforce the theme: 

The apathy of the American citizen at large 
as to public rights has also been a matter of 
remark, as contrasted with the tone prevailing 
in Eigland In that regard, or in this country 
during the post-revolutionary period. Public 
action is shirked, and the people of education 
and character, through apathy or absorption In 
private Interests, allow themselves to be gov- 
erned by vicious despoUers. The Irish people, 
who have immigrated here In herds, with 
their energy and cohesive force, have utterly 
driven, so far as our seaboard cities are con- 
cerned, the old colonial descendants from the 
admicistratinn of public affairs. As regards 
the city of New York, which may be consid- 
ered typlcil In this matter, Prof. Bryce, the 
philosophic Ejglish observer, remarks that 
there exists In that city " such a witches' 
Sabbath of jobbing, bribing, thieving, and 
prostitution of legislative power to private in- 
terest as the world has seldom seen." The 
above criticism applies also, in a general meas- 
ure, to national politics, and the present job- 
bery and general venality are in terrible con- 
trast with the high minded aud patriotic ad- 
ministration of public affairs during the early 
years of the Republic, Even the upper 
chamber of our national Sanhedrim is now 
notoriously filled, with some exceptions, by 
men who have gained their legislative places 
through their enormous wealth, which has 
been so applied as to crush competition, and 
legislative action there Is now controlled 
mainly by those whose merit is neither char- 
acter nor statesmanship. A former olerk of 
the United States Senate recently stated that 
national politics were dying out at Washing- 
ton. *' It is rare to find a man," said he, "in 
either branch of Congress, who engages in leg- 
islation with anything but a personal view." 

This short paragraph contains points enough 
for half a dozen Fourth of July sermons, and 
each reader can well preach them for himself. 
We have confidence that proper declaration of 
the evil will lead to the remedy; that when 
the American people perceive how far they are 
really drifting from the old patriotic fervor 
which placed the nation first, and every private 
interest second, they will arise and work the 
changes which are needed, if this nation is to 
live and prosper. We must purge our legisla- 
tive halls of the corruption which now fills 
them, and we must do this by the dissemina- 
tion of a keener regard for poverty and purity 



among the people. "Educate the masses," 
were the words of Washington, and he, no 
doubt, meant what we are so prone to neglect, 
that the masses must be educated in morals 
and not in intellect alone. Let us learn that 
lesson. Let us perceive anew the old princi- 
ples of universal jasticeand liberty upon which 
the country was established. Let ns remem- 
ber that a man's foes are sometimes those of his 
own household, and that the oppressor of to* 
day is not a foreign tyrant, bnt the demon of 
greed, which is grinding the faces of the poor 
and robbing the toiler of his reward, in order 
that a few may enjoy ill gotten gains. The 
people suffer; the people must apply the remedy. 



Raisin Rates. 



As we anticipated last week, the paltry re- 
duction of five cents per cental on Eiatern 
rates on raisins, does not suit the raisin ship- 
pers at all. They count the rate of $1.50, a 
case of clear disorlmination against the raisin 
product, as was pointed out in last week's 
Rural, and it is rumored that they propose to 
make a case on the ground of disorlmination 
with the Interstate Commerce Commission. 
The Call gives a railroad explanation of the 
action of the Transcontinental Association in 
the following paragraph: 

That a reduction more substantial than has 
been made was promised Is clearly evidenced 
by the fact that several commission houses 
made contracts specifying a rate of $1.25. 
Delafield k McGovern, a New York commission- 
house, guaranteed a heavy reduction to their 
shippers, and this fact, according to the state- 
ments of Southern P<icific tffisials, had much to 
do with the non-action of the Freight rate 
Committee. The members took it for granted 
that some particular line had promised the 
change, and decided to Impair snob methods 
for the future. 

Upon this explanation, there is one thing to 
be said at least, and that is that the railway 
association must find some other way to disci- 
pline its members than by grinding down and 
depressing an important industry by an exces- 
sive rate. Must the raisin-producers be lashed 
because a railroad company offends a oomblna- 
tion of railway companies? If the Interstate 
Commerce Commission cannot stop such an 
outrage, some other power should be devised 
which can do it. 



of the proceedings, but It may l>e said that the 
leading idea is the establishment of unity of 
method and action and co-operation In the mat« 
ter of selling fruit. The subject most discussed 
was the formation of plans (or securing early, 
direct and regular crop reports, so that the 
growers might be guided in their sales. The 
present system of reports, originating among 
the buyers, was deemed unsatisfactory and 
prejudicial to the growers' interests. 

At the State Horticnltutal Society's meeting 
last Friday, it was decided to make co-opera* 
tion among Fruit Producers a subject for the 
J nly meeting, and an invitation was extended 
to the leaders of the Santa Clara valley move* 
ment to be present and give an exposition 
of their plans. 



A Sweet Fight at the North. 

The Canadian Government recently abol 
ished the duty on raw sugar, which enables the 
sugar refinery in British Columbia to fight the 
California combine in parts of its own terri 
tory. How long this fight will continue, it is 
hard to say, but probably not very long, for 
each refinery will agree to sell only In a cer- 
tain territory. The fight has had the effect of 
uncovering the large profits made by the Cali- 
fornia refinery, or, if not profit, then the high 
prices consumers in the Pacific Coast States 
and Territories are forced to pay. The Seattle 
Press Times, June 23, says: 

Within a few days after the first of the Van- 
couver sugar was landed on the Sound, Spreck- 
els, in order to show his teeth, quoted sugar 
for the British Columbia territory at 3S f • o. b. 
in San Francisco. That quotation was nearly 
2 cents a pound less than the figures he was 
giving the Pacific Coast j obbers, and which 
would land the sugar in Victoria, after paying 
Huty, freight, etc , at a cost of 71 cents. The 
Vancouver sugar was quoted iu Victoria at 
that time at 7S cents. Of course, as soon as 
the Vancouver people heard of this move they 
instantly dropped the price of their sugar to 
6J cents. That settled Spreokels, who not be- 
ing in a condition to meet the drop, pulled up 
stakes and cleared out. He subsequently made 
overtures and is now chewing on the condi- 
tions dictated by them. 

Co-Operation in Fruit Handling. 

The project of co-operative action among 
fmit-growers, which emanated from meetings 
on the west side of the Sinta Clara valley, as 
has been noticed in the Rural, bids fair to be 
wide-reaching in Its field and influence. On 
Thursday of last week there was a meeting at 
Campbells, at which Col. McGlincy presided 
and at which about 200 orchards and vineyards 
were represented. The attendance included 
both men and women, and the meeting was so 
successful that it will probably result In the 
formation of a permanent organization, and 
it may prove the nucleus for a State Associa 
tion that will be of great practical benefit to 
fruit-growers. 

We hope next week to have a fuller outline 



The Sugar Bounty. 

Some weeks ago we alluded to the fact that 
applications for licenses for manufacturing 
sugar upon whioh the U. S. bounty was ex- 
pected were being filed, and that such licenses 
must be issued before July 1st. The revenue 
offioials of this city have papers on file which 
give an idea of what California sugar-prodnoers 
expect to reaiizs in the way of bounty, and a 
Bulletin reporter, reviewing these documents, 
deduces the following interesting statements: 
There are at present about 6000 acres of sugar- 
beets growing in this State. The product of 
this acreage, if all things are favorable, will, 
according to estimates, be between 60,000 and 
80,000 tons of beets and fully 10,000 tons of 
crude sugar. 

The three beet-sugar faotories — at Watson, 
ville, Alvarado and Chino — have complied with 
the law's preliminaries, which call for applioa- 
tions and bonds to be filed before July 1st, It 
is from these applications that the above acre- 
age is estimated. It may fall below that, al- 
though it has been found that the sugar beet Is 
a reasonably safe crop. It Is reported that 
fully 3000 acres are in beets around Chino, and 
about 2000 at Watsonville. 

Within a year from July Ist, the Treasury 
Department will pay the oltlzans of the United 
States between $12,000,000 and $15 000,000 
as a bounty for raising sugar. This sum 
will be disbursed in various portions of the 
country. The most of it will go to Louisiana 
for the production of cane sugar. Over 
$1,000 000 will be paid to the farmers in 
New England States, New York, Ohio, Illinois 
and the Northwestern States for the prodnc* 
tion of sugar from the maple sap. A large sum 
will be distributed in California, Kansas, Ne- 
braska and Iowa among those who make beet 
sugar. It is estimated by Glaus Spreokels that 
at least 14 per oent of beets become, after the 
various processes of crushing and refining, re- 
fined sugar. According to this estimate Oali* 
fornia should yield during the year at a fair 
calculation about 11,000 tons, or 22,000,000 
pounds, of refined sugar, which should bring 
from the Government Treasury into this State 
something like $440,000. That result, in the 
judgment of people interested in the beet sugar 
industry, will be doing very well for a begin- 
ning. 

Prof. Hilgard visited last week the Univer* 
sity Eiperiment Station at Pomona, and in- 
spected also the beet fields and sugar factory 
at Chino. He reports himself as greatly pleased 
at the indioations he saw of the growth and 
sugar contents of the beets also the length of 
the working season which can be secured by auo* 
cession plantings of the beet beginning early in 
the winter and continuing late in the spring. 
It seems likely that something in this direction 
will be developed at Caino whioh will demon- 
strate more forcibly than ever the adaptation 
of the California climate for the beet sugar in 
dnstry. 

For the Hop Aphis. 

E. Meeker & Go. of Tacoma, Washington, 
have been experimenting with the various 
remedies reoommended by hop-growers as good 
exterminators of the hop-louse, and after re- 
peated tests, unhesitatingly say that the quas* 
sia solution Is the best for spraying. This so- 
lution is made as follows: Seven to nine 
pounds quassia chips, six to eight pounds of 
whale-oil soap; steep the quassia chips in a few 
gallons of cold water for about one hour, then 
add the soap and boil the mixture for five min- 
utes, then add thereto 100 gallon* of cold water, 



July 4, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAlo PRESS, 



The Joppa Orange. 

[Bead at Miv Mfetine of State Horticultural Society by 
B. M. Lblono, Hei. St.te Board of Horticultuie.] 

At the Desember (1890) meetinK of this 
Society I exhibited BpeoimenB of the Joppa 
orange, which were then of a very green color> 
but the pulp quite yellow and eweet. I then 
stated that it was a remarkable orange, and 
poBiesstng all the characterietica of an orange 
that comes nearer meeting the wants of all ceo- 
tions than any other, as it can be marketed 
early, or remain on the trees till June and July 
withont deterioration in quality. The speci- 
mens exhibittd here to-day tally prove and es. 
tablish that fact. 

Right after the December meeting I shiooed 
some of thn fruit, In that green color, to New 
York and Bistoo. It arrived in splendid oon. 
dltion and highly colored. 

In a recent bulletin which I issned this 
orange was described, and many papers 
throughout the State in oommentlng upon it, 
oonfounded it with the Jaffa orange grown in 
Florida, and which bears no resemblance to It 
whatever. In order to orreot these mis- 
leading statementa I now make known for the 
first timn, its correct history and origin. 

Iq 1877, Mr. A. B. Chapman of San Gabriel, 
was connected with the law firm of Olassell, 
Chapman & Smith, of Los Angeles, who were 
then the attorneys for the Southern PaciBo 
Rtilroad Company, and in conversation with 
the late Charles Crocker and other ofiBoers of 
the road 00 their return from the Mediterra- 
nean, they praiaed an orange they had seen at 
Jopps, Palestine, above all others which oame 
nnder their observation. Mr, Chapman then 
Bent for some seeds from the American C)n- 
snlate at that point. The Consul sent him 
some of the seeds of that orange, which 
were planted that same year. Several 
plants were thus obtained, and when large 
enough the best of them were set out in his 
orohari). 

When the trees came into baariog every one 
produced different frnit, and one in particular, 
this fine and handsome orange, which I have 
named " Joppa " after the famoaa old seaport 
of Palestine, and which was readily distin- 
guished from the rest by its deep red color and 
other marked charaoteristioB, and, nnlike its 
parent, seedless, and the tree without 
thorns. 

Col. J. R. Dobbins of San Gabriel, who 
possesses the original trees, a large orange 
grower of considerable experience, says i "I 
am highly pleased with the growth and fruit 
of the few trees I have in my orchard. It is 
thin rind, firm, practically aeedlesr, pulp very 
fine, sweet and jaioy. It ripens reasonably 
early, bat its remarkable characteristic is that 
it can be left on the trees as late as July and 
yet retain all the features of a sound first-olaaa 
shipper. The tree being thornlees, an upright 
grower and vigoronr, I look for its oomicg ioto 
popnlar favor at an early date and expect to 
see many planted. I regard it as one of the 



" Knowing the celebrity of California as a 
fruit growing S'ate, we hope that you may be 
able to send a collection of fruits to our ex- 
hibition, either in competition for the priz38 
offertd, or for exhibitioD, as a sample of the 
fruit products of Cilifornii, I need scarcely 
say that our management will highly appreciate 
any contribution you may send to our exhibi- 
tion, in which it would form a very attrac- 
tive and intereeting feature to the numer- 
oua visitors who are directly interested in 



Meeting of Olive Oil Producers. 

Our olive oil makers will not forget the 
intereBtii:g and important meeting held at the 
State Board of Horticulture in this city last 
spring with reference to the enforcement of the 
new law against the adulteration of olive oil 
and other maeters of importance to California 
producers. This meeting was duly reported in 




THE JOPPA ORANGE. 



the supply of fruits to our markets, and the 
source from whence it comes. Sime very 
nice California frnit is already s'jen 
in oar markets, and we believe that this 
will be found to be an excellent opportunity 
for making your finest fruits more grenerally 
known and appreciated in B. itain," The prize 



the Rural and notice given of a second meet* 
ing then provided for. 

We are now glad to make prominent mention 
of this second meeting which will occur next 
week as shown by the following timely circular 
just issned: 



State University, "The Uses of the Olive 
(•8 Oil;" D . A. E. 0. borne, Home of F ebie 
M nded Ciildren, "Some of tde Most Valuable 
U es of Olive ';" Prof. Lmis Piparelli. S ate 
Uaiverfity, "Olive 1 AduireratlrB;" Dr. 
P. C. RemondiDo, Sin Diegn, " Mpdical Vilues 
of Pore 01 ve 0;!;" P.of. W. B. Rising. State 
Analyft, "Chemicil Teats for Oli»e Oil;" Mr. 
Lugl Barz'^llotti (jlive oil expert, late frrm 
Italy), "The Modioal values of pure Olive Oil 
as Practiced in I -aly." 

An exhibition of pure olive oils will be made; 
aleo many adulterated samples, showing the 
color reaction of the adulterants, etc. All in- 
terested in the culture of the olive and its oil 
are respectfully invited to be present. 

B. M. Lelono, Sacretary. 
We hope this announcement will attract all 
interested in pure olive oil, and that the meet- 
ing will prove a notable one in the history of 
this industry, which promises so much for Cali- 
fornia. 



Queries a^d J^eplies. 



Castor Beans for the Gopher. 

There has been so much said about, and so 
much suggested for the extermination of this 
snbterranean plague of the farmer, and more 
especially the irrigating farmer, who is con* 
stantly in dread lest his ditch shall burst its 
bonds and cause him infinite damage and 
tronble, that it may not be out of place here to 
state a very simple, inexpensive and cffactive 
mode of at least protecting the ditch from the 
raids of the gopher: Plant a good variety of 
the castor bean plant at the base of the em- 
bankment, on each side of the ditch, about 20 
feet apart, and the gophers will severely let that 
embankment alone. In the same way, orchards 
oould be protected by, perhaps, planting closer, 
say every 12 feet apart, round the margin of 
the orchard. Of course, this plan has its 
drawbacks as well as its advantages, for, if 
neglected in the seeding time, it will be a hard 
matter to eradicate the multitude of plants 
which will result if the seed is allowed to fall 
and lie on the ground; therefore, it ia a good 
plan to either destroy the seed ere it comes to 
maturity, or to gather and utilize the same. 
Try it, and if you are afraid to do bo on a large 
scale, do so on a small. 

Sbonld the farmer elect to utilfza the beans 
for the oil contained, he will fiad that each tree 
bears about five pounds of beans or 1300 
pounds per mile of ditch, and at 12 feet apart, 
2200 pounds per mile. The oil, it well boiled, 
is a very good lubricant, and mixed with resin 
makes very good axle grease, — H, A. S. 

Yee; but castor beans have been diacuased in 
the Rural for the last 20 years as a gopherfnge, 
and the weight of the testimony has been that 
the gopher doesn't care a bean for the castor 
and is not exterminated by it. Besides, we 
donbt if the farmer will ever fiad time to pick 
up the beans and go to oil making a la East 
Indian. However, the scheme reads well. 





THE OSTRICHES AT HOME. 



THE DOG AS A HERDER OF YOUNG OSTRICHES. 



very best varieties of recent introduction, and 
as a money maker it will be hard to beat." 

Mr. A. Soott Chapman told me he consid- 
ered the Joppa the beat of all the varieties he 
and his father had grown, and they have tried 
nearly every variety that has been introduced 
from abroad and all the ones of home origin. 



Exhibit of California Products Desired. 

(Read at May meetios o( State Harticultural Society.] 
I am in receipt of a communication from Mr. 
Malcolm Dann, secretary of the International 
Fruit and Flower Show of S JOtlsnd, in which he 
Infcrmame that the 8th International Frnit and 
Flower Show will be held in Elinburgh, from the 
9:;h to theUthof Saptember next,and on behalf 
of the management, extends an invitation to 
ns to exhibit fruits in competi'.ion, especially 
collections of apples and pearr, and special 
prizes are offered to the United States and 
Canada. 

Mr. Dann oonolndes bis letter as follows: 



schedule can be seen at my rfSce at any time. 
B. M. Lelono. 
Seo'y State Board of Horticulture. 
At the meeting of the State Society it was 
resolved that the horticultural journals of Cali- 
fornia be invited to publish the above oommuni- 
oation in the hope that some enterprise may be 
awakened to furnish the exhibit desired. 



Ostrich Pictures. — We are indebted to Mr. 
L. C. Byoe of Petaluma for the attractive os- 
trich pictures on this page. Since the Peta- 
luma Incubator has been recognized in the 
Government reports for its succeseful work in 
shaking out ostrich goslings from Oallfornia 
ostrich eggs, Mr. Byce has naturally given 
much attention to ostrich affiirs and finds the 
industry a very interesting study. 



Orange Trees From Tahiti. — It is tele- 
graphed from Los Angeles that Mr. Craw haa 
ordered the cargo of Tahiti orange trees into 
quarantine, to be fumigated and examined and 
fumigated again 1( neoesaar^, 



A convention of Olive growers, and all in- 
terested in the culture of the olive, and the 
monufacture of olive oil, will be held at the 
cffises of the State Board of Horticulture, 220 
Sutter Street, San Francifco, on Wednesday, 
July 8th, commencing at 10 o'clock A. M. At 
this meetiog steps will be taken to form an 
as'ociation, the leading obj -cts of which will 
be the eatabliahing in this city of a depot, at 
which place the olive oils approved by the as- 
sociation may be seen and sampled; where in- 
formation may be procured as to place of 
production, quality, price, and where sold, etc., 
especially with a view to icfluenolcg the local 
retail trade to sell those brands without 
prejudice or miarepreeentation; such agency 
also to be especially organized for the purpose 
of disseminating to the public information con 
oerning the dietetic, hygienic and therapeutic 
values of pure olive oil, and collate and preserve 
records of individual experience and of general 
information on this subject. 

AddreaseB will be made by Hon, Elwood 
Cnnper of Santa Birbars, Bon. Frank A. Kim- 
ball of National City, and other". The follow- 
ing paper* will be read: Prof..E. W. Hilgard, 



Who wants ts try it and report resnlts? 
Phosphorus Paulrrel Poison. 

Editors Pre.«s : — In reply to query by E. S. 
W. Aptos on Phosphorus Gopher Poision he 
would overcome the difiBsulty mentioned by 
merely starting the preparation with two-thirds 
the quantity of hot water usually stated in di- 
rections published, and using equal quantities 
each of fl}ur and cornmeal with the wheat 
until the mass is so thick that it cannot be 
stirred with a heavy stick; then, after setting 
about 24 honr^ spread it out on some boards 
(I use an old dooi), when it will aoon become 
dry and hard. It ia better to add the oil of 
rhodium after it has become dry. 

Kindly state in your paper about what de- 
gree of heat wonld ignite say a five-gallon of 
poison preparation contalnlrg IJ sticks of pbos* 
phorus ? I trust mv exp^rienot- may be of some 
use. — T., Surry Hills, Corraliloa. 

Who can tell about the firing of phosphor* 
■z'd wheat ? Phosphorus in stick ignites at or* 
dinary temperatures in contact with the air, 
but the ignition of a mixture contnining phos- 
phorus is quite another thing. We cannot an> 
swer the question. 



10 



pACIFie F^URAlo PRESS. 



[Jdlt 4^ 1891 



JJnRICULTURAL J^OTES. 



CALIFORNIA. 
Butte. 

Feuit Buyers Want Large Sellers — Oro 
Title Begister: Sol Runyou lately sold 500 tons 
to a oaonery — peaches, apricots and plume — 
and received for the same two cents a pound. 
A. T. Hatch sold a very large quantity of 
peaches for 2^ cents a pound. Now, if either 
of these men had owned but a doz°n trees, 
their fruit would have rotted upon the ground 
ere a buyer wonld have been found. It does 
not pay to bother with a small amount, and 
the man who plants 20 trees of this and 30 of 
that is only throwing his time and his fruit 
away, so far as expecting to sell it to shippers 
is concerned. If be has 100 or 5U0, or 1000 
trees of any one kind, he will find the buyers 
will seek him out and ofiFer him a fair price for 
all he has, 

Ooluea. 

Orange Trees. — Colata, June 24: Col. L. 
F. Monlton, who has a large orchard on the 
Sioramento river, has put out over 4000 orange 
trees. He marked bis land o£f in 30-foot 
squares, with an apricot or peach tree at each 
corner, and in the center of each square an or- 
ange tree. 

Kern. 

Large Yield of Wheat. — Bakerefield Cali- 
fomian: On the Miller & Lux farm, near the 
headquarters, two 12'foot and two lO-foot 
headers have been at work every day ainoe 
June Sth, covering an average of say SO acres a 
day, and it is said the work will be finished by 
July SOth. This would figure that there are 
over 3000 acres of wheat to be harvested. The 
orop this year is said to be very good, and an 
•Terage yield of 20 sacks to the acre is ez- 
peoted. 

Potato Yield.— CoK/ornian.- The develop- 
ment of the potato industry is exceedingly op- 
portune, and furnishes another channel by 
which those who are setting out trees and 
vines oan reap a yearly prcfit from their land 
while waiting for vineyards and orchards to 
oome into bearing. Two hundred sacks of po- 
tatoes to the acre is perhaps nnder the averaee 
yield, for some land produces as high as 500 
sacks per acre of merckaatable spuds, while an 
output of 1000 sacks has been known. Carefnl 
cultivation pays with potatoes at well as with 
any other orop. 

Experiments with an Early Barley. — 
Bikersfield Echo: Oar readers are famil- 
iar with the fact that in November last we 
announced a free distribution of an early vari- 
ety of barley. This seed was procured by us 
from a farmer in Colusa county, who got a start 
from a few heads which he noticed in his field 
one spring several vears ago. We distributed 
what we got in 15 pound lots to farmers in 
nearly every part of the county — plains, foot- 
hills and mountain valleys — that its adaptabil- 
ity might be thoroughly tested. Below we 
give the experience of some: W. J. Morris, 12 
miles southwest of Bskkersfield. Sowed the 
seed December 12tb, and plowed it in four 
Inches deep; ground in good condition; grain 
ready to cut for tiay April let; ripe May 1st; 
length of straw, 2 feet 10 inches; believes It 
will make a orop any ordinary year without 
irrigation. Andrew J. Fouat. 10 miles south- 
east of Sumner, on the Weedpatch; seed 
olanted December 27th; ready for hay April 
20th; ripe May Ist; length of straw, 3| feet; 
yield, 4 sacks from 15 pounds of seed; thinks 
it • safe crop on the dry plains. J. W. Bled- 
soe, same locality, sowed the seed December 
26th; ready for hay May Ist; ripe May 15th; 
yield 350 pounds from 15; common barley one 
month later under same conditions. W. H. 
Adams, Rosedale; seed sowed January 15th on 
damp land near the river; it ripened about two 
weeks earlier than common barley. E. W. 
Walters, S»n Emigdio; seed sowed December 
18 tb; ripened three weeks earlier than common 
barley. D. L. Cecil, Delano; seed sowed Feb- 
ruary 5th, but owing to lack of spring rains, it 
dried out and failed. These reports will give 
some idea of what the new variety is worth, 
and whether it is worth while for the farmers 
to use it extensively, 

Artesian-Well Irrigation and Early 
Fruit —CMfurnian: E. Chauvin'a place, six 
miles west of DsUno, irrigated by an eight- 
inch artesian well, 703 feet deep, is remarkably 
fertile and is the earliest of the season with 
almost all kinds of fruits. He had rlp^ peaches 
on Mav 1st, apricots on the 10th, watermelons 
June 17 th, and to cap the climax, ripe Z nfan- 
del grapes on Jane 25'.h. A little while ago he 
raised turnips of a fine white variety that 
that weighed from three and one half to nine 
pounds. They were good eating raw, and 
would cook in five minutes. Two months ago 
he set out some lemon trees, and they are now 
in bloom, and his three year-old cringe trees 
are loaded with fruit. The other day he meas. 
ured some alfalfa growing along the ditch bank 
and found it six and one-half feet in length. 
This well and this oaais of fruits and vines is 
in a county that without artesian water Is of 
no earthly value. 

Lios ADKelee. 

The Vedalia on Its Trail.— Pasadena ,SYar.- 
Fruit Inspector R'chardson says he finds the 
white scale occasionally in all parts of bis dis- 
trict, bat that the vedalia is always found on 
its trail, so that the danger to be apprehended 
from the ravages of the once-dreaded insect is 
very little indeed. The vedalia hat yarned the 



gratitude of the fruit-eating world for its at- 
tachment to the predatory white soale. 

Crop Notes Cottonwood, June 25. — We 
have been having cool weather and late rains 
this year in this section of our State. It is 
something unusual for Shasta Oo. The grain 
looks well and very promising. Apparently 
this year will be a prosperous one, because it is 
the season of good crops, Ssme farmers have 
gathered their hay crop, and others are busily 
gathering it now. The late showers have 
partially hindered the work. The fruit orop 
looks well and promising. The late rains were 
beneficial to the orchards and fruit of all kind. 
The section is going to be noted as a fruit re- 
gion in the near future. A. T. Hatch, the 
noted fruit king of Suisun, has bought the 
William Owens farm of over 4000 acres and has 
been planting trees on it in earnest. A company 
of gentlemen from San Francisco, have bought 
the Barry farm and have been planting 
thousands of fruit trees upon it. 

Mendocino. 
Hop Notes. — Dispatch and Democrat, June 
26: In Mendocino county the cool weather 
still continnea and the vices are getting along 
slowly. Prospects are favorable, however, for 
an average crop, which will be about 30 per 
cent better than last season. This is owing, in 
a large measure, to the fact that the hop-yards 
came out of the winter In a better condition, 
and to the fact that better care has been given 
them this season than for a few years past. 
With warm, forcing weather from now on, the 
crop will go above the average. 

Monterey. 

Crops in the Salinas —Index: Our repre- 
sentative made an extended visit along the 
road through the southern part of Monterey 
county, and he reports the prospect now is for 
more than an average crop everywhere in the 
county except at spots in the central valley and 
upon the mesa lands skirting the Gabilan 
range. Warehousemen along the line of the 
road, whose business it Is to Inform themselves 
concerning prospective yields, and grain-buyers 
who have made careful estimates from personal 
inipection, are confident that more grain will 
go into warehouse this season than did last 
year. 

Placer. 

Increased Froit Shipment.— Republican, 
June 24: The fruit season is upon us in 
earnest. Penryn this year shipped the first 
full carload of fruit from Placer county. Last 
week nine full carloads of fruit were shipped 
from this station and nothing in the peach line 
but Alexanders as yet. In 1889 we shipped 
a little over 1,000 000 pounds, in 1890 some- 
thing over 2,000,000 pounds. This year the 
fruit men predict a shipment of 5,000,000 
pounds. 

Large Yield of Cherries — Anbarn Re- 
publican: Mr. Avery has had a large and 
profitable crop this year. Twenty-five Royal 
Ann trees that stand on about one-quarter 
acre of ground, yielded 825 boxes. 

San Bernardino. 
Fruit on the Chino —Champion : Though 
orchard planting has never been boomed to any 
extent in Chino, those who have planted trees 
have met with tuccess, and as fine orchards of 
prunes, peaches, walnuts, figs and pears are 
growing here as can be found anywhere in thii 
county or any other. Oranges are being planted 
extensively on the northern part of the ranch 
and are doing well. For walnuts, prunes and 
peaches we believe that the conditions on part 
of the Ohino are nnequalled by any locality, 
and that fact is being recognized by many 
parties who have bought or are negotiating for 
land with the intention of planting orchards. 
The acreage now planted aggregates 424 acres, 
of which number there were planted this sea- 
son, as near as we can learn, 228 acres. Next 
year, according to present indications, the pre- 
sent orchard acreage will be more than doubled. 
The fact that sugar beets can be raised between 
the rows cf young trees without detriment to 
the latter, will induce many people to take this 
means of paying living exnenses until an orchard 
comes into bearing. Orchardiets here are 
peculiarly fortunate in that respect. 

Fine Irrigation System. — Redland Cor. 
Times Index: Oolonel R.J. Hlnton and M. 
Downing have left for Washington, D. C. 
Colonel Hinton was enthusiastic in his praise 
of our irrigation system, which he says is the 
finest in existence. He has visited all the 
different countries In the world where Irriga- 
tion la used, but nowhere, he says, do they 
compare with the system of Sautheru Califor- 
nia, and especially that of R^dlands. 

San DIeKo. 
Wheat and Barley Crop Statistics — S»n 
Jacinto Register: In an interview with a num- 
ber of farmers and merchants, we found that 
they estimated thii valley '<i orop abont 85.000 
acres. B, J, Inwall, deputy county assessor, 
and his assistant, John Ryan, spent several 
weeks getting estimates throughout the valley 
on the prospective crop, at the same time as- 
sessing the country, and they estimate it at 
90,000 acres. The grain will yield on an aver- 
age eight sacks to the acre. 

San Luis Oblepo. 
Increased Sale of Bags — Sin Miguel 
Courier: There will be upward of 200,000 
grain bsgt sold at this place this season, 
Abont 175,000 have already been purchased, 
and there are many more to purchase yet. 
Santa Oruz. 
Harvest to Begin.- S<n<;n<'J, Jane 27: The 
thrashing season will open in Pajaro valley 



early in the coming month, and will continue 
longer than it has for many years. The acre- 
age in grain Is more extensive than for several 
seaeone, and the present prospect Is favorable 
for a big yield. 

Santa Clara. 
Fruit Statistics. — Mercury, June 28: At 
the last meeting of the Campbell Horticultural 
Society, a committee was appointed on Statis- 
tic, and blanks were banded to growers pres- 
ent, on which they were requested to write 
the number of tons produced In 1890 and their 
estimate of the orop of 1891. Fifty growers 
made their estimates with the following result: 

Tons. Ton<;. 
1890. 1891. 



Apricots 401 993 

Prunes 744 1279 

Peaches 327 428 

Pears 36 34 

Grapes 308 417 



One gentleman reported that apricots had 
been dropping badly for a week in his section. 
Samuel Lydiard of Cupertino district said 
nothing occurred yet in that section. 

Sbasta. 

Fall River Farm Notes. — Cor. Redding 
Democrat: The drought which for a time 
threatened our valley has passed away, and 
with it the fear of a failure of crops. Of late, 
we have been having copious rains, and with 
the bountiful showers, the most favorable 
weather for all kinds of growing crops, so that 
the despcndenoy which bad begun to settle per- 
ceptibly on the faces of oar farmers has all 
passed away, and each face bears an expression 
comparing favorably with the smiling face of 
nature, clothed in her lovely emerald suit. The 
fruit crop will donbtlcss be the best ever 
raised in the valley, as there has been no frost 
to Id jure anything materially sinoe vegetation 
started. Strawberries are now in their prime 
and more plentiful than ever before, while the 
promise for blackberries and other small fruits 
was never so favorable as now. Vegetables are 
in advance of moat years. Green peas, new 
potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets, etc., becoming 
quite plentiful. 

Sha-sta Co. Fair.— Redding, June 23: The 
Agricultural County F^tir will be held in Red- 
ding from September Ist to 4tb, inclusive. 

Solano. 

Truck Farming. — Dixon Tribune: Last 
spring, Charlie Richards rented 70 acres on the 
McMahan farm, near the site of the old Steven- 
son bridge, and planted it to potatoes and 
beans. Both crops lock well and are yielding 
handsomely. Charlie anticipates a very satis- 
factory income. At any rate there is enough 
already In sight to beat working for wages. 
The wonder is that there are not more truck 
farmers In Northern Solano. 

Stanislaus. 
Irrigation Canal Contract Let. — Modesto, 
June 14: The Modesto and Turlock Irrigation 
Districts have unanimously agreed to award 
the contract for building a j3int dam for both 
districts acoross the Tuolumne river, near La- 
grange, to B. W, Oarrlll, president of the Pa- 
cific Bridge Company of San Francisco. The 
dam will be constructed of rubble and maionry. 
The dam will be 105 feet high, 20 feet wide and 
320 feet long at the crest, and 90 feet wide and 
60 feet long at the base. Garrill's bid is SIO 39 
per cubic yard, the districts to furnish the 
cement. It is estimated that between 10,000 
and 15,000 barrels of cement will be used. The 
site of the dam Is between two solid rock em- 
bankments. The contractor will Immediately 
commence putting in a plant, inclading electric 
lights, and will push the work nieht and day, 
and will complete the dam by January next. 
The dam will be the highest overflow dam In 
the United States. The Tarlock district has 
18 miles of canal 70 feet wide and eight feet 
deep already excavated. Modesto has one sec- 
tion of work partially constructed, and will let 
another aection at the next meeting. B da have 
already been received. The action of the di- 
rectors in letting the contract is generally ap- 
proved, and a better feeling prevails throughout 
both districts. 

Tulare. 

Fbuit Growdrs Organized. — Luoerne, 
June 27: At another meeting of the Fruit-Grow- 
ers of Lucerne at Biker'd Hall, a final organ! 
7«tion was effected as follows: Pi-eB,.B. V. Sharp; 
V. P.,C. M. Blowers; Sec, D. R. Cameron; 
Treas., W. H. Henderscn; Ex. Com , N. W. 
Motheral, Dr. L E. Falton, C. Downing, J. W. 
Belknap, L. S. Chittenden. The society will 
meet on the second Monday of each month at 
Baker's Hall, and should continue to grow in 
numbers and interest, 

Fruit Planting —ifecfcter, June 26: There 
will be a tremendous amount of planting dar- 
ing the coming season. Almost every land 
owner in the county will plant all he can. 
Peaches, prunes and pears will g6 In mainly. 
Somehow the contagion is general and these 
varieties are being selected all the way from 
San Diego to Paget sound. No use to plant 
the Hemskirk apricot In this county. The 
frost catches it most every time, Tne Royal 
is the best for this locality, and with carefnl 
watching and efiB:;ient smudging In early 
spring, will yield good returns one year with 
another. 

Sutter. 

Grain Harvk.stino — Yaba City Farmer, 
June 26: The harvest of grain is now under 
way and will continue for the next month in 
full force. Sjme wheat has been cut, but the 
most is barley. The average root from 10 



to 20 sacks per acre. Along the Saoramento 
river where the land has been summer-fallowed 
the yield runs as high as 30 sacks Birley is 
plump and will grade to a good quality, A 
large amount is crushed and sold for feed, there 
being almost none of the old orop left over 
from the last season. From what wheat haa 
been harvested, the average crop will be good 
and the quality better than it has been for 
years. Along the rivers where there has been 
much moisture, some rust has affected the ker- 
nel, and the same has been slightly shrunken. 
The usual amount of weeds, cheat and smut is 
found this year in the wheatfieids, but of not 
enough quantity to affect the quality of the 
grain. The cool weather has given the kernel 
time to fully develop and It is plump and large, 
almost bursting from the mesh In places. The 
beads are large and well filled. Combined har- 
vesters win do most of the work In the grain- 
fields this year. Some farmers are still heading 
and threshing in the old way. The acreage, 
which is large this season, will make the grain 
output greater than it has been for years from 
this oonnty. 

Ventura. 

Light Crop of Honey — Ventura Free Dem- 
ocrat: Indications point to the fact that the 
honey crop this season will be only one-fourth 
of an average yield. M. H. Mendelson, the 
avenue bee-keeper, is authority for this state- 
ment. He expects to harvest about ten tons. 

Fair Meeting.— Hneneme, June 25: The 
directors of the agrioaltnral fair met and 
adopted a speed program for the races, which 
are to come off simultaneously with the fair, 
Oct. 6, 7, 8 and 9. 

Yolo. 

Crop Notes — Winters Expreit, Jane 27 : 
Faimera are pushing In all directions. Com- 
bined harvesters are doing good service. Head- 
ers are in motion and do old time work. The 
regular thrasher ia In the field. Grain Is com- 
ing into the warehouses. Some of it is being 
solid; some held for a better price. 

Capay Valley Fruit Notes.— Saoramento 
Record Union: The young orchards set out in 
Capay Valley three years ago are just comlog 
Into bearing. It will not be many years before 
the entire valley will be covered with orchards 
and vineyards. W. E. Cole of E parte has 
shipped from there a quantity of ripe Moorpark 
apricots the first of the season, and which are 
fully two weeks In advance of the Winters 
shipments, and indeed ahead of any other lo- 
cality. 

Seneca Chief Wheat. — Woodland Demo 
erat: Oa the farm of A. Abele, two miles west 
of Cacheville, 20 acres was sown to a quality of 
wheat known as the Seneca C'>ief variety. 
Some time in November last, Mr. Abele re- 
ceived 1400 lbs. of this wheat from Mr. N. W. 
Hammond of the Tulare County Seed and 
Cereal Company, fcr the purpose of making a 
test trial. The orop is just now being cut, and 
promises to yield in the neighborhood of 20 
sacks to the acre, and, indeed, may reach be- 
yond those figures. The straw is of a very 
heavy growth, but is not so tall as the Chile or 
Club, while the heads are of unusual length 
and completely packed with a large, plomp 
berry. The vailety Is almost unknown in this 
section of the country, and but very little has 
been in general use. Mr. Hammond secured 
the seed from the Eist a few years since, and 
the general opinion is that it will become one 
of the first staples of wheat that has ever been 
introduced into the State. 

Yuba. 

Double Headed Barley. — Four Corner*: 
N. Bist brought to our iffice last week m cari- 
osity In the form of a bunch of double headed 
barley. Two distinct and well-filled heads 
rest upon each stalk. We have made inquiries 
the last few days, of grain men, both in Marya- 
vllle and here, and can learn of no one who haa 
•een two heads of grain on one stock before. 
Should Mr. Best be able to procure a double 
headed barley, be would have a bonanza. 

How TO Improve Corn. — Wheatland Four 
Cornere: It has been demonstrated In one in- 
etinoa that should the farmer, each year, pluck 
the highest ear of corn for seed, each sabse- 
quent year the number of ears per stalk will be 
increased. We are informed that a farmsr 
above MarysviUe has succeeded In working the 
yield up to five ears per stalk. We suppose 
this year he will announce six. Should there 
be no virtue in this plan, the farmer wonld not 
be out much to try the top ear for a year or 
two. 



Unitarian Literatore 

Sent free by the Channing Auxiliary of the First 
Unitarian Church, cor. Geary and Franklin Sts., San 
Francisco. Address Mrs. B. F. Giddings as above. 



100,000 EXTRA PIx^E 

BftRTLETT PEAR TREES. 



Apple. Pear, Plum. Cherry, Peaoft, Apricot, 
Nectarine. Quince. Orape Vines 
and iiniall Fruits. 

600,000 FRUIT TREES. 

Orange, Lemon, Lime, Olive, Japan Persim- 
mon, and all K nda of Nut-Be.»rlng 
Trees. Shade Hud Ornamental 
Trees, Shrubs, Ktc. 

IMPORTED FRUIT TBEE SEEDLINGS. 

Aek for Prices. 

James T. Bogue, Marysville, Cal. 



JoiY 4, 1891.] 



PACIFie I^URAlo PRESS 



CALIFORNIA 




Every one who hag seen 

Or run the Fish Bros. 
WaRom admits their 

Substantial superiority. 
We consider them the 

Best Sprint; Wa^rons made. 
Pri es away down. Different 

Siz 8 and etjles suitable 
For every requirement. 



5 




A. 



PATENT SPRING WAGON. 



Th* boat light Spring wagon, for the money, made. Costs but little more fhan a cart, but la 
much easier riding and can be uied (or m>ny purposes where a cirt would be useless. Uade o( 
flrst cluB' miterials, well finished. One or two seats, spindle body If desired. 1-inch Axle 
Body 3;ft. 8 in. X 5 ft. 8 Red Gear. Black Body. Weight 275 lbs. 



T?P A "NTTT PP nTTTTi^P Q 33 & 35 main st., 
riiAlNA JDi&UlJliJiio, SAN Francisco! 



THE 



CALIFORNIA STATE FAIR 





wll occur at sac ram en to, 

September 7tli to 19th inclusive 

(TWO WEEKS). 

LOCALITIES that exhibit their capabilities are attracting buyers. FKODUCTS 
speak for themselves if given an oppoitunity. 

TO LAND OWNERS that desire to establish colonies we say, Make your showing 
at the State Fair, where people congregate to make comparisons. 

IXTo If X"Ocl"lJ-<3tlolX(5» S]3.0-«7\7-XX, 

No XTlsltox-s Oa.11. 
N'o Visitors, 

ISTo SaIos. 

T^o S Alois, 

N'o Fxroeressloxx. 
N'o Froeressloxa.. 

No ]>3'otla.lxxs> 

ANT COUNTY that earns a Premium as a County, at the State Fair attracts 
attention of home-seekers, which means NEW BLOOD, NEW IDEAS, and ADVANCE- 
MENT in all industrial lines, as well as general progression throughout. 

BEGIN YOUR PREPARATIONS WITH HARVEST. It is a year of Agri- 
cultural Prosperity. TAKE ADVANTAGE OF IT. 



The STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 

Devotes Over $5000 This Year to 

PREMIUMS FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS 

(EXCLUSIVE OF LIVE STOCK). 

THE FIRST PREMIUM IN COUNTY EXHIBIT DEPARTMENT IS $750, 

A NEW FEATURE by way of a Special Award for Farm Products grown by 
individuals will be given this year. The first premium is $350; second, $150. 

THE POPULAR EXHIBITIONS OF SPEED. THE UNSURPASSED DISPLAY 
OF LIVE STOCK OF ALL KINDS ATTRACTS THE LARGEST CROWD OF 
SIGHTSEERS THAT GETS TOGETHER DURING THE YEAR, 

THE GRAND EXPOSITION BUILDING is filled with the beauties of nature 
and the MECHANICAL DISPLAYS form a most interesting feature of the exhibition. 

THE GRAND MUSICAL CON RTS each evening are an attraction worthy 
of notice. 

IT IS HERE THAT EVERYBO Y GOES. You meet the Merchant, the Manu- 
fiicturer, the Producer and the Consumer. No one cares to miss the State Fair. 

EXCURSION RATES are given on all railroads. FREE RATES ON FREIGHT 
of all kinds for Exhibition. 

PREMIUM LISTS now ready. Apply to Secretary for information of all kinds. 

FREDERICK OOX, President. 
EDWIN F. SMITH, Secretary. 



SAFE I 
SIMPLE! 
CHEAP I 




REGAN VAPOR ENGINE. 



INTO 



ASHES on. Eivroir^ruEn.. 



Started Instantly Without Even a Match. Will Run on Natural or Manufactured 
Gas or Gasoline. The Moment Engine Ceases to Bun, all Expense Stops. 

Upright and Horizontal, Stationary and Marine Engines from 3-4 Horse Power, Upward, 

Our Engines are especially adapted for Pumping and Irrigating and Spraying 
Fruit Trees; in fact, for any use where power is required. 

O-^TEK, 400 IlSr XJSE. 



POPE & TALBOT, Litmbbr. Office, 204 California Street. ) 

San Franoibco, Feb. 26tb, 1890. ) 

Re«an Vapor Engini Co.— Gentlemen: The 4 H. P. Vapor Engine I bought of you last May has been in constant use ever 
since, and has (riven me entire satisfaction. I have found the engine to be all that you claimed for it, and more too. You can UR« 
my name for reference if you so desire. I am, yours truly, " " "^"^ 



H. TALBOT. 



We Garry Tbos. Kane Si Go's Famous Racine Laancbes, fitted with our New Oompound BnelneB. 

fS&xxtSL fox- C±x-OTila.i-. 

REGAN VAPOR ENGINE CO., 

221-223 First Street San Francisco, Cal, 



12 



fACIFie f^URAlo PRESS. 



[June 4, 1891 



Monterey County.— Something Besides 
Pleasure Resorts. 

Perhaps no name connected with Califor- 
nia is more familiar to Eastern and Euro- 
pean tourisis than that of Monterey, suggest- 
ing as it does recollections of delightful 
hours spent at unrivalled seaside resorts and 
world-renowned caravansaries. This very 
pre-eminence of Monterey, as the favorite 
Mecca of pleasure seekers, is paradoxical as 
it may seem, a source of constant injustice 
to the splendid resources of the county at 
large. The averaj;e correspondent and the 
tourist seem to think that it is glory enough 
for one county to be able to boast of the 
world-famed Hotel Del Monte, Pacific Grove, 
and the countless sesihetic features upon 
which the changes have been rung by the 
most brilliant writers of this country and 
Europe, and as a result, the advantages and 
possibilities of Monterey county (rom an 
agricultural and horticultural standpoint re 
main comparatively unknown, certainly un 
appreciated at their true value. A proof of 
this is furniihed by the fact thai its immense 
Spani:>h grants are still undivided. The 
most intelligent real estate men in the county 
claim that in this last respect a new day is 
dawning for Monterey. They claim to see 
indications of a breaking up of those enor- 
mous landholdings, and assert that the next 
decade will witness a general partition of 
thesevast estates. This is " a consummation 
devoutly to be wished," as the ownership of 
these immense tracts of land by a few men 
has acted as a constant and efiective brake 
upon the advancement of the county and the 
development of its resources. The division 
of these extensive holdings into small farms, 
with the consequent influx of population, will 
open a new era for this land-monopoly- 
cursed county. It is predicted that land 
now assessed at a va'uation of $75 an acre 
will readily bring $500 an acre, and Mon- 
terey county, with her matchless climate, her 
fertile sot', her varied products and her beau- 
tiful environments will take her proper posi- 
tion as one of the most desirable locations, 
not only from a picturesque and esthetic 
but from a utilitarian standpoint, within the 
boundaries of the golden commonwealth. In 
the May number of the Illustrated 
Pacific States appeared an elaborate and 
detailed desciiption of Monterey county, its 
topography, mines, area, soils, products and 
general characteristics, but so impressed are 
we by the manifest destiny of this favored 
section of the most favored of States, and by 
the deplorable ignorance concerning 
its exceptional claims to the considera- 
tion of the future home-builder, that the 
Rural Press appends a brief recapitula- 
tion. 

The county consists of the Salinas valley 
with its tributaries ; the Gabilan Mountains 
on the east and the Santa Lucia Mountains 
on the west. The Salinas valley is more 
than 100 miles in length, with a width of from 
6 to 15 miles. Through this great valley 
runs ttie Salinas river, which enters Mon- 
terey county about the middle of the south- 
ern boundary, and empties into Monterey 
bay near the northern boundary of the coun- 
ty. Its principal tributaries are the San 
Lorenzo, Estrella, San Antonio, Arroyo Seco 
and Nacimiento rivers. These streams, to- 
gether with the Carmel and Pajaro rivers 
and numerous smaller streams, render the 
Salinas valley one of the most ferti'e stretch- 
es of valley land in the State. The valley 
has an area of 1000 square miles or 640,000 
acres of superb farming and fruit land. The 
entire county of Monterey comprises an area 
of 3600 square miles, or mote than 2,300,000 
acres of land, being four times as large as 
the State of Rhode Island, and twice the size 
of Delaware. It has been estimated that 
under favorable conditions 1,000,000 people 
can be supported from the products of the 
soil of Monterey county, i nd from a careful 
study of its marvelous possibilities we do not 
regard this as an extravagant estimate. The 
Salinas valley which comprises the greater 
portion of the strictly farming land has soils 
adapted to nearly everything that grows. 

The principal products of the valley are 
wheat and barley, and in 1888 Monterey was 
the banner grain county of California, but 
beans, potatoes, oats, buckwheat, mustard, 
rye, corn, peas and other vegetables, melons 
citrons, and deciduous fruits, grapes, berries 
olives, almonds and other nuts, sugar beets' 
etc., are successfully raised. 

We must not convey the erroneous idea 
that agriculture is the exclusive industry of 
Monterey. Stock raising, dairying, horticul- 
ture and mining are all actively followed and 
Monterey is famous for its blooded cattle 
and the excellence of its dairy products. The 
county comprises a vast mountain area, fully 
1500 square miles in extent, which from a 
cursory observation might appear as well- 
nigh valueless. A closer examination, how- 
ever, discovers the fact that nearly all of it 



is good grazing land, while much of it is 
adipted to agriculture. Many small but 
exceedingly fertile valleys are enclosed in 
this mountainous district, and it has been 
estimated that these apparently waste 
places comprise 150,000 acres of excellent 
farming land. 

We have given but a hurried and super- 
ficial review of a few of the countless advan- 
tages and attractions of the county of Mon- 
terey. Volumes might be written upon the 
texts which we have given, but we trust that 
enough has been said to draw the intelligent 
attention of home-seekers and prospective 
settlers to a section of the State, the agricul- 
tural and horticultural advantages of which 
have too long been obscured by the greater 
and deserved fame of its pleasure resorts. 

As an instance and typical example of the 
new and vigorous spirit of enterprise and 
local pride which characterizes even the 
towns and villages of Monterey county, we 
may mention the wide-awake town of Cas- 
troville, the lively burg which marks the 
' junction," from which point the branch of 
the S. P. C. departs for Monterey, the Hotel 
Del Monte, and the classic shades of Pacific 
Grove. Through the indefatigable efTorts of 
Mr. Juan B. Castro, after whom it is named, 
Castroville is about to be incorporated and 
take upon itself the full panoply of power, 
influence and dignity as a town proper. 
Although the act of incorporation will pro- 
portionately increase Mr. Castro's taxes 
more than those of any other freeholder, his 
local patriotism outweighs all mercenary 
considerations of this sort and, in common 
wiih his neighbors, he is exerting every 
eflfort to advance the common good, first of 
Castroville, and by consequence of Mon- 
terey county. 

PRIZE! BABIBS. 

Abaut a ye»r ago ten pr'zas were offered to the pret 
tiest babiej who bad used Lactated Food. Tbe contctt 
en ated great iotereat, and so many requests have been 
made (cr the pictures of the foituoate children, that 
Wells, Richardson & Co., Burliogton, Vt„ have published 
them in a neat little book and offer t» send a copy tree, 
t>;ether with a handsome birthday otrd, to any mother 
with a baby under a year old. 

The winner of the first prize was Georgienna SImpkins, 
Fairbury, Neb., whose father writes: "Our biby has 
used Lactated Food since she was a week old, and her 
health has been remarkable." Do not wait until your 
child is sick, but feed it L.actited Food and so keep the 
little one well and hearty Write for book and card 
to-day, and i( your dealer does not sell the Food, send 
25 cents for a can by mail. 



Our Agenti, 

Our PsiiHiie oan do much In aid of our paper and the 
Muse of practical knowledge and science, Dy assisting 
Agents in their labors ol canvassing, by lending their In- 
fluenoe and encouraging favors. We intend to send noof 
but worthy men. 

Oio. W1L8011— Sacramento Co. 

J. C. HoAS — <<an Frandgco. 

G. B. Gill— Snn Luis Obisro Co. 

FRA^K S. CiiAPiM— Tulare Co. 

J. H. P. Williams— Tulare Co. 

Sahdkl E. Wathon— Sonoma Co. 

Hkbnan staklkt— Mo'I'>c Co. 

C. J Wadb— Sao Puriiardino Co. 

W. W MlLL"R Buito Co 

R. G Bailst— Fan Francisco. 

J. a. Ukdsrwood— Solano and Yolo Cos. 

E. H. ScuAKfrLB-t'entral California, 

F. B. LooAS— Arizona 
Wm. II. HiLI.RART— Oregon. 
Arthcr M Mitciip.ll — Oregon. 
N. M. Newfort— Oregon. 



Effect of Thinking.— An Italian physi- 
ologist rf repute, named Moseo, has demon- 
atrated by experiment that thinkiog oaases > 
rasb of blood to tbe braio, which varies with 
tbe nature of the thonght. 

No matter what may ha the ills you bear from indiges- 
tion, a dose ol Ayet's Cathartic Pills will ease you with- 
out question. Just try them once and be assured; they 
have much worse dyspeptics cured. You'll flod them 
nice and amply worth the price. 

AZO.NE FOK Re TORATIVa PnBPOSES. — Ao 
Eoglisb physician baa Invented a cabinet for 
tbe generation of ozone for reitorative par- 
poses. Tbe ozone is produced by electricity. 

HOW TO Hir THE BOLL'S KYF. 
Nelson J. Tultle, who conducts large Livery S'ables, 
Harford, Conn , rtmarki, " For tne list 25 jears 1 have 
used Quiun's "intm rnt a d louud it a wonderful remedy 
for temoving Cu bs, Splints, Spavins, Winrpuffs, 
Bunches." Trial box 25 cents, silver or stumps. Regu'ar 
cize «l 60 delivered. Address W. B. tddy & Co.. 
Whiteh.ll, N. Y. 

Housewives. Attention ! 

Two new first-class Sewing Machines for sale 
cheap. Will be sent direct (rom warerooms if de- 
sired. Address, H. F. D., Box 2517, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 




Isr — 



TRUMAN. HOOKER & QO.. 

SAif VRANCISCO. 




MILLEfliS LICHTlllC 



INSEHSSlL 



Beadquaricra for h1 kind* of Baling; Presses 
aud Haying: Tools. 

SEND FOR NO. 16 CATALOGUE. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO.. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 




CHEAPEST 
and BEST. 



Is thi:Snirl.F.ST .md stronu- 
EST solid wheel mill on the 
marlcct. Docs its work be- 
tween two babf'ittcd boxes. 
Nothing to Wear Out or 
give away. Lasts a Lifb- 
'TiHS AND No Repairing. 
Just the Mill for a good, 
live agent to handle. 
Write for circulars giving full description. 

CHALLENGE WIND MILL & FEED MILL CO. 

BATAVIA. KANE CO.. ILLINOIS. 



The Royal 

STEP - LADDER. 




THE ROTAH 



Hide of Spruce and Oregon Pine and pat together In 
m^st i-ubstantlal ma >ner with screws, rivets and rods. 

Hinges made "f htavy Wrought Iron and all hu'It 
strong and dur b e re^anlleas c t c<>-t. at ihe same time 
li^ht aLd convenient and very hard to upseL 

S lis a^ low as aoy and will guarantee to give double 
the perviro. 

Hend for circulais and prices. 

a. Q. WICKSON & CO., 

8 & 6 Front St., San Fraocleco. 
FARMERS' UNION, San Jose. J. & L BLUM, Vacaville' 
C. S. KINO, Manufacturer, San Lorenzo. 



IT STANDS AT THE HEAD I 




DO NOT FAIL to SEE THE "DOMESTIC" 

Before Buying: a Sewlns Macblne. 
It is tbe leader in practical progress. Send for price list 
J. W. EVANS. 29 Post St.. 8. P. 



A BiT^*"*"""" NO OBJECTIONABLE FEATURE. 

PACiNE ^ The most vicious liorso 

^cau be DUlVliX uud ( ON- 
TKOLLEIJ WITH EA!>E. 

■Works the eame as the J. I. 0., 
but don't pull up 60 easy. 

LEADS THEM ALL 

Sample mailed X C for ^ | 

>ick. l SI. 50. a» leUU 

Sinllion Bits oO ccula 'x'^a. 



■fr. 




RACINE MALLEABLE IRON CO. 



SAN FRANCISCO S&VINOS nNION, 532 
Cdli'orni I St , cor. Webb; bian h 17O0 Market St, 
c r. Hoik —For the half-year (miing 30ih of June, 1S91. 
a dividend has hecn dec'ared at Ihe raie of live an < luur- 
t nths (6 4-10) p r C' nt per annum on term deposits and 
four end one-h -If (4!) ^er c 1 1 per annum on < rd nary 
deposits, free of taxes, payable un and after WEDNtS- 
DaY, Ju'y 1, 1891. LOVhLL WH TE. Cashier. 



EISeN'S "RAISIN INDUSTRY" 

Is for sale by Agents at bo iksforei in San Diego, Kiver- 
Kide, Los At ge'es, l<aker.-ti< Id Vieal a, Ilaiiford. Fresno, 
Merced. Sacramento aud Mi^rysville; alto, by Dewey & 
Co., 220 Market St., an I the 11. S. (>■ ckcr Company, 216 
Bush .St, Sin Fr.kncisco. trlco, Ihree Dollars. Seno 
pos al tor circulars. 



The German Savings and Loan Society, 



536 California Street. 



For the half-year en-^in; June 30, 1891, a diviiend has 
hten d.'clared at the rate of five a d four-tombs (6 4-10) 
Per cent per annum on term deposits, and four and one- 
half (4^) per cent per annum on ordinarv deposits, pay- 
able on ami alter Wedatsdav, July I. 1891. 

OEi). TOURNF.Y, S crftsry. 

ITALIAN SHEEP WASH 

Kstrnct of Tobacco. 

FRtK FROM FOISON. CURFS 
■ he »ic»b of t h« isheer. The 
BKST remedy kuown Costs LESS 
th.n 1 lent per hfad for ilipii'g. 
Piice redu eti. Ft particulars ap- 
ply to OH A". UUI.oKA KKBO 
&<-<•.. Sole ' gents No 31« Sao- 
lamcnto St , ^an Fraocisco. 




TO THE TRADE. 

WRITE FOR PRICES OF THE «PLENDIO <^CARLET 
CiciUJ Dahlii "Jiiarer," White Cactus Dahlia 
"Consia ce," Double Dahlias, Yellnw, and Red Cannas 
l!hemani and Funrani* aUo, Best French • annas. Plants 
grown by coictract from the finest col ectioi in the Si^aie, 
S<n.i for Dul'' and Seed Tiade List. TUEODOSIA & 
SHEPIIEhD, Ventura, Cal. 



YOUR DWELLING, BARNS and GRAIN 



-WITH I THE 




INSURANCE T COMPANY 

OF SAN FRANOISOO, CAL. 



Wll L BN L,OANKD 'I (> FAItMKKS. 

iraTExmaiT bdesx^otat- ivr^n. islet i=».^tx3jbi. 

WRITE TO THE 

MERCANTILE AGENCY AND INVESTMENT CO. 

No. 16 Post Ntreet, San FrancUco. 
WILL E FISllKR. Pre?. EUOKNK O DAVIS. Vioe-Pres. WM. S TKVIS, Trees. ALFRED D. HAIL, Sfo'y. 




Whitewashing Machines &Tree Cleansers. 

Complete Outflta at pricea from $3 to $50. 

The Pumps ore all BRASS, with BRASS AND RUEBEK VALVES. 

For Orchardists, Florists, Stockman, Poultry Raisars 

THKRE l.S NOTHING LIKK THKM 

Pump sent conipl te ai in p\it ("r $11. Sen J for Illu-t ated Cjtalogue. 

WAISWRIGHT SPRAYING APPARATDS CO., 1409 Jadson St., S. F. 

Oontraota taken for Large Jobs of WbltawMhlng. 



July 4, 1891.] 



f ACine I^URAlo f RESS. 



Will You Favor Us? 

We desire as many renewals of subscriptions 
from subscribers as possible during the next 30 
days. As we specially need the money at this 
time, we hope that those whose subscriptions have 
hitherto expired, or may soon expire, will make a 
little effort, if need be, to favor us at this time. 
Such a settlement, with several hundred subscribers, 
although the amount is small from each, is, in the 
aggregate, considerable to an enterprising publisher. 

We have placed the price of our paper very low, 
rating less than $2.50 per annum, when paid in 
advance. Yet we much prefer to receive the low 
rate in advance to $3.00 per annum later. 

We hope also to receive many additional subscrip- 
tions from new comers and others who have not yet 
ested the value of a home weekly farm companion, 
in this new and progressive field of agriculture. 
Therefore, let all who can, speak a good word to 
their neighbors for the Rural Press. 



Auction Sales of Calitornia Fruit. 



Chicago, June 24. — Three carloads Bartleft 
pears brought $5.30; Tragedy prunes, $S@S 30; 
Koenig Claude prunes $2.65; Clyman plums, $2.10; 
Cherry plums, $1.50; apricots, $i.25@i.4S; peaches, 
75C@$i.20. Four carloads Clyman plums brought 
J3.60; Royal Hative plums, $2.80; Cherry plums, 
$i.4c@2.o5; apricots, good order, $i.40@2.6o; 
poor stock, 6sc@$t.i5; peaches, 7Sc@$i.2o; Jackson 
plums, $2.60; Koenig Claude plums, $2.80; white 
cherries, $1.30®!. 50; black cherries, $1.05. 

New York, June 24. — Two carloads of extra fine 
apricots, plums, prunes and peaches. Apricots 
brought from $i.9o@2.30 per crate; plums, $2 40® 
3.40; Tragedy prunes, $6.45; Alexander peaches, 
$i.25@2.i5 per box. 

Chicago, June 25. — Three carloads Tragedy 
prunes brought $5.10; Clyman plums, $3.30; blue 
plums, $3 60; Koenig Claude plums, $2.60; Royal 
Hative plums, $3@3.25; Cherry plums, $1.65® 1.95 

Chicago, June 26. — One carload Cherry plums 
brought $1.50; apricots, $1.35 and peaches 85c@90. 

Chicago, June 26. — Two carloads Clyman plums 
brought $2.8o@3.25; Royal Hative plums, $2.85® 
3.10; Cherry plums, $1.50®!. 75; apricots, 850® 
Si.50. The bulk of the stock was over-ripe. 

Chicago, June 27. — Two carloads Royal apricots 
brought $i.io@i.2o; peaches, 9oc@$i.3o. 

Chicago, June 27. — Two carloads Royal Hative 
plums brought $2 75; Peach plums, $2; peaches, 
8sc@$i.3o; apricots, 8oc®$i.3S. 

New York, June 27. — Two carloads peaches, 
plums and pears to-day from the California Fruit 
Union. The condition of the fruit is good, and 
prices are somewhat lower than preceding sales, 
owing to the increased supply on the market. 

Chicago, June 29. — Four carloads Royal Hative 
plums brought $2.05®2 45; Clyman, $2,50; Koenig 
Claude plums, $1.60; apricots, $1.05®!. 35; peaches, 
9SC@$i.2o; Bartlett pears, $4.75@5; Tragedy 
prunes, $3 85@4. 

New York, June 28,— The Pacific's fresh fruit 
interest here has a good outlook, although at this 
part of the season, when supplies are liberal, sellers 
have to tone prices in consideration of many absent 
consumers. Auction sales of twenty mixed cars 
bad the best sales. Late arrivals of cherries had a 
decidedly popular run, and can be sent with even 
more confidence another summer. 

Chicago, June 30. — Porter Brothers' Co. 
sold five carloads California fruit to-day. Tragedy 
prunes, $3.95; Royal Anne cherries, $1.15® 1.75; 
Black Biggereau, $i.i5®i.7o; Tartarians, $i@i.65; 
Black Republicans, $1.45; apricots, 90c®$i.3o; 
peaches, 85c@$i.25; Cherry plums, small boxes, 
$1.25. 

Chicago, June 30. — The Earl Fruit Co. sold 4 
carloads: Tragpdy prunes brought $3.5o®4. 10; 
Peach plums, $2,75@3; apricots, $i@i.2S. Royal 
Hative plums, $2.25@2.45: peaches, 90c@$t.io. 

Miscellaneous Products. 

Chicago, June 30: Dried fruits— The market is 
on the eve of the new crop. The past season has 
been one of activity, and the last crop, having been 
a comparatively short one, has found quite ready 
sale, so that the closing is with only very small 
stocks on hand. The large quantity in piospect 
has created a disposition on the part of buyers to 
want, and the present demand is only for small 
quantities required to meet the current consump- 
tive trade, which also is restricted by a bountiful 
supply of berries and small fruits. An easy feeling 
prevails. Raisins, London layers, 3-crown, ^ box, 
$1.30; loose Muscatels, 3-crown, $f.is®i.2s; do 
2-crown, $i@i.os; do sacks, 5@6c ^ lb. Prunes, 
40 to 50 to the lb. in sacks, loc; 50 to 60, 95^® 
9Kc; 60 to 70, gii®<)'Ac; 70 to 80, q@g}ic; 80 to 
90, 8K@9c; 90 to 100, 8@8Kc; loo to no, 8® 
8Kc; ungraded, in bags, 8@8}4c; apricots, choice, 
12c, off goods, IOC ; peaches, unpeeled, loc; peeled, 
aoc. New potatoes— California stock sold at $2 for 
2-bushel sacks heavy, and $1.90 for light weights, 
when choice and Eound. Full-weight sacks contain 
120 to 200 lbs. and light weights. 100 to no lbs, 
Californias are in good supply. Some of the Cali- 
fornia potatoes are arriving out of condition and 
sold at $i®i.so ^ sack. New onions— California, 
2-bushel sacks are quotable at $2 25®2.5o for 
yellow and $2@2.25 for red. Lima beans ^ lb., 
4Kc. 

Geo. P, Rowell & Co. of New York have Is 
sued a " Book for Advertisers," 368 pageB, price 
one dollar. It is mailed, postage paid, on re- 
ceipt of price, and contains a careful compila- 
tion from the American Newspaper Directory 
of all the best papers in the United States and 
Canada. It gives the circulation rating of 
every one and a good deal of information aboat 
rates and other matters pertaining to the bnsi- 
ness of advertising. Whoever has made him- 
self aoqaainted with what may be learned from 
this book will admit that from its pages one 
may gather pretty mnoh all the information 
that Is needed to perfect an Intelligent plan of 
advertising, 



Portland Agency. 

Mr. Arthur M. Mitchell will act as agent and cor- 
respondent for this office for the present, at Port- 
land, Oregon. He has good recommendations and 
will use his best efforts in behalf of the readers and 
patrons of the paper in our North Pacific States. 
Whatever assistance our friends can render him in 
his efforts for us will be duly appreciated. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

Beported by Dewey & Oo., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 

for week ending JUNE 23, 189I. 

454,586. — Fermenting Vat — U. Bachmann, 
S. F. 

454.609. — Pump — Geo. Brown, Waitsburg, Wash. 
454. 7'S- — Adding Machine — D. I. Craig, Silver 
King, A. T. 

454.638.— Water Wheel Bucket— W. G. 
Dodd. S. F. 

454,679.— Saw Setting Machine — C. A. 
Erlandson, S. F. 

454,821. — Wave Power Moter— H. P. Hol- 
land, S. F. 

454,538.— .A.PPARATUS FOR EXTRACTING GOLD 

Etc. from Ores. — Howe & Gates, S. F. 

454,744.— Coating for Piles Etc.— F. E. 
Lampert, S. F. 

454,616. — Sash Balance— Benj. Marshall, 
S. F. 

4S4 S73-— Electrical Pessary— W. N. Sher- 
man, Merced, Cal. 

The following brief list, by telegraph, for June 23 
will appear more complete upon receipt of matl advices: 

California— William N. Anderson, San Rafael, ele- 
vator safety device; Alpheus J. Bartlett, Pomona, 
sprinkler; Frank L. B.tes, Sacramento, smoke consumer; 
Stephen H. Chase, San Jote, sawbit holder; Michael Dil- 
lenburg, San Francisco, pipe coupling; John A. Driller, 
Los Angel' s, separator, and Edmund L. Kenoyer, Han- 
ford, equalizing device for windmills; Dr. F. Oliver, San 
Krancisco, assignor to Acme Hirvester Company, 
Peorii, III., hay rake; Albert A. and F. B. Stout, Fow- 
ler, valve for sinks and water-closets; Edwin F. Tucker, 
San Francisco, hot-air bridgewall; Dyson D. Wass, as- 
signor one-half to E. W. Tucker, San Francisco, electric 
signal fur steam vessels, Washington; John S. Qriflia, 
Rossylin, castmg machine; Samuel Oiiawold, East 
Davenport, wind engine. 

NoTii.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacific Coast 
Inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest nossible time. 



Berkshire Breeders, 

At a meeting of the EKecutive Committee of 
the American Berkshire AqsooiatioD, held in 
the Illinoia National Bank, Springfield, III,, on 
the 15th ult,, comti.uDioatlons were read 
from absent members and patrons of the 
"American Berkshire Record " in regard to the 
death of Phil M. Springer, secretary of the as- 
soolatioD, expressing regrets at the loss sus- 
tained by the breeders of Berkshirea and other 
pnre-bred live stock. A committee was ap- 
pointed to draft resolutions in respect to the 
memory of the late secretary, and it was 
ordered that la the next published volume of 
the " American Berkshire Record," one page 
be set aside in memorlam and one page tor a 
likeness of the deceased. 

Financial and other matters pertaining to 
the business of the association were found in a 
satisfactory condition, 

Jno, 6. Springer, who, for a number of 
years, has been associated with his brother, 
Phil M. Springer, as clerk in the office of the 
association, was elected to fill the unexpired 
terms as secretary and member of the Execu- 
tive Committee left vacant by the latter's 
death. 

Carbolineum Avenarius. 

A wood preserver. This c )mpo8ition possesses very 
high qualities, and by its strong penetrating power and 
by Its gpeciflc gravity of 1 14 it impregnates the wood at 
once to a remarkable degree. It has stood the test of 
time for more than 14 years and is in great and increas- 
ine demand in F.urope as well as in the United States. 
Carbolineum Avenarim is easily applied by any one, by 
means of a brush, without any previous prac ice, and on 
account of its manifold properties and its cheap price, it 
is an excellent substitu'e for oil paint and tar, partlcu- 
ticularly so a,i it does not close up the pores of the wood. 
Many testimonials are to hand proving the great efficacy 
of Carbolineum Avrnarius, and it may therefore be well 
recommended to be submitted to a trial, especially as it 
is very iffsctive not only as a paint for all wood exposed 
to the deterioratmg ii fluence of the weather, but also as 
an excellent preventive against fungus and the tffects of 
dnmp. It is particularly qualified as a paint for shingles, 
wooden sheds, fences, posts, wooden rafters and pUnks, 
channels, protecting switches and for fleepers, telegraph 
poles, etc. If Carboliaeum Avenarius is tt reJo-proof, 
as is claimed by the manufacturers, the agency must be- 
come a very valuable one indeed. The sale 0' Carbo- 
linenm Avenarius for the Pacific Coast States is in the 
hands of Messrs. Muecke & Co., General Agents. They 
are sparing no pains to bring this article into the same 
prominence that it has found wherever it was Introduced 
Messrs. Muecke & Co. have Important testimonials for in 
sp ctioD and will make it their buiiness to answer all in 
quiries of customers and those who wish to become 
agents for the sale of Carbolineum Avenarius. 



Ventilated Barrels. 

The attention of fruit-growers and vegetable- 
raisers cannot be too forcibly called to the manifold 
advantages to be gained by the use of these barrels, 
Their rapid growth in favor among commission men 
and shippers generally is unprecedented, and 
strongly significant of their peculiar adaptability to 
all the requirements for which they are intended. 
Lightness, strength and thorough ventilation, the 
three requisites of a perfect shipping package, are 
here combined in an unusual degree. Producers 
and shippers alike will serve their own interests by a 
careful perusal of the Ventilated Barrel Co.'s adver. 
tisement in another column of the Press, 



Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 




Our U, S, and Foreign Patent Agency 
presents many and important advantages as a 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of long 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys- 
tem, intimate acquaintance with the subjects of 
inventions in our own community, and our 
moat extensive law and reference library, con- 
taining official American and foreign reports, 
files of scientific and mechanical publications, 
etc. All worthy inventions patented through 
our Agency will have the benefit of an illustra- 
tion or a description in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. We transact every branch of 
Patent business, and obtain Patents in all coun- 
tries which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for Pacific 
Coast inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Circulars free. 

DEWBY & CO., Patent Agents, 
220 Market St., Elevator, 12 Front St,, S. F, 

Telephone No. 658. 
a. t. dewey. w. b. ewer. geo, h, strong, 




(dlicational. 



BUY YOUR HARNESS AT WHOLESALE 
PRICES. 

Liebold Harness Co. 

liO Mcll Ulster St., San Francisco. 

Good Hand Made Buggy Harness. $1^ 
Good Double Spring Wagon Harness, $30 

Send for Descriptive Price List. 



1 ^^^^Xi 



THE LATEST AND BEST. 



HEALDS 



BUSINESS COLLEGE, 

24 POST ST., S. P. 

FOR SEVENTY - FIVE DOLLARS THIS 
College Instructs in Shorthand, Typewriting, Book- 
keeping, Tel graphy. Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
English branches, and everything pertaining to business, 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
its graduates in every part of the State, 
$Sr Send for Cikodlar. 

B. F. HEALD, President, 

C, S. HALET, Secretary, 



Van Ness Young Ladies' Seminary, 

1223 Pine St., San Francisco. 

A FIRST-CLASS PRIVATE SCHOOL UNDER THE 
ownership and direction of DR. S. H. WILLEY, 
aided by a corps of 12 experienced teachers. Numbers 
limited; home care; Instruction the choicest; music a 
specialty. Only a few vacancies; apply soon. Term 
begifls August 3d. Send for circulars. 



Bowens Academy, 

University Ave,, Berkeley, 

BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL 

FOR BOYS AND YOUNG MEN. 
Special university preparation, depending not on time, 
but on progress in studies. 
T, S. BUWENS, M. A., Head Master. 



School of Practical. Civil, Mechanical and 
MINING ENGINEERING, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying, 
723 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO, OAL, 
Open all year. 
A. VAN DER NAILLEN, President. 
Assaying of Ores, 825; Bullion and Chlorination Assay, 
$25; Blowpipe Assay, 810. Full Course of Assaying, $50. 
ESTABLISHED 1864. IS" Send for Circular. 




HOPKINS ACADEMY, 

OaIc I unci 0&1> 
A FIRST-CLASS SCHOOL, 'a PLEASANt HOME. 

Graduates admitted to the State University and to 
Stanford University without examination. 

W. W. ANDERSON, PiincipaL 




IRVING INSTITUTE. 

A Select School for Young Ladies. 

Fifteenth Year. Eighteen Professors and Teachers. 
For Catalogue or Information address the Principal, 
REV. EDWARD B. CHURCH, A. M., 
1038 Valencia Street, San Francisco, Oal 



CHESNUTWOOD^S 
SANTA CRUZ, CAL 



BEST EQUIPPED ON THE COAST. INDIVIDUAL 
instruction. No classes. Ladles admitted to all 
departments. Board and room In private families, $10 
per month. Tuition, pix months, $42. 

J. A. CHESNUTWOOD, Box i3, Santa Cruz, Cal. 



eotteccj 



MURPHY BUILDING, 
f/lAf^KETSS. 



The Only Aetna! Business College 

ON THR PACIFIC COAST. 

This popular institution stands upon its merits as the 
live, progressive, practical Commercial Training School 
of San Francisco. 

Individual Instruction given In the English Branches, 
Commercial Law, Penmanship, Commercial Correspond- 
ence, Shorthand, Typewriting, and Book-keeeping In.all 
its forms 

Expero Accountants of wide experience only, employed 
as teachers of Book-keeping and Commercial Customs. 

First-class hoard at the College Baardiog Hall, under 
the management of members of the faculty, at $18 per 
month. 

ENDORSED BY THE FARMERS' ALLIANCE OP 
THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue, and copies of our 
College Jourpftl. Address 

San Francisco Basiness College, 

Cor.Harkat and Jone* Sts.,8an Franoiaco,0»l. 



14 



f ACIFie I^URAId f ress. 



[July 4, 1891 



Breeders' birectory. 



six linea or leas In this Directory at 60c p«r lint per month. 



HORSES AND CATTLE, 

PURE-BRED HOLSTKIN FR1B8IAN Cattle 
lor Sale. Boonle Brae Cattle Co., Ilolllster, CaL 

JOHN LYNCH, Petaluma, Breeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns. Younif stock (or sale. 



IMPORTED STALLIONS.— English Shire, Cleve- 
land Bay, German Coach. Import direct. Write 
Ilolbett 4: Conger, 129 istn St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

P. H. BaRKB,401 Monttiomery St.,8. F.; Registered 
Holsteins; winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and tpeclal prtrnlums than any herd on the Coast 
Pure registertd Berkshire Pigi. All strains. 



J. H. WHITB, LakevUle, Sonoma Co., OaL, breeder 

ol Registered Holsteln Cattle. 

P. H. U D H PHY, Perkins, Sac Co., CaL , Importer and 
Breeder of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 



M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, Importer and dealer In 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Red Polled Cattle, Hol- 
stelns, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 



PBTBR HAXB <Sl SON, Lick House, San FranolSGO, 
Oal Importers and Breeders, lor past iil years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

PBBRIN STANTON, Sacramento, Cal., Importer 
and Breeder of Registered A. J. C. C. Jersey Cattle of 
the Best strains. Stock (or sale. 

J. B. RHSB, LakevH'e, Sonoma Ca, Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roaditers and Draft Horses. 



P. PETERSEN, Sites, CoIueaCo., Importer & Breeder 
registered Shorthirn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 

WILD FLOWER STOCK FARM, Fresno Oo. 
A. Uellbron & Bro.. Props., Sic. Breeders of thorough- 
bred strains aoii Crulk shank Sborthorns; also Registered 
Herefords; a fine let of young bulls in each herd for sale. 

CHARLES B HUMBERT, Cloverdale, Cal., Im- 
porter and Breeder o( Recorded Holsteln-Frlesian 
Cattle. Catalogues on application. 

PEROHBRON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
mares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, lor sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal, New cata- 
logue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holsteln and Jersey Cattle. None better. 



T. PHILLIPS. Siml, Ventura Co., Cal. Pure Bred 
Percheron Horses for sale. 



OOTATB RANCH BREEDING FARM, Page's 
Station, S. F. k N. P. B. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
.Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Uerino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 



POULTRY. 



JOHN McFARLTNQ, Ca istoga, Cal. , Importer and 
Breeder o( Choice Poultry. Send lor Circular. Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Pigs. 

B. F. MDSSON. San Leandro, box 165. Bull Cochins. 



B. G. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 



GALT POULTRY YARDS, Gait, Sac Co., CaL 
Pure bred Fowls. Pekin Ducks, Belgian Hares, etc. 



MADISON a. CBITOHBR, Bonnie Doon, Santa 
Cruz Co., CaU Thoroughbred Poultry. Settings, tS. 

IF YOU KEEP ANY KIND OP FOWLS, 

Pet Stock, Dogs, &a, It will pay you to send your ad- 
dress at once to C. R. Harker,SantoCI»ra,Cal. Youcan- 
not aSord not to do it. It will cost you but one cent 
and you will receive something worth ten times that. 



O, J. ALBBE, I,awrence, Cal. Pare bred poultry. 



SHEEP AND Q0AT8. 



KIBKPATBIOK St WHITTAKBB, Knight's 
Ferry, Cal. , breeders of Uerino Sheep. Rams lor sale. 



L. U- SHIPPBB, Stockton, Cal., Importer and breeder 
ol Spanish Uerino Sheep, Dnrham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys fe Berkshire Swine high graded rams tor sale 



FRANK BULLARD, Woodland, Cal., Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Spanish Uerino Sheep. Pre- 
mium band of the State. Choice rams and ewes lor sale. 



J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder ol Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Cross bred 
Uerino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 



B. W. WOOLSBY d> SON, Fulton, CaL, Importers 
ft breeders Spanish Uerino Sheep; ewes ii rams tor sale. 



B. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and Importer. 
Sonth Down Sheep from Illinois and England tor sale. 



ANDBBW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv't. 



SWI/i/E. 



J )SBPH MBLVIN, DavlSTllle, Cal., Breeder of 
? aland -Chin a Hogs. 



WILLIAM NILES, Loe Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars tree. 



TYLBB BEACH, San Jose, CaL, breeder of 
■aorsnghbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 



ANDREW SMITH, Redwood aty, Cal. ; see adv'L 



BEES. 



APIARIAN SUPPLIES or sale by Mrs. J. D. 
Enas, Napa City, Cal. 



BADEN FARM HERD. 
Short Horn Cattle and Draft Horses. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 
ROBERT ASHBURNBB, 
Baden Station, San Mateo Co., OaL 



IMPORTER AND BREEDER OF THOROUGHBRED 

(RECORDED 




DISHFACED BERKSHIRE PIOS, 

IMPROVED POLAHD-CHINA PIGS. 

SHROPSHIRE DOWN SHEEP, 

Young Stock lor sale at reasonable prices. Every animal guaranteed. 
OFFICE- ai8 Oallfomla St., San FranclBno. REDWOOD CITY, OAL. 



Registered Herd Book Stock of the Aaggie, Netherland, Nep- 
tune, Clilden, Artls and other families. None better. 

01 the Coomaseie, Alphea and other choice strains. 

Poland-Ohina and Berkshire Pigs. 

I^OXTXjTH.Y— Nearly all Varieties. 

Third Edition POULTKT & STOCK BOOK, 60 cents 
by mail postpaid. Thirteen years experience on this coast. 




HOWE SCALE CO., 

411 & 4t3 Maiket St„ San Franciico, 



AGENTS FOR 





GRAIN AND WAREHOUSE SCALES, 



Descriptive 



Fruit and Grain Trucks of all Descriplions. 

Catalogue of all Styles of Scales aod Trucka sent on appllcatloo. 



FRAUDULENT PARTIES 
have been gelling an 
article, claiming theirs to be 
the same, aod. In order to 
mialeid, have added a prefix 
to " Manhattan. " Our gen- 
uine food is called simple 
" Manhattan Food,"with the 
Red Ball Brand. 

683 Howard St., San 
Frsnclaco. Oal. 



COLTS BROKEN, when you buy, 



THE SOUTHER FARM, 

One and a half miles northeast of San Leandro, 
Alameda Oonnty, has every facility for Break- 
Inf; Colts properly. Rates very reasonable, 
Horses boarded at all times, 

THE SOUTHER FARM, 

GTL.BBRT TOMPKINS, Proprietor, 

p. O. Box 149. «an Leandro. Oal 



BOY- 



THE BEST! 



STOCK n SCALES 



THE 



4 Ton. 



$45. 



U.S. STANDARD. FULLY WARRANTED. 

ItS^ DeliTered at your R. R. Station and ample time for 
bnilding and teetinir allowed before acceptance, 

OSGOOD & THOMPSON, Binghamton.N. f 
PORTABLE PLATFORM SCALES, 
TRUCKS, ETC. 

Twenty-five per cent cheaper than any other on the 
market. Send lor Catalogue. 

C. H. LINDEMANN, Agent, 

126 KEARNY ST., SAN FRANCISOO. 



Horse Liniment 

Is certainly the best preparation of Its 
kind In the market. Ranchers, Stock 
Raisers and Horse Owners of every 
description will tell you that It does 
good work every time. 



H. E. CARPENTER, 

Veterinary Surgeon, 

Graduate of Ontario Veterinary College, Toronto, Canada. 

RESIDENCE AND VETERINARY INFIRMARY: 
881 Oolden Gate Aveoue, San Francisco. 
Telephone S0«9. 
IS'OPKN U4V AND NIOHT. 
No risk In throwing Horses. Veterinary operating tahle 
on the premises. 



Ukshks. H. U. Hooai & Sons, Stockton, Cal.— Oiktls- 
■Kii: In answer to your inquiry, would etate that I used 
your B. H. H. Liniment on my Holland prize-winning 
cow, " Lena Ucnio," lor a wrenched shoulder, and it re- 
i lleved her very much. She calved the next day, and while 
I still suffering' from the sprain gave the largest authen- 
'■ ticatcd quantity ot milk ever given on this coast (10} 
I gallons per day), showing conclusively the great relief 
received from your remedy. I consider it a necessity in 
my stables, and when away from home feel perfectly 
safe, as inexperienced men can do no harm with it, as 
tliey can with the more powerful hllsiteni. Reppectfiilly 
yours, FRANK H. BUHKE, 

Breeder of Registered Holstelus and Berkshlres. 
Uenlo Park, Cal., January 22d, 1889. 



BAGS 



FRUIT 

AND 

GRAIN 

All Sizes and Kinds. 

CAL. BAG, TENT & AWNING CO., 

Ill Clay Street, San Francisco. 



A Steam 1 hreshing Outfit Complete 

In Good Ccniltion. For particulars address 
SOUNUT BROM. Manufacturers ot Boss TeelU 

aiOO P street, Sacramento. 



MANUrACrURED BY 

H. H. MOORE & SONS, 

THE DRUGGISTS, 

248 HAIN STRKET, STOCKTON, OAL. 



DR. A. E. BUZARD, 

VETERINARY SURGEON, 

Member ol the Royal College ol Veterinary Surgeons, 
London, Kngland. 
Qraduatbd Apkil 22, 187a 
AdTloe by Hail, ta. 

OFFICE AND PHARMACY : 

631 O'Farrell St.. cor. Hyde, San Francisco. 

Open Day and Night Telephone No. 209*. 



"DEAD LOCK" GOPHFR ^f,^;.''!,:':^^!::'; 

or«l p«rdos.deUT*red. L F. WHITKA80N,P<UB0iii^0sl 



MECHAM S FRITSCH, 

IMPORTKRS IND BRKKDXES OF 

Red Polled Cattle. 

We have 19 head of Imported Stock. 

YOUNG BULLS and CROSSBREDS ON DEVONS for Sale. 




Importer and Breeder of Shropshire Sheep. 

They were all imported from England In '8S, or bred 
direct trom Imported Stock, and all registered. 




Breeder of American Merino Sheep Wlth- 
ODt Horns. 

The only flock In the United States. When we bought 
our sheep Ea.t 20 years ago, among them was a ram with- 
out horns. He grew to be a Sue la-ge sheep, shearing at S 
years old, a 12 months' fleece, 86 lbs. of long while wooL 




I hare bred from him and his get ever since and have 
never made an out-cross and never used the same ram 
but one year on the sime flock. My rams at two yean 
old will weigh from ISO to 180 Ibn. , have a strong constl* 
tutlon, without wiinkles, and will shear on an average 
about 1h Ih'., a 12 m nths' fleece, of long whits wooL 
Rams and Ewes for asle. P.O. Addr.<RS, 

Stony Point, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

K. B. Station, Petalama. 



$100.00 Reward I 

If Browne's /A^f^ Squirrel 
Exterminator L^ia Fails to Eill, 



SEND FOR CIRCUURTO 

3I4&3I6 
S. Spring 
Street, 



F. E. Browne 
Lob Angeles, 
Oal. 




IT WILL SUIT YOU. 

MA nil I ■ f^OR FAY'S WATER. PROOF 

InAlllLLIl Uanilla Roofing, Siding, Oeillng, 

• •inisibkn Sheathing, &c., send 2c fur Illustrated 

l«/«M|>|a|M Calahgues and Samples. J. F. 

nllllrlNIl WVMAN, General Agent for Padflo 

MUUI II1U Coast, 304 Market St.. San Francisco. 



0-. XJ^r. 

BREK1>ER OK RfcUISIKRED 

■taorthora. A berdeea • Aasni J 
aad Jersey Csllle. 

Young Stock for 8aie. Oorreapondence I 

inlMt..? *i. W. DiMlf'if. Ilubbanl. MreceB. 



DBWBY 6t OO., PATBNT AQBNTS, 230 
Harksi St., SaoFnuiclseo. EleTatoi, U Fraal 81. 



July 4, 1891.] 



pACine I^URAlo PRESS. 



PodLjilYf Etc. 



TBI 

OLD WOMAN 

WHO 

Lived m a Slioe 

Haa made her for- 
tune in the 




To find out how abe did it send 8c in stamps for 80-page 
colored catalogue of Incubatora, Thoroughbred 
Poultry and Poultry appliaDces to the 

PACIFIC INCUBATOR CO., 

1S17 Caetro Street, Oakland, Oal. 



tiniTf (TDVUIPM WHOSE HE^S ARE BEGINNING 
rUULlll I luuW TO STOP LAYING. Fggs have ad 
va- CD'i from 1 5 cts to 30 eta. , and will Si> advance 
during then xt few months to 60 eta. per dozen Tho'e 
wiahirig eggs to sell at that price must ^e^in feeding WELL- 
INGTON'iJ IMc'ROV-D EGG FOOD liuuiedlatcly, 
now, at once. Don't get caught again. Your nrigh- 
bore, who alwuyn Ii»ve plenty of Kegg, never allow 
theu^ielves to be without this Improved Hgg Food 
(.Standard f ,r 13 yeara) and will use nu otber 
kind. Get of any Oroc*-r. Druggist or Merchant, 
or of Proprietor, 425 Washington St., San Franciaco. 

BALSTED-fNCDBATOR 

COMPANY, 
1S19 Mjrtle (Street, Oakland, Cal. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 



THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY. 






PATENT OWNERS OF 

NOBEL'S DYNAMITE, 
NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE, 
NOBEL'S GELATINE-DYNAMITE, 

Best and Stronpst Explosives in the World. 

As other makers {MITATE onr Giant Powder, ao do they JndBon, by Manofoetarlng 
a second-grade, inferior to Jndson. 
BANDMANN, NIELSEN A CO. General Agents, San Francisco. 



JUDSON POWDER, 

The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stamp and Bank BUsting. From 6 to 20 
ponnds blows any Stump, Tree or Root clear 
out of groand at leea cost than grabbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no otber, 



THE GARDEN CITY windmill. 



The Popular Windmill 

OF THE 

Santa Clara Valley, 
SIMPLE, DURABLE. 

AND 

SELF-BEQULATINQ, 

We manufacture the Steel Wheel with 
the Garden City Gearing if desired 

Towers, Tanlis and Frames (uroished. 
Estimates given and con.racts made at 
the lowest i^rice tor good work Address 

BUTE&STEPHENS. 

Contractors and Manufacturera, 

SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA, 




WETMORE BROTHERS. 

Commission Merchants. 

GREEN AND DRIED FRUIT, NUTS, 
PRODUCE, POULTRY, EGGS, 
HIDES, PELTS, EIC. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. PROMPT RETURNS. 
418. 416 & 417 Washlnston St., 

(P. O. Box 2099.) S/VN FRANCISCO. 



THE 
G- R, K A.T E S T 
'Ften Jk Ch (risen J.i<e Killer. 

Ask your dealer for it, or send for Free Circular to 

Petaluma Incubator Co., Petaluma, Cal. 

WORTH'S PATENT 

CointiiBed Screw aM Toggle Lever 

W1NE,CIDER AND OLIVE PRESS. 

Using two baskets go 
that while one In under 
the press the other can 
be emptied and filled 
ready to move under 
the press as aoon aa the 
first basket is pressed. 
First Premium awarded 
at all laira wherever 
exhibited. Parties de- 
siring a press combin- 
ing Power, Speed and 
ase to Handle, can 
see them at the leading 
wineries on the Pacific 
Coist. 

The folluwlug extracts from well known 
wiae-malierB are qaotationg from letters 
received by an: 

" Works In a moat satisfactory manner. We have 
lately used it In expressing aome olive oil, which work It 
did very per ectly."— SEWARD COLE, Colegrove, Los 
Angeles CjULty. 

" The oreFg purchased of you worked quite aatisfac' 
tory."-CdAS. J DUNZ. 

•' We hive used your wine press in our Orleans Vine' 
ya-ri, near Capay, in Volo County, in the manufactute of 
100,000 galljnj o( wine, and are ).>lia4ed, and inform jou 
that it h 8 given us the most gratify ing results."— AUPAD 
HARA^jZTtlY & Co., San Fr.iiicLco. 

" I lake pit a ure in saying that we recommend It 
b'ghly and do not believe there is a better press for elm 
plicity, durability and power in the m rket "— GLEN 
TERRY WINE CO., R. C. T>rry, M nager, Terry, tal. 

" We have used two of Worth's gripe elevators and 
they g ve us thorough satisftction in everv respect We 
believe them lo be the best in the market."— PAUL 0. 
BURNS WINE CO., San Jose. 



AKo Worth's Improved Grape Elevators, Improved 
Continuous Pressure Hydrauii,: Prestes, Worth's Patent 
Power Grare Stemmer and Crubher, Woith's Patent 
Ho se PuWtr, .ind all kinds of machine y forwine m^kera. 
Toe Large Toggle Lever and Screw Presa is capable of a 
preaaure of 2B6 tons '^r 300 pounds to the tqu re inch the 
tmall press b .s 36 tens or .40 pounds to the tquare inch 

■XAT. XX. "VTVOH-TH, 
Petaluma Foundry and Machine Works. 
P. O. Box 288, 
Petalnma, Sonoma County, Cal. 



WATER PIPE F0R_8ALE CHEAP. 

LAP-WELDED WROUGHT IRON TUBING, COUPLED WITH LEAD-LINED 
COUPLINGS, ASPHALTVM DIPPED, READY TO LAY, 

W have on band and can deliver with dispatch the following quantities of this form, v'z: 

10,000 FT. %" DIA. INS. | 100,000 FT. 2" DIA. INS. I 25,000 F r. 3'' DIA. INS. 
20.000 •• l'* " " 100 000 •' 2X" " 2.5.000 " 3^" " " 

100,000 " i%" " " I 26,000 " Z%" " '• I 20,000 " 3%" •' 

JOSHUA HENDY MACHINE WORKS, 

Nob. 39 TO 51 FREMONT STREET, 3 AN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

SHIPPING § COMMISSION HOUSE. 

OFFICE, 108 DAVIS STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Warebouee and Wharf at Port Oosta. 



CONSIGNMENTS OF GRAIN, WOOL, AND ALL KINDS OF PRODUCE SOLICITED. 

Money advanced on Oraln In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Fall Oareoea of Wheat famished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited, 

E. VAN EVERY, Manaarer. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 



P. &B, Fruit Papers 

(PATENTED.) 

ESPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR FRUIT DRYING. 

No need of expensive wooden trays. No need of turning fruit. Costs much less than any other method 

SAMPLES AND CIRCULARS FREE. 



PARAFFINS PAINT COMPANY, 

116 BATTERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



BEST TREE WASH. 

"Qreenbank" 98 degrees POWDERED CAUSTIC 
SOU A (testa 99 3 10 ler cent) recommended by the 
highest authorities in the Stata, Also Common Caustic 
Soda and Potaeh, etc., lor eale by 

T. W. JACKSON & CO., 
Mtnulacturers' Agents, 
104 Market 8.. and 8 Oallfornla St., S. F. 



APIARIAN SUFFI.IES. 
Italian Queens, $2.S0 each; Black Queens, SI each. 
Swarma from $2.60 each; Smoker, $1. Comb Founda. 
' Hod, si .St per pound; V-groove Sections, Si per 1000. 
Oomb Honey wholesale and retail; HIveg, etc. W. 
nXAM k soil, Tb* Bomwtead ApUry, Saa Malat.Oal. 



tUT AWAY HARROW 

^^^^ r-^flliii!i»i^:s«*P^ 



SUPERSEDES IHI PLOW 

Makes a 
P ERFECT SEED BED. 

Send for SPJECIAL CIXCULAR. 

mum MANUFACTURING CORP 




n ITinu SOLE Manufacturers miuuawuw, vunn. 
KA I lUn New York Office, 183 Water St. NEW YORIC 




MOORE, FERGUSON & CO., 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR 

—AMD— 

General Commission Merchants, 

810 Oallfornla St., S. F. 



Ifembeta of the San Frandaco Prodace Exchange 
SVPersonal attention given to Sales and LIbontI Ad. 
vanceo made on Consignments at low ratea of Intereit. 



IN ORnER TO CI.O0B OCT OVK KETAIL CARKIAGE BUSINESS 
in San Francisco, we will sell our lar^e stock on hand of first-class Cairlagea, Top 
Buggies, Phaetons, Four Spiing Wagons, Carts and Harness at Cost. Now is the time if 
you want to buy a good carriage cheap. Salesrooms, 220 and 222 Mlaalon St., San 
Franolaoo, Ual. 

BRIOeS CARRIAGE CO., C Crago, Agaat. 



DALTON BROS., 

Commission Mercl\ant& 

ABD DIALIR8 IN 

CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

Qreen and Dried PruitB, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Oonslgnments. 

308 ft 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. 0. Box 1936.1 
VCcnglgnments Solicited. 



ALLISON,GRAY&CO. 

601, 503, 505. 507 & 509 Front St., 
And 800 Washington St., SAN FRANOISOO. 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

GREEN and DRIED FRUITS. 

POULTRT,EOaS.OAIVIE,GRAIN,FRODUOE 
AND WOOL,. 



[KSTABLISHBS 1864.) 

GEORGE MORROW 4 CO., 

HAT and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

89 Olay Street and as'Oommercial Street 
Sah Frahoims, Cal, 
Mr SmPPING ORDERS A SPECiALTT.m 



Eusmn J. Grboort. [Established 1862.] Frakk GsiaOKT . 

GREGORY BROTHERS CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF 

CALIFORNIA FRUIT AND PRODUCE. 
126 and 128 J St., - Sacramento, Cal. 

San Franciaco OlBce, S13 Davia St. 



EVELETH ft NASH, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

And Dealers In Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Egga 
Hides, Pelte, TaUow, etc., 122 Front St., and 221, SIS, 
226 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 



WITTLAND ft FREDRICKSON, 

Commission Merchants, 

All Kinds of Green and Dried Frn!t«. 
Consignments Solicited. 324 DavIs St., S. F. 



Go to American Excbange Hotel. 




The above Hotel is situated in the mid-t of the Bank- 
ing and Commercia' boosts of the city, and is by far the 
most home-like an l desirable Hotel to stop at. 
OHAS. Bt WM. MONTOOMBRY, Prop'rs. 



J. P. HOUOHTON, President, J. L N. Bhkpard, Vice-Pres. 
CUAS JR. Btoby, Sec'y, R. H. Maqill, Gen. Ag't. 

Borne Motnal losnrance CompaDy, 

216 Sansome Street, San Franci>co. 

INCOKPORATED A. D. 1861. 

Losses Paid Since Organization «3,175,759 31 

Assets. January 1, 1891 867,513 IB 

Capital Paid Up in Gold 300.000 00 

NET SURPLUS o»er everything 278 901 10 



E NORA VINO — SUPBBIOB WOOD AND 
Metal Engraving, Electrotyping and Stereotyping 
dona at lha ofBea of fiiU papat. 



16 



f ACIFie I^URAId f ress. 



[July 4, 1891 



Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODOOB, BTO. 

San Franxisco. July i, 1891. 
The weather for from three to four days of the 
past week was exceptionally hot, which did great 
damage to fruit and garden truck besides leaving 
fields of uncut grain in such condition that a strong 
wind will thrash out the grain faster than can sev- 
eral of the best improved steam thrashers. The 
money market is fairly easy for the season of the 
year, and no serious friction is expected to obtain 
during crop moving. The bear contingent appears 
to be getting its work in well in the wheat markets 
of the world. The system of trading in futures 
allows moneyed syndicates to work the grain mar- 
kets as they wish. Wheat has been steadily fallmg 
at the East and abroad. The following is to-day's 
cablegram: 

Liverpool, July i.— Wheat— Downward ten- 
dency. California spot lots, 7s iid; off coast; 41s 6d; 
just shipped, 41s 6d; nearly due, 41s 6d; cargoes off 
coast, very slow; on passage, slow, Mark Lane 
wheat, slow; French country markets, rather easier; 
weather in England, showery. 

Forelen Grain Review. 

Lo.NDON, June 39. — Mark l^ne Express, says : 
English wheats are weak and prices show an aver- 
age decline of 6d. Foreign wheats are in large sup- 
ply; receipts of all kinds are very heavy and the 
markets had to dispose of 123,435 quarters of wheat 
and flour above the ordinary demand, and foreign 
wheats dropped is. Oregon is quoted at 42s 5d. 
and California on passage at 43s. Corn is firm; 
American is held for 25s gd. Oats and beans are 
steady. At to-day's matket foreign wheats were 
weak; California, 3d lower. Foreign, steady. 
Liverpool Wbeat Mar&eu 

The following are the closing prices paid for wheat 
optioDS per ctl. for the past week: 

June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct Nov. 

ThnmUy Bald Sslld SeS.! SeSid SsS^d .... 

rrtday Ssld Sold SsSjd SsSid .... 

Saturday Ssld Ssld 8s2d S^Sd SsSJ 

Monday Ssljtl Ssljd 882d .... 

Taeaday TslOJd TsUld 78ll}d bsOd 

The following are the prices lor California cargoes 
for off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
(he past week: 

O. C. P. 8. N. D. Ifarket 

Thursday OsBd 4S80d 4ae6d Qniet 

Friday 439Ud 4286d 4390d \ ery dull. 

baturday 4330d 4266d 4390d Neglected. 

Monday 43sOd 42s6J 43,-Od Very dull. 

Tueeday 42n6.1 42sOd 42661 Neglected. 

Baateru Qraiti Maraeca. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
at New York for the past week, per cental: 

Day. June. July, Aug Sept. Dec. Jan. 

Thur«d'ay 177J 172 1631 I61! 16oJ 

Friday 175J 170i 162i 161 163i 

liaturdav 173J 16^ 160J 160 162 

Monday 178| 183 161 J 160 163 

tnesday 167 161 159,1 I623 

The closing prices lor wheat havf ueen ai> follows 
at Chicago for the past week, per cental: 

Day. June. July. Sept. Dec. 

Tburmay 165 146 1495 

Friday 153 1445 147* 

Saturday 15 1 j 144 J 147 

Monday IBO 141.* 147 

Tnesday 149* 143i 148 

New York, luly i. — Wheat — 99%c for July, 
96HC for August, 9S5ic for Septeraljer, 97^40 for 
December, and $1.01 >4 for May. 

Chicago, [uly i.— Wheat— SgJ^c for July. 86Hc 
for Sfptember and Z^%<:. for December. 

Visible Supply of OralD. 

New York, June 29. — The visible supply of grain 
in store and afloat, as compiled by the New York 
Produce Exchange, is as follows: Wheat, 
13 599,000 bushels, a decrease of 1,058,000 bushels; 
corn. 3,851,000 bushels, a decrease ot 467,000; oats, 
3,666,000 bushels, a decrease of 362,000; barley. 
107,000 bushels, an increase of 18,000 
Crops In Prussia. 

Berlin, June 29.— The Reichsattzeiger, referring 
to the harvest prospects in Prussia.says that the yield 
of winter rye will be within i 10 i per cent of an 
average and the yield of winter wheat 65 per cent of 
an average, while the potato crop is uncertain. 
Bastern Wool Markets. 

New York, June 26. — Brads/reef s: The wool 
markets all report a quiet demand. Both domestic 
and loreign wools arc hard to move, though there is 
some free buying of Australians. Ohio and Michigan 
wools continue to decline and the market is in bad 
condition for the receipt of new wool from these 
States. It is said that the prices now being paid to 
growers are lower than those of last year. The mar- 
kets are wejl stocked with 1890 wool, which dealers 
seem unable to dispose of even at greatly reduced 
prices. California and Territories are only in fair 
demand. Both dealers and manufacturers still re- 
gard the prices asked for these wools in the West as 
too high. Almost all the wool now in the Eastern 
markets, or on the way. has been shipped on con- 
signment. 

New York, June 29.— The market opens slowly, 
fleeces more in buyers' favor. Unwashed wool holds 
merely the recent clever basis of figures, although 
popular marks Northern California, when marketed, 
are likely to realize firm quotations. Blanket sales 
satisfactory, but no orders for other goods of a stim- 
ulating tendency for the purchase of raw material. 

Boston, June 29. — Sales fell to 3000 foreign and 
1,542,000 domestic, including 232,000 California 
spring at 17@24C. The bulk of the receipts go to 
New England. Philadelphia, dull, bids low, with 
new receipts nearly motionless in the commission 
houses. 

Hops. 

New York, June 27. — The market is wholly un- 
changed. The business in hops does not appear to 
improve in the slightest. The sales to brewers run 
about the same as for several days past, and the 
crop reports offer nothing that tends to stimulate 
action. Some of the interior markets are a trifle 
weaker. 

New York, June 29. — Hops are very quiet, with- 
out change in any particular. Somewhat variable 
reports as to the condition of growing crops in vari- 
ous sections are still coming in, but in no instance 
do advices stimulate the action of local buyers, and 
t many uncut fields, besides causing an increased 



demand for hay. It now looks as if we will have 
brewers purchases are made in a perfunctory way.in- 
dicating that the crop news has little, if any, bearing 
in that quarter. 

BalslDS. 

New York, June 28.— Strictly sound, three 
crown and good layer raisins have a moderate sum- 
mer call. Other dried fruits apparently dead for the 
season. Remnants, however, are not heavy to 
operate against the new curings. 

New Bean Contracts. 

New York June 28.— Lima beans— Round lots 
of new taken at 3c, free on board on the coast. 
Oregon Hop Crop Notes. 

Salem. Oregon Statesman, June 19: E. Meeker, 
hop buyer with E. C. flerren, Salem hop merchant, 
made a tour of a number of the hop yards of Marion 
and Polk counties. They visited eleven yards in all 
and in every one of them they found the hop louse 
in abundance. There were from one to eight lice 
on every leaf, and they were in all stages of develop- 
ment, from the smallest louse to the full grown fly. 
Stopping at places along the road they made in- 
vestigation and found the leaves of plum, willow, 
oak, and maple trees to be covered with lice. They 
were also found on the hazel bushes, dog fennels 
and honeysuckles. They seem to be everywhere. 
However, the hop yards are looking well generally. 
The vines are making a vigorous growth and are 
healthy, with the exception of the pest mentioned. 
They think that by spraying at the proper time a 
good crop can be obtained. Mr. Meeker sprays his 
hops up to within a few days of picking time and 
says it does not injure the crop. He has ioo acres 
in hops, and uses a horse-power sprayer. The coal 
oil evaporates in two or three days and leaves the 
berry in as good condition as before. As the season 
advances it begins to look as if not a single hop yard 
in this section of the State would escape the ravages 
of this pest. Word came yesterday from a grower 
on Rock creek. Linn Co., that his yard was full of 
lice and his neighbors were all complaining. It is 
pretty certain no yard will escape. 

Local MarKeta. 



1891. 

Thursday.... {^•i««4 

1 h. 159} 
■\\. 



WHIUT. 

"Buyer Buyer 



Buyer 
Season , 



Friday... 

Saturday 

Monday .. -j j 

Tnenday \ ! 
'After August. 



159i 
168t 
157J 
lo7i 
156i 
1651 
154 



165 
166 



159 
159 
155t 
155} 



BAai<>T 

Buyer Season. Seller 1891. 



H. 



Thursday. . 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tneflriav . 
'After July. 



H. 

103} 

103 

102} 

1021 

. . . . 101} 
t After August. 



103J 
103 
102* 
102i 
1001 



Seller 
1891. 
154 
163? 
1531 
152? 
ISli 
161} 
161 
lliOi 
14» 
14^} 



Buyer 1891 
H. L 
tllO} tllO| 
tllOJ tl09| 
tl09| tlOSj 

tio9 na&i 
ti07} tioej 



BAGS — The market is quiet and easy at 6Ji@ 
j%c for standard-sized grain bags. 

BARLEY — Receipts up to Monday night were 
moderate, but yesterday nearly 2500 tons came to 
hand — the largest ever recorded. The crop is turn- 
ing out well. In futures, trading is light. The 
following are the reported sales on to-day's Call: 

Morning Session: Seller 1891 — 300 tons, $1.01. 
Buyer 1891, after August ist — 200 tons, $1.07^4 : 
IOO, $t.07V; 100. $1.07^; 100, $i.07K; IOO, 
%i.ojJi\ 200, $t.o8 ctl. Afternoon Session: 
Buyer 1891, after August ist — 100 tons, $108 
200, $i.o8H ^ ctl. 

BUTTER — Choice to gilt-edged in good condi- 
tion is wanted. The market is overstocked with 
consignments iu poor condition. 

CHEESE — The market is strong at an advance. 
There is a good demand, both local and shipping. 

EGGS — Hot weather has forced sales. Fresh laid 
are in light supply, but forced sales of other kinds 
press the market down. 

FLOUR — Another shading in prices is reported. 
The tendency is to still lower figures. 

WHEAT — The sample market has been slowly 
receding, chiefly under bear influences at home and 
abroad. Dealers are close observers of the weather. 
Many think that considerable of the grain will be 
shelled by winds. In futures, trading is light. The 
following are the reported sales on to-day's Call: 

Morning Session: Seller 1891—200 tons. Si. 49; 
IOO, $1.49}^: 100, $i.49K; IOO, %t.<i.o; 400, $i.49J4; 
IOO, $i.49X. Buyer 1891, after August I't — 100 
tons,$t.S4K; 200, $1.55}^; IOO, $1.56; 600, Si.ssK; 
700, $i.55M ^ ctl. Afternoon Session: Seller 
1891— IOO tons. $i.50H; 300. $t.5oK; 200, $1.50^; 
200, $i.5oK; too, $1.51; 600, ii.soji. Buyer 1891, 
after August ist— ioo tons, $1.56^ ; 200, $1.5654; 
30", $i.s6K: 200, $i.s6?<. Buyer season, after 
August 1st— IOO tons, $1.61; 100, $1.61^; 100, 
$1 61K; 300, $1.62 ^ ctl. 



Market Information. 

Produce Beceluts. 

Receipts of produce at this port for the week end- 
ing June 23, were as follows: 

Flour, qr. sks 52,457 Middlings, sks... 3,191 

Wheat, ctls 157,310 Alfalfa, " 

Rarley, ■' S3'S59 Chicory, bbls. . 15 

Rye " Broomcorn bdls 

Oats " 7,207 Hops, bis 

JCorn " 4.287 Wool, " 2,762 

•Butter " 1,099 Hay, tons 3.' 93 

do bxs 437 Straw " 66 

do bbls Wine, gals 228,600 

do kegs 139 Brandy, " 

do tubs 10 Raisins, bxs 150 

do M bxs 405 Honey, cs 78 

tCheese, ctls 981 Walnuts, sks 

do bxs 60 Flaxseed, " 

Eggs, doz 45, 140! Mustard, " . , 

do " Eastern. 72,870 Almonds " 91 

B°ans, ctls 688 Peanuts. " ... '. 242 

Potatoes, sks 27,140 Popcorn, " 

Onious, " 3.338. Beet sugar,bbls. . .... 

Bran, " 6,629 do do sks, 

Buckwheat" ■ 

*Overi'd 1046 ctls. tOveri'd 446 ctls. JOveri'd . . ctls. 
Cereals. 

European mail advices to June isth. report more 
favorable growing weather, but even with its con- 
tinuance the yield will not be an average in England 



while the stock of old wheat with farmers is virtually 
exhausted. The London Chamber of Agriculture 
Journal says: "From Vienna comes the news that 
the statement made by General von Caprivi that 
harvest prospects are generally satisfactory, is not 
borne out by the news that has been received here 
from the principle grain-producing countries of 
Europe. In Southern Russia the rain in March 
and April has had the effect of rotting the winter 
seed, while the constant drought that prevailed 
during last month seriously injured the crop in the 
northern districts of the empire. Accounts from 
Roumania are also unsatisfactory, an absolutely bad 
harvest being expected. Nt)r is the harvest in 
Austria-Hungary at all promising, and this country 
will be as little able as Russia and Roumania to ex- 
port corn this year. 

The local wheat market has sagged off to lower 
figures, under an inactive demand. This year is no 
exception to former years in lower prices ruling 
around harvest time. The difference this year is, 
that while prices have gone lower, they range from 
$4 to $5 a ton higher for shipping grades than at the 
like time in 1890. This is not the effect of McKin- 
ley's tariff, but of short crops abroad and a large 
supply of tonnage with us. The wheat shortage 
abroad is well illustrated in the columns of English 
financial papers on the probable movements of gold 
from Europe to the United States to pay for wheat. 
Money, published in London, says the French 
harvest is very short, while Germany, Spain and 
England will have less than in last year. All these 
countries, another London paper, the Statist, says 
will have to import over $250,000,000 worth of 
wheat. Although everything points to still better 
prices later on in this season, yet the more conserva- 
tive farmer is selling around $1.52}^ for No. i white 
shipping. They act on the principle that a bird in 
the hand is better than two behind the bush. Ex- 
port buyers and speculative operators are doing all 
they can to depress prices to as low figures as pos- 
sible. 

Advices from the interior report harvest under full 
headway. Hot weather the past week has reopened 
grain more rapidly than desired, causing fears of 
shelling in the event of strong winds coming up. 
As long as the air is quiet no danger is felt. The 
writer has seen fields of grain shelled out within two 
days by a strong, hot, north wind. Harvest returns 
coming in, taken as a whole, give a larger average 
outturn to the acre than was claimed. The grain is 
plumper and heavier. The grain this year is fully 
20 per cent better than was that of 1890. Oregon 
advices report the plant in Western Oregon growing 
rank, which does not look well for a large outturn 
to the acre. Warm weather is wanted. Eastern 
Oregon advices report good crop prospects, 
better than ever before. This is due to timely rains. 
The estimated increase this year over that of 1890 is 
6ao.ooo centals or 30,000 tons for both Eastern 
Oregon and Eastern Washington. 

Barley has sagged off some, under continued 
strong bear pressure. Advices from the interior re- 
port unusual quantities being fed to stock — 
largely ground or rolled. Receipts here are only 
fair with all coming to hand going into consump- 
tion. The crop in Eastern Oregon and Washing- 
ton is greatly improved with cool weather and rains. 



The quantity of breadstuSs on hand in the State June 
1st estimated by the Produce Exchange is as follows: 



r o 3 rt = o 



03 a: a no: as 

p se S> O p E 
S S 3 3 ^ .. 

r- 1» 1^ ? e c 



3' »" CCwOC^SO,^ 

* S o. 



3 6 C ^=3 C 



.Mas 
L o o 3 
' o 2. 
1 o =* ST 

' B =-§ 



J" - S.» ^ » s 

00-3 * ' ' 



"-o 



rs &» 

-a — 3 

. O 3 Q, 



Is??: V 



OS.: 



tt: 3- 
c ; £. 



; |s§; 

• Oo 3 . 



. 4 S - 

cc '<t- *c 'o 'ci *- "co c 



n Mjl* CO «_»' 



-J eo 10 _ oi 

O *■ W H- 1,1 «0 

Voo w "oB to 



2.882 

4,U.~. 
2.00: 
4,5-J-, 

2,690,260 
114.850 
1.620,600 


Q< I*. t^Ott~t CO 

35 oft»s_*.p 


a 


46,074 

61.085 
61,23.'. 
120 She 
119,245 
120,175 
62,095 
65,380 
42,400 
47,400 
31,160 


• * ^ CjO 

■ • • ^ w 

- ■ - CD 


El S8 
ED ^ 


46,682 

174 291 

39,603 
107,419 

60,416 
235,320 

33,675 
109,925 

74 406 
243,650 
103,700 


25.1111 

2,969 
18,418 


f 3 


• M ~J 00 S M w w ^ 

; -J S i« — 13 oa 3o ^© * 

'• « o>M w w'-i w'®"^ « 


26,116 
6,000 
6 

3,260 
600 

41,700 


Com, 
ctls. 


14,136 1 

37,160 i 
15,892 
66,640 
10,216 

7,040 
800 j 

4,350 

1,360 
44,650 

1,080 { 


100 

12,436 
1,600 

1 





Feedstuff. 

Ground feed is going into consumpticn quite 
rapidly, with rolled or ground barley in big demand. 
Hot davs the past week have cut down natural feed 
in all directions which will cause a larger demand 
for feedstuff. 

Heavy receipts of hay have not caused as decided 
a break in prices as many had expected. This is 
doubtless owing to extreme hot weather maturing 
another short supply. The outturn of alfalfa and 
clover will unquestionably be light, this is reflected 



in the higher prices now asked. In western Oregon 
the crop of all kinds of hay will be heavy, but the 
quality will be below the average. 

Uve-atocK. 

Hot weather interfered with butchers — many were 
heavy losers, owing to meat spoiling. The market 
is unchanged, and unless cooler weather sets in 
soon, spot stock will be lower, for slaughterers will 
not want to kill. 

The market for dressed cattle is quoted as fol- 
lows [to obtain the price on foot, take off from the 
price for stall-fed one-third to one-half, according to 
the nature of the feed and time fed; and for grass- 
fed take off the price from 40 to 60 per cent]: 

HOGS — On loot, light grain fed. 5M®S^c^Ib; 
dressed, — @— c }fi lb.; heavy. 5'.4@5Hc ^ Tb.; 
dressed. tb. Stock hogs, 45<®4Hc <fi Xb. 

BEEF— Stall fed. 6K@— c Ifi Vb. ; ^rass led. eitra, 
6@— c lb. ; first quality, sK@— c V It).: second 
quality 5@ — c ^ lb.; third quality, 4® — c if 
w. ; bulls and thin cows, 2@3c }fi tb. 

VEAL— Small, 6@7%c (?lb.; large, s@6Mc. 

MUTTON— Wethers, 7}<@8cVtb.; eweb, 7® 
7'Ac V lb.; spring lamb, 7ii@gc ^ lb. 

Fralts. 

Hot weather the past week cooked large quantities 
of currants, gooseberries, strawberries, and black- 
berries, besides getting to some extent its work in 
on tree fruit. In view of the damage to the berry 
crop the Cutting Fruit Packing Co. telegraphed 
on last Monday to points East withdrawing all sell- 
ing offers of canned berries. The company is also 
slow in accepting orders for canned stone fruit. The 
hot weather has done considerable damage to 
grapes. It is hard at this writing to estimate the 
loss. Many raisin dealers think that the pack will 
be considerably reduced. 

Fruits received so far in this week show the effects 
of hot weather. This causes strong selling which 
naturally affects the better keeping kinds. Fruits 
suitable for shipping are in demand, and fetch good 
prices but poor keepers are hard to place. Canners 
and buyers in general are paying from $2.50 to $5 a 
ton more for the t>etler grades ot fruits than quoted 
in our last weeks issue. Cherries are in light su|>- 
ply. Our local market for all kinds of fruit is 
very erratic, being governed largely by receipts and 
and its keeping quality. This makes it hard to quote 
correctly. 

An increased call is reported for limes and lemons, 
due to hot weather. 

Cantaloupe and watermelons begin to put in an 
appearance. 

in dried fruits, buyers are doing all they can to 
depress prices, but large driers do not appear dis- 
posed to sell except at about their asking prices. 
Quotations given out by buyers are unrehable, and 
not deserving attention. Sellers, having stock, can 
add slightly to the figures. It is feared that the hot 
wave will reduce the quantity that will be dried. 

Raisins have a firmer tone, indeed some of the 
better known packers are asking more money. It is 
feared that the hot weather will reduce the expected 
pack. 

The receipts of peaches, apples, and other tree 
fruit are small and scraggy and hard to sell. The 
effects of the heat is also seen. The berries received 
to day were more or less mushy, and had to be sold 
at the tiest prices obtainable. We noticed several 
consignments in which the fruit was overripe on one 
side and green on the other. 

Oranges are in overstock and hard to sell. 

Vesetables. 

Extreme hot weather the past week has burnt up 
considerable tender garden truck, particularly it is 
said vine-vegetation. Its full effects will hardly be 
seen for a few days yet. The markets continue to 
be well supplied with seasonable vegetables. Green 
corn, tomatoes, cucumbers, and squash are said to 
be badly damaged in several localities. 

Onions are firm at a slight advance for silver skin 
but are slow and lower tor red. The former are 
wanted for shipping. 

The receipts of potatoes continue large, as do the 
shipments overland. The overland shipments are 
unquestionably larger than ever before, which keep 
our market fairly well in hand. The hot wave, the 
past week, has done considerable injury to late 
planted potatoes. In Oregon the weather has been 
against a large planting this year. 

A tour to-day (Wednesday) among vegetable 
dealers showed the effects of the heat. Many con- 
signments of different kinds were not in marketable 
condition and had to be sold at the best figures ob- 
tainable. 

Ulscellaneous. 

From reliable advices up to July i, the following 
summary tonnage movement is compiled: 

On the way to 1891. 1890. 

San Francisco 321,565 246 05a 

San Diego 25,279 7.397 

San Pedro 9,228 10.078 

Oregon 29,275 28,068 

Puget Sound 29.361 41,363 

Totals. 414.708 332,960 

In port at 

San Francisco, disengaged 14,144 '3.560 

" " engaged for wheat. .. . 62,167 33,841 

San Diego 4,o6(5 "j 

San Pedro 2,009 !" '4.094 

Columbia River 9.848 J 

Puget Sound 

Totals 92.234 60,495 

To get the carrying capacity, add 65 per cent to 
the registered tons as given above. 

From I uly i, 1890, to June 25, 1891, the following 
are the exports from this port: 1891. 1890. 

Wheat, ctls 13,604,207 13,495,307 

F'lour, bbls '.'55.675 1,113.676 

Barley 259,192 959.847 

Poultry is weaker, with lower quotations lor some 
kinds. 

The honey crop is short. Receipts are light and 
market strong. 

In hops nothing is doing. There is no old, while 
both buyers and growers are waiting full crop in- 
formation before entering into new business. 

Wool is quiet, but holders express confidence in 
the future. They believe that with the fall trade 
better prices will obtain. 

Contracts for new crop beans have been made,, 
but at this writing it is not likely that sellers will be 
willing to duplicate sales, owing to reported dam- 
age in some sections to the growing crops. 



Jolt 4, 1891.] 



pACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 



PACIFIC COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[Furnished for publicfttiOD In this paper by officer In charge of bnnch Signal office, Division of the Pacific. 



a 
a 


Olympla. 


Portland. 


" 9 
g» 


P 


Temp.. 


o 
a 




5" 


Temp.. 


Wind.. 


a 

V 

cr 


<t 
is 








a 








2 


w. 


.00 


S4 


W 


Cy. 


.10 


66 


SW 


Cy. 


T... 


.00 


70 


w 


01. 


.00 


70 


S 


PO 


r... 


.CO 


7C 


w 


PC 


.00 


70 


N 


Cy. 


s... 


.00 


66 


w 


01. 


.00 


68 


N 


01. 


■»... 


.00 


72 


N 


01. 


.00 


76 


N 


01. 


H.. 


.00 


78 


N 


01. 


.00 


86 


N 




T.. 


.00 


76 


W 


01. 


.00 


82 


N 


OL 




.00 








.10 









Eareks. 



53 Kw 
68 Nw 



Bed BlQff. 



Sacramento. 



96jN 

lOONw 
104NW 



S.FranclBCO. 



Fresno. 



00 WNw| CI. 

001 86^ Nw OL 
93 Nw 

lOONw 
106'nw 



llO^Nw 
llOHw 



Keeler. 



.00 88 B 
.00 S4'SW 
.00 84] W 



83S E 



Loa Angeles. 



70 3W 
68 SW 



San Diego. 



66 SW 

I ^ 
66 SW 

68 W 

68 W 



Explanation. CI. for clear; Cy., cloudy; Fr.. fair; Cm., calm; 
of ralufall In the preceding 24 hours. T indicates trace of rainfall. 



— indicates too Email to measure. Temperature wind and weather at 5 P. M. (Pacific Standard time) with amount 
P C, partly cloudy. Kn., rain. X, missing. 



Domestio Prodnoe. 

Kxtra choice Id good packages fetch an advanoe on top 
qaotatlous, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 



qnocatlouB. 

BEANS AND PEAS. 

Bmo, ctl 2 50 @ 3 30 

Butter 2 70 @ 3 05 

Pea 3 00 ® 3 30 

Bed 2 60 @ 2 90 

Pink 2 20 ( 

Smsll White .. 2 95 ( 

Lima 2 20 I 

Fid Peas.hlkeye 1 70 

do grpen 1 50 

do Easteru do . , 2 50 

do Niiea 1 65 

8pUt 4i( 

BROOM CORN. 
Oh'cetoExtralOO 00 @U5 OO 
Fair to Good. .70 00 (<* 95 00 

Poor 50 00 (* 60 00 

CHICORY. 

OalUomla 5i@ 6 

Qerman 6 ^ 62 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC. Early Rose,Bks. 45 O 



Wkdnksday. July 1. 1891. 

NUTS -Jobbing. 
WalnuU. OaL lb 

do Ch'ce S ^ 

do paper shell 9 i 

do Chili 

Almonds, hd shl. 

Softahell 15 ( 

Paper shell... 

Brazil 

Pecans small. . . 

do large 

Peanuts 

Filberts 

Hickory 

Chestnuts 12 @ 

Piue 9 (<? 

ONIONS. 

Red 45 i3 

Silver Skin 80 (g 

POTATOEb 




BUTTBK 

C»L Poorto falr.lblS @ — 
do good to choice 17 

do Qiltedged... 22 @ — 

do Creamery rolls 22^@ - 

do Eastern 15 @ 18 

CHEI8K. 

Oti. choice mild 9i@ — 
do fail to good 8 — 
do gilt edged.. 101® — 
Young America lOjOT — 
N. York Cream. 13 @ - 

Western 12 @ — 

loos. 

Cal. ranch, doz. 20 @ 
do do sercted 22 C» — 
do. store 16 - 

Eastern 17 (« I'H 

FEED 

Bran, ton 21 50 (833 00 

Feedmeal 36 50 ^38 00 

Qr'd Barley 22 50 a — 

Ulddlings 24 OJ S26 0^ 

OU Oake Meal. . 25 <^ 'HV CO 
ManhattanFood ^100 lbs 7 50 

Wheat, per ton. 12' 00 g - 

do choice 14 00 @ — 

Wheat and Oatsll 50 mZ 00 

Wild OatK 10 00 @12 00 

Cultivated do. . — @ — 

Barley 9 00 @!2 60 

Alfalfa 10 00 (« 12 00 

Olover 13 00 (B 14 00 

Straw bale 65 @ 75 

FLOUR 
Extra, OityMiUs 5 00 (3 5 2? 
do Co 'try Mills 5 10 g 5 2.S 

Superline 3 50 ^ 4 10 

GRAIN. ETC 
Barley, feed, ctl 1 02.if - 

do Choice 1 10 

do Brewing, old 1 60 
do do Ch'oe.old 1 65 
dodoGiltedg," 1 70 

Buckwheat 1 25 

Com, White.... 2 10 
YeUow, large... 1 85 

do, small 1 87ii 

Oats, milling.... 1 85 

Surprise 1 SO 

Feed, Oboloe.... 1 65 

do good. 1 60 

do (air 1 55 

do Gray 1 60 

Rye 1 25 i 

'wlieat, milling. 

Qiltedged.... I GS ( 

do Choice 1 60 i 

do fair to good 1 55 i 
Shipping, oho'ce 1 53 1 

do good. 1 50 

do fahr 1 4r»i 



1 75 



Peerless 65 (t? 

Garnet ChiUes . . 70 »s 

New iu boxes are from 10 to 
35 cts higher thau lu sacks. 
POULTRY AND GA.ME. 

Hens, doz 5 00 @ 7 00 

Roosters.old.... 5 50 S 6 50 

do young 7 00 « 9 50 

Broilers, small 1 00 a ~ 
do large 4 00 ® 

Fryers 5 00 @ — 

DuckH 3 OO @ - 

Geese, pair 1 00 @ 

Gosliugs — @ 

Turkeys, Gobl^r. 17 & 
Turkeys, Hens.. 14 @ 

Pigeons 1 75 @ 

Rabbits, doi.... — @ 

Hare - @ 

EGG FOOD. 
Manhattau, ^ B> 12 @ 

PROVISIONS 
Oal.BacoD,he'vy,S> 9ig 
Medituu ... , 10 w 

Light IS m 

Lard 9 & 

Cal. Sm'k'd Bi>»f 
Hams, Cal sult'd 
do Eastern . . . 

SEEDS 



11 ( 
II ( 

13 I 



Alfalfa 




J 7 




Ill 


) 3 


Clover, Red 


4 












K 6 






2 50 ^ 


! 2 SO 




Hd 


J 4} 


Itall auRyeGraas 


10 « 


« 11 


Perennial — 




! 9 


Uiilet, German . 


\i 




do Common . . 


5 Q 




Mustard, yellow 2 40 « 


t 2 75 


do Brown .... 


2 50 ffl 2 75 




2 6 




Ky. Blue Grass. 


25 6 




Sweet y. Grass. 


76 6 






14 A 


; 16 


Hungarian.. . 


7K 


1 S 




»7ifi 


1 40 




7 ( 


t 8 


Timothy 


44ft 




TALLOW. 




[tendered, Bi. . . . 










1 i! 



WOOL -Spring, 1890. 



1 33),Humb't jcMeu'cino20 i 



jSac'to valley. ... 16 i 

1 75 iFree Mountain. 19 i 

1 70 8Joa<)uinTaUey 13 i 

1 65 do muuntalc. IS i 

— Oala'v ft F'th'U. 16 ^ 

— Or-^gou Eastern. 14 
J — do valley 21 

Sonora 1 45 @ 1 52i Bo'd Coast, det.. 11 i 

- ■ - - 13i^ 



HIDES. 
Drylghtto h'ry 104 g 

Salted big 

HOPS. 

Oregon, 1890 30 (8 

Cal 1890 Oboloe SO ® 
do Fair to Q'd 25 @ 



So'n Ooast. free 

HONEY. 

White Comb, lb li C<* 
do do lb frama 
White extract'd 
AmlKr do 
Beeswax, lb 



*Inside quotations ai*6 for new, and outside quotations 

are for old. 

Frnits and Vegetables. 

Oboloe aeleoted. In good packages, fetch an advance on the 

(laotations, while very poor grades sell lees than the lower 

qaotatloDS. Wednesday, July 1, 1891. 

Bananas, bunch 1 50 2 50 VEGETABLES. 

Limes, Hex ... . — @15 OO Okra. dry, tt). . . . 20(3 30 

Lemons, box. Parsnips, ctl 1 25 ® — 

do Riverside.. 4 00 @ 5 OO Peppers, dry, lb 12 # 30 

do LosAugeles 2 60 @ - do green 10 @ 17i 

do Sicily, bi.. S 00 @ 9 00 Turnips, ctL ... . 75 @ — 

Seedling Orauges* Beets, sk — (g 1 00 

do Riverside.. 2 00 (3 2 fO Cabbage, 100 tt* 50 @ — 

doLosAngeles 1 00 @ I 25 Carrots, sk 50 ® — 

Pineapples, doz 4 00 5 00 Garlic, tb 4 O 

Strawberries, Chest, Asparagus, bx. . 50" 

Choice to extra 12 00 (i!?15 00 do ex. choice 1 25 

do fair to good 3 00 (rf 8 03 Mushrooms, lb.. — 

Cherrles.rght bx 40 irf 80 do Choice — 

do do dark 40 (* 70 Celeo', j>er doz . 

do Eoyal Aune 75 (<? 1 00 Cauliflower, iidz 

B'spberries,chst 9 00 (rflS 00 Tomatoes, box. 

Currants, chest 3 00 (rf 5 00 S'm'rSquash bi. 

Apples, box.... 25 (<« 60 do Bay 

do Astrachau. . 75 «* I 00 Cucumbers, box 

do do choice... 1 10 C4 1 25 Rhubarb.bx.... 

Peaches, box.. . 50 (S 90 Peasgr ucomsk 

do basket 60 <9 1 00 do do sweet. 

Aprioots,Royal,bx.50 $ 75 String Beans, lb 3 

Plums, box — a? 1 00 dodo wax... 3 (* 

Blackber's.chest 4 00 @ 5 00 

do Choice 6 00 (<t 7 00 

Pears, Com. box SO @ 50 
Fi«s, black, box 1 00 S 1 2S 

do white do 60 (g 80 

*In quoting oranges, regular sizes are given, viz., from 112 
to 176 tor Navels, and 126 to 226 for seedlings; odd sizes 50 
cents to $1 $ box less. 




do Refugee.. — # 
Greeu Com, doi 71«9 
do Sweet 18 @ 



15 



l^et Us EInow 
If you fail to get this paper. We prefer to send 
missing Xos. Write soon and to the office direct. 
It is important that we ehould know when the 
paper miscarries. 



Rope. 

Baling, Duplex, tt> 8 

Manilla, tt) 12 

" " mixed 9J 

Twine, for hops, balls, tarred, lb, Manilla 10 

" " grape vine, balls, (b " 12 

" " " coils, tt) '* 12 

" spring, lb 15 

•' binder (650 ft. to tt>), tt) 134 

Duplex twine 3o per lb less. 

'"IN McFarling the well, and deservedly 
kno '■breeder of thorough strain poultry has 
remo *cfrom Oakland to Calistoga, Napa Co. In 
his np^i'ocation Mr, McFarling will have better 
oppo' jSl^ylo give more attention to raising thor- 
ougb M ^lock, which will draw to him additional 
busi M ,; '\n his chosen profession. 



FRENCH PRUNES 



TWO THOUSAND OR THREE THOUSAND FRENCH 
Prunes on Myrobolan Stock. Also French Prune 
and Apricot trees on Peach Stock. One year trees sile 
season. Will be sold at reasonable rates. Apply to 
ISAAC COLLINS, Harwards, Cal. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES, 

Established in in 1S53. 
For sale at reasonable rates, a general assortment of 
hardy Fruit Trees, grown without irrigation and free 
from scale bugs and other pests. 

BARTL8TT PEARS A SPECIALTY. 
Prices furnished on application. Address 

H. PEPPER, . Petaluma, Cal. 



■ i I V • • : ' I : MAN OR WOMAN 
Address. C. R. ORCUTT, Or.-utt, California, i 




TUIS COMPl.KTF. KIT OF TOOLK 
OTXly 

Send fv)r No ir> Dhistrated Catalogue. 

TRDMAll, HOOKER & CO., San Francisco. 



CARBOLINEUM AVENARItJS. 

Preservative Against Rotting, Decay, Fungus. Etc., of Wood and Stone. 
REMEDY AGAINST DAMP WALLS. PROOF AGAINST TEREDOES. 

WHAT WE GUARANTEK CARBOUNEUM AVENARIUS TO DO: 

1. To preserve any kind of Woud above or ander ground of water, and prolong its life at 
least one hundred per cent. 

2. To prevent moisture from penetrating into brick or stone walls and preserve them same 
aa wood. 

3. To keep off all sorts of Insects, Vermin, or other enemies or wood or objectionable and 
destrnctive agencies. 

4. To prevent Rits and Mice gnawing wood coated with Carbolinenm Avenarias. 

5. To disinfect barns, stables or residences and destroy Microbes. 

6. To force all moistnre out oi the wood without closing the pores, 

7. To prevent shingles coated with Carbolinenm from rotting, warping or cracking. 

S. To prevent Rope treated with Carbolinenm from rotting, causing it to remain pliable 
and pxcelline Tar C"ating. 

9. IMPORTANT ! — Teredoes will not attick Timber coated with Carbolinenm Aveoarius. 

10. It does not contain any acids nr otb^r poisonous ingredients injurious to fibers of wood, 

11. It is the cheapest and best Wood Preserver in the World, 

Ail the above statements are facts, and all our testimonials to that effect are genuine and 
indisputable. 

OARBOLINEUM WOOD-PRESERVINQ CO., 
MUECKE & CO., Pacific Coast Agents, 319 California St.. San Francisco, Cal. 




RUPTURE 

PERMANENTLY CURED. 

No Detention from Basinega. We refer you to 700 
patients in Colorado acd Six National Banks in Denver. 

Investigate our method. Written guarantee to absolutel.v cure 
all kinds ot KUPTCRE. of both sexes, without the use of KNIFE 
OR SYRINGE, no matter of how long standing. 

EXAMINATION FREE. 

THE 0. E. MILLER COMPANY. 

Rooms 2 and 3. northwest corner Fifth and Washington Streets, 
PORTLAND, OREGON. Entrance, Washington S:reet. 

Office hour-, 10 to 12 a. u., 2 to 3 and 7 to S p. M. Personal cor- 
respondence solicited. 



The Blue Ribbon Phaeton Body Cart, 

Has proved the best bailt, most popular 
and best selling low-priced Phaeton Cart 
ever designed. 

Seat is wide enough for two, with box for 
parcels. Body hai been lengthened, is 

se urely framed and strengthened l>y making the panels in one piece. Sarven 
wheels, steel axles, and curved dash. Finished in scirlet lake or brewster 
green. Has PATENT SPIRAL SPRING LAZY BACK. Shipped securely 
crated. Weight, 175 pounds. 

CDAMIf DDOTUCDC 33 & 35 main street, 
rnAlilV DnUlnLno, san francisco, cal. 




INSURANCE AGENCY. 



Butler k Mu 



413 Ca ifornia St., San Francisco. 



Phoenix Assorance Co. ofLoadon. 
AmericanFirelos.Co.ofNewYork. 



Policies Issued on 

GROWING CROPS, 

GRAIN IN WAREiOUSE, 

FARM BUILDINGS AND OTHER 
PROPERTY, 

In these Old and Reliable Companies. 



LOSSES PROMPTLY AND LIBERALLY 
ADJUSTED. 



Special Agent, HERBERT L. LOW. 



Antomatic Revolving 

FRUIT FITTER. 




For Peaches, Ploms, Prunes, Apricots, Etc. 

A SIMPtE, PRACTICAL MACHINE. 

The fruit is simply placed into the two cups »s the 
machine revolves and the pittin? is pertormtd automat- 
ically. QUICK, EFFECTUAL WORK AND LOTS OF IT. 
Well Made, Very Simple and Duiable Will save iti cost 
every day used. Sent cheaply by express. Order at 
leasi a sample. 

Price complete only |5.00. Address 

Q. G. WICKSON & CO., 

3 & 5 Front St., San Francisco. 

348 N. Main St., Los Angeles. 141 Front St., Portland. 




S. F. OFFICE, 29 STEUART ST. 




THE KRIEBEL ENGINE 

And Plain Vertical Boiler. 
Mounted on a Combined Baae. 

A very Cheap and Eoouomical 

Sngioe. 

Made of the very best material. 
2*3 HOBSFPOWBR. 
Write for Prices. 

TRUMAIV, HOOKER & CO., 

8AN FRANCISCO. 



Ditching Machine for Sale. 

If any farmer in Russian river or Santa Rosa vallev de- 
alree a DITCHINO MA£BD(E K a very low price let bin 
addreM S. K. O., P. 0. boc M17, Su Praodsw), 



18 



f AciFie i^uraid press. 



[Jolt 4, 1891 



The Next Advance in Telescope 
Making. 

Why, aska the Pall Mall Budget, is it bo 
difficult and expenaive to ooDstraoc an immenge 
tele»oope ? From the time of Galileo to that 
of Clark, steady work baa been done, and ekoh 
■tep has glTen us a larger object glass. The 
pupil of the eye is one- fifth of an inch in di- 
ameter, and can grasp but a limited amonnt of 
light. A 25'inch object glass will enable the 
eye to take in over 15,000 times more light, 
and with such a glass the moon can be seen as 
though it wern only 80 miles away; but if the 
■iz3 of the oljaot glass could be further in- 
oreaaed, the moon would be brought consider- 
ably ne«rer. To make a large object glass is 
the diffiaulty, and it is only after years of 
patient work of the most skilled men on earth 
and after repeated attempts that one can be 
produced which Is acourate. S igbt differences 
of specific gravity, changes of structure due to 
jtrring, strains resulting from unequal pressure 
and changes of temperature, are all oapabie of 
ruining the work. Some one who is anxious to 
anticipate events has asked: Why not replace 
the glass, which is only a medium transmitting 
light at a diffjrent velocity from air, by a prop- 
erly constructed electric fielii ? It is conceiva- 
ble that an electric field 50 feet in diameter 
oonld be arranged. Just what the nature of 
this field should be, with our present knowl- 
edge, we cannot say, but some day it will be 
known, and then the secrets of the other 
planets will be ours. Ether (^ays a technical 
paper) is now paramount with experimentalists; 
some day it will form the basis of all elsotrioai 
text books. We seem to be on the verge of 
discovering something really great in the world 
of ether. The early experiments of Faraday, 
the marvelous mathematical researches of Max- 
well, and the crowning experiments of Hertz, 
all tiiow the intimate relations which exist be- 
tween electricity and light. They have so en- 
tirely changed our views of science that it has 
been truly said that electricity has annexed the 
whole domain of optics. 

A NovKL Idba. — At L»wrenoeburg, Ind., a 
novel use was made of electricity in winding 
wires around a pretty woman who represented 
the Goddess of Liberty, and thus in lighting up 
a number of incandescent lamps disposed about 
her. The current was obtained from the street 
mains, and the (Sect elicited the most enthuei- 
aatio applause from the spectators. 



" Excuse me, George, but when I saw you a year ago, 
your face was covered with pimples; it eeems to be all 
right now." " Yes, sir, thal'i because I stuck to Atet'i 
Sarsaparllla, the greatest blood medicloe io the world. I 
was never so well in my life an I am now." 



Thb use of electricity in mines bids fair in 
five or six yaara to far exceed its use in elec- 
tric street railroading. Such ia the opinion of 
one of the best authorities on the eubj ct 

Impoitant to Farmers. 

Wa have $3 OOO.OCO in sums of $6000 up to loan on 
County Ranch Prorerly below market rates. If you 
desire a loan "r wish to renew one at lower rates, write 
OS the rate of Interest you are low raying and we will 
Immediately advl«e what amount we can save you. 
MERC'MII.E AGENCY & INVtSTMEST CO., 18 Post 
St., S. F. Will E. Fisher, Pres.; Eugone O. Davis, Vice- 
Pres.; Wm 8. Tevis, Tieas.; Alfred D. Hall., Seo'y. 



Thebe Is now bt'iDn bailt at the Thompson 
Houston Works in Lynn an electric freight 
locomotive, wbioh is to weigh ten tons and to 
be of 60'horse power. 



Newspaper Agents Wanted. 



Extra inducements will be offered for a 
few active canvassers who will give their 
whole attention (for a while at least) to so- 
liciting subscriptions and advertisements 
for this journal and other first-class popu- 
lar newspapers. Apply soon, or address 
this office, giving address, age, experienre 
and reference. Special inducements to old 
agents. 

Dewey & Co., Publishers, 

No. 220 Market St., S. F 



Representatives of the Haywards eleotrio 
road are securing subscrlptiocs from property 
owners along the route, and are meeting with 
success. 

Complimentary Sample*. 

Persona receiving this paper marked are re- 
qneated to examine its contents, terms of sub- 
aoription, and give it their own patronage, and 
as far as practicable aid in circulating the 
ioumal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription, 
paid in advance, 5 moe, $1; 10 mos., $2; 15 
mos., $3. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents, 
if ordered aoon enough. If already a anb- 
aorlber, please ohnw tSe paper to other*. 



$500,000 

To LOAN IN ANY AMOUNT AT THE VERY LOWEST 

market rate of interest on approved security in Farm- 
ing Lands. A. SCHULLER, Room 8, 430 Cali- 
fornia St.. San Frandscn. ** 



$3,250,000 

To LOAN ON MORTGAGE ON RANCHES AND CITY 

real estate below market rates. HOWE & KIM- 
BALL, 508 California St., S, F. *• 



FOR DYSPEPSIA, 

Ayer's Sarsaparilla 

Is ail effective remedy, as numerous testimo- 
nials conclusively prove. "For two years 
1 was a constant sufferer from dyspepsia 
and liver complaint. I doctored a long 
liino and the medicines prescribed. In nearly 
every case, only aggravated the disease. 
An apothecary advised me to use Ayer's 
Sarsaparilla. I did so, and was cured 
at a cost of §5. Since that time It has 
been my family medicine, and sickness has 
hecome a stranger to our household. I 
believe it to be the best medicine on earth." 
— P. F. McNulty, Hackman, 29 Summer st., 
Lowell, Mass. 

FOR DEBILITY, 

Ayer's Sarsaparilla 

Is a certain cure, when ttie complaint origi- 
nates in Inipoverislied blood. " I was a 
great sufferer from a low condition of the 
blood and general debility, becoming finally, 
so reduced that I was unfit for work. Noth- 
ing that I did for the complaint helped me 
so much as Ayer's Sarsaparilla, a few bottles 
of which restored me to health and strength, 
r take every oppoi tunity to recommend this 
medicine in similar cases." — C. Evick, 14 E. 
Main St., Chillicothe, Ohio. 

FOR ERUPTIONS 

And all disorders originating In impurity of 
the blood, such as boils, carbuncles, pimples, 
blotches, salt^rheum, scald-head, scrofulous 
sores, and the like, take only 

Ayer's Sarsaparilla 

PREPARED BY • 

DB. J. C. AYEB & CO., LoweU, Mass. 

Price $1 ; Bix liottlce, $5. Worth $.5 a bottle. 



THtGRfAfHEAnHURDlK. 

I'ju kaKe mjikes 6 gallons. 
Delicions, tparkling. and 
.-ippetizing. Sold by nil 
dealers. A A' ^v/Ja beautiful 
Picture Book and cariik 
B«Dtto any one nddressinp 
C. E. HIRES & CO.. 

Pbiladelpbia. 



To Exchange. 



A BF.ArTicrL Vineyard Homestead, 



For S'.n Francipco, Oak'an I or Alameda prop: rty, 40 
acres of good land one nnile from St. Helena, Napi Co., 
on road to Rural Heal h R. treat; 16 acres in vines of 
best varieties, In full bearing^, togelher with about 200 
fruit trees; three acres of nlfalfa; one acre cf garden; 
remainder of land suscepUble of cultivation, at present 
covered with timber; place well fen ed and cross fenced. 
New two-story house of eight rsoms and ilosets, hard 
fir.isbed. Good (tone cellar under all, 43x23 feet, fur- 
niehed with Rrst-clasig cooperage, capacity 14,000 gallons, 
and all the implements for making wine. A stone dairy; 
large two-sto y barn (new), and all necefsary farming 
implements; two wells of good water. A fine home. 
Price, J8,000. Address " FARMER," at this office, or 
G. M., Box 62, St. Helena, Nap^Co., Cal 




MAKES THE BEST BREAD. 



FRANCIS SMITH & CO., 

Uanufacturers of 

Sheet Iron and Steel 



ALL 

130 Beale Street, 



SIZES. 

San Francisco, Cal. 



Iron cut, punch ?d and formed, for making pipe ol 
ground. All kinds of Tools supplied (or making Pipe. 
Estimates given. Are prepared for coating all aires o( 
Pipe with a composition of Coal Tar and Asphaltum. 



PRICE'S HAY PRESSES 

Genuine Price Petaluma Press. 
Junior Monarch Hay Press. 

Hurricane (Size A) Hay Press. 
Wide West Hay Press. 



L. C. MOREHOUSE, San Leandro. 



California Ventilated Barre 



JS3Z 



IT IS LIG-HTER, STRONGER, MORE DURABLE AND BETTER 
VENTILATED THAN ANY OTHER BARREL. 



This engraving of the CALIFOR- 
NIA VENTILATED BARREL makes 
plain to the practical shipper its 
points of superiority over the com- 
mon barrel, which may be enumer- 
ated as follows: 

It welg;hs from five to seven 
pouDds less than the ordi- 
nary barrel, making a ma- 
terial saving In freight 
charges. 




It is the onlj thorooghlj' 
Tentilated barrel made, a 
▼erjr Important point. 

The heads are warranted 
not to come out In trantlt, 
and no liners are required. 

It Is stronger and more 
durable than any other bar- 
rel. 

Never varies In size, even 
to the extent of a qnart. 

— Ai/ioaxraBR tuiiKo rr — 



It costs less than one-half 
for trimming, and does not 
require an experienced hand 
to cooper it. 

It is Made of the Best Quality of Spruce, Woven Together with Copper Wire, 

And can be urniehed in any size desired. 



The Cheapest and Best 
Barrel on the 
Market. 



THE CALIFORNIA BARREL IS ADAPTED T-0 SHIPPING THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES: 



Apples, 
Oranges, 
Onions, 
Potatoes, 



Sweet Potatoes, 
Dried Meats, 
Bottied Goods, 



Glassware, 
Canvassed IWaats, 
Crocitery, 



And Vegelabies of Ail Descriptions. 



Eggs, 
Poultry, 
Walnuts, 
Almonds, 



A factory making these t arrets is now in operation In San Francisco, with a capacity of 4000 barrels a day. 
The success cf the b:irrel is almost unprecedented, and it is bound to become th» package in a very short time. 
EVKRY ONE USING IT 13 ENTHUSIASTIC IN ITS PRAISE. IT HASN'T A FAULT. When shippel in knock- 
down form, about 2600 barreU can he placed in a single car. £7" Special rates (iven on oar lots. WBITE FOR 
PRICES AND PARTICDLARF. 



California Ventilated Barrel Co. 



No. 403 MARKET STREET, - - - BAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 
FACTORY: N. W. Cor. Powell and Noith Point Streets, 

MERY $ IMPROVED^IONELR BARLETCRUSHER 

USING 

The Benoit Corrug;ated EoUers. 



STILL AT THE FRONT. 




This Ulll bss been In nse on this Coast for 1 years, 

TAKEN THE PREMIUM AT THE STATE FAIR 

Four years n succession, and has met with general favor, 
there now beicg 

Over 250 of them in use in California, Nevada and Oregon. 

It Is the m^st ecoaomloal and durable Feed Mill in use, 
am sole manufacturer of ihe Corrugated Roller Mill. The Mills are all 
ready to mount on wagons. 



Oraikland, Bdttb Co., Cal., June 9, 1S87. 
Mr. M L. MsRY— Dear Sir: We have used one No. 2 
Rol'er Barley Crusher now for fight years and have used 
it steady during that time; have crunhed 46 tons a day 
and the Crusher is as food to-(a.v a; when it came cut of 
vour fhop. I am satisfied that it is t^e best mill made. 
You may reconstruct this testimonial to the bet-t adv^n- 
t«ge for you and sign our nimes, fjr you cannot over- 
late the merits of your mill. F. E. REAM, 

JNO. P. SUTTON, 



Durham, May 21, 1887. 
Mr. M. L. MsRY— Dear Sir: In reply to jou'soflhs 
19th, would say that I cru hpd from two to two and a 
half tons per hour, but could crush three and a half tons 
it my • levators were lariie enouth to carry the barley 
fr m the m chine. The No. 1 machine I used at Oridley 
was run on a tack a mini te, but if we EOt behind we 
could run through five tons an hour and do gjcd work. 
The machine I use here is a No. 2. Yours, 

WM. M. TAYLOB. 



I thank tho 



public tor their kind patronago received thus far, and hope tor a continuance of the same. 

M. L. MERY. Chico Iron Works, Chico, Cal. 



33 I*J" 3Z> Ij E ie» !3 



GANDY THRESHER BELTS. 

IN THE! VA/ OH-ILsID. 

FRENCH & LINFORTH, 35 Beale St., San Francisco, 



SOLE AGKNTS PACIFIC COAST. 



DEWEY & CO. m^.\fi^^^^^ri>ii''-} PATENT AGENTS. 



Jdly 4, 1891.] 



pACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA, 
SAN FBANOISOO. GAL. 

Incorporated April, 1874. 




Aothorised Capital $1,000 000 

Capital paid np and Reserve Fand 800,000 
DlTldends paid to StockliolderB. . . 675,000 

OFFICERS. 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

Oeneral Banking. Deposits received, Qold and Silver. 
Bills of Exohangi bonght and sold. Loans on wheat and 
eoantry produce a specialty. 

January 1, 1891. A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 




OAisy wflGOH 
Write us for prices and full particulars. Address 

TRUMAN, HOOKKR St CO., 
SAN FRANCISCO.... and FRESNO 



"Neponset" Waterproof Paper. 

NKPONSET MILLS. 

T^^frfali lHlllj/f/fU 
guaranteed to / ' / ^,^,^4^4^^ 
bo absolutely / 
water proof,/ 
air-tight and 
odorless. 

For sheath- 
ing and lining 
of buildings; 
tor rooSog of 
factories, 
storehouses 
and farm 
buildings. 

They are 
entirely un- 
affected by 
beat, cold, 
snow or rain. 

"NEPONSET" SHEATHING (color black). 

NO. 1 "NEPONSET" ROPE ROOFING col terracotta). 

NO. 2 "NKPONSET" ROPE ROOFING fcolor terra cotta). 




These papers are In rolls 36 inihes wide, and they con- 
tain either 260 or SOO square feet per roll, anu weigh 
about 30 or 10 pounds per roll, respectively. 

DIMMICK & LOW, Agents, 

221 Front Street, - - San Francisco. Oal. 




PROTECT YOU TREES 

FROM SUNBURN, BORERS 
RABBITS, ETC., 

By Using the 

Pacific Tree Protector. 

Waterproof, Adjustable & Convenient. 

Saves Time, Trouble & Expense. 
No. 1 Tarred Felt, Vermin and Water- 
.-^ ■ proof, good for 8 yrs, 7x16, $2 ^ 100. 

No. 2 Patent Insect- proof. Heavy, 
7x16, Jl.BO per 100. 
No. 3 Patent Insect-proof. Light, 7x16. 91 per 100. 
Special Sizes made to order. Orders promptly filled by 

THE PACIFIC ROLL PAPER CO., 

so and 32 First Street, San Francisco, 

Also headquarters for Fay's Patent Hanlllo-Leather 
Roofing and Building Pancrs; Cheapest and Best In the 
Market. Send tor Samples. 




•seBIRDSELL 

ALFALFA 




GRADES ALL KINDS OF FRUIT— Oranges, Lemons, Limes, Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Apricots 
and Grapes. Also Potatoes. Onions and Walnuts. 

THESE GRADERS TOOK THE FIRST PREMIUM AT THE STATE FAIR OF 1890 overall competitors, and 
the Silver Medal at the Mechanics' Fair at San Francisco the last two years. They are home manufacture and lower 
priced than any otber grader In the market. Send for illustrated circular giving prices, capacity and testimonials. 

MOSHER, CHANDLER & CO., Manufacturers, 

216 FRONT STREET SAN FRANCISCO, OAL. 



THE HAMILTON FRUIT GRADER. 

CAN GRADE 60 TONS OR MORE PER DAY. 

WILL GRADE FRUIT ACCURATELY. 

Any Deiired Grade Made 

From No.l np to No. 7, 

Making Seven Different Sizes. 

Importer and Dealer in 

, Dipping Baskets, Field Cars, 




Transfer Ctb and 
Turn Tables. 

ALL SIZES MADE TO ORDER. 



O-No Churning of Fruit In 
my macblce. 



Address W. C. HAMILTON. Patentee and Manufacturer. 



SAN JOSE, CAL. 



T NGRAVINQ OOMPANY 

' Make the best of Photo-Engraving Re'ief 
\ Printing Plates, Fine Zincngraphs.Wood 
Engravings, Society and Business Seals, 



Negatives. Blue Piints, Photo-Lithosraphic Trans'ers, 
Mati; Lantf rn Slides and other Special Photograi hing, 
and nearly all kiods of Engravings. Our Photo-facsimile or 

HALF-TONE ENGRAVINGS 

By our New Secret Processes, are un3urp'is!ed by any 
otbere. Prices Uniformly Reasonable. Send tor Sample 
and Estimates. 220 Market St , San Francisco. 



EI. O. CLiOATVEIJS!, 

STOCKTON NURSERIES. 

600,000 ROOTED MUSCAT VINES 

Special Ibices on Lots of 60,000 or more. 

White Adriatic and San Pedro Pigs 

A Full Line o Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Palms, Roses & Small^Frnits. 

ESTABUSHED 1858. WRITE FOR CATALOGUE AND PRICE LIST. 

jS'tools.-toxa., — - — — — OAllfomlA.. 



WH Wnnn Sj rn commission merchants. 
I III ff I \J \J L/ \/U \j \J I I AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

CALIFORNIA FRUITS AND PRODUOE. 

ALFALFA SBBDjn? to 125 j street, 



A SPBOIALTY. 



SAORAMENTO. OAL. 




HULLER 



Thrashes, Hulls and CIcnns ALFALFA 
Seed, and delivers It In tha sack 
ready for market. 

It gets ALL THE SEED OUT 
of the Straw, and SAVES IT. 

and Is the only Machine on earth that does. 
Bend tor full description and price to 

BIRDSELL MFC. CO. 

SOUTH BEND, iND. 



THE VERY BEST & CHEAPEST PLOUB 



S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

Fre* Ooaob to and ft-om the Hoase. J. W. BBOKT'IR. Proorietor. 




PRIZE MhJDAL, OF CAL. S I'ATE PAIR, 15k>0 



mm 



ASK YOUR GROOER FOR IT. 
O. H. EVANS & CO. 

(Successors to THOMSON & EVANS), 

110 and lis Beale Street. 8. F. 

MACHINE WORKS, 
Steam Pumps, Steam Engines 

and aU kinds of MACHINERY, 

a 
m 
m 
■o 




DEWEY & CO. mi^vt^^rfiVF^ifi.^t^ } patent AGENTS. 



•^l^ Codiin Moth Destroyed. 

THISSELL'S 

NEW CODLIN MOTH TRAP 

Will entirely clean an orchard in two years. 
OBCHARD RIGHTS SOLD. Satisfaction 
guaranteed. Write to 

G. W. THISSELL, Winters, 

JiC^ YOLO COUNTY CALIFORNIA. 



The Armstrong Antomatic 

PORTABLE 

ENGINE and BOILER. 

, The Best, Lightest, Cheapest 

t^sW, ^^ '■'^ 'Vl^V. Engine in the world. Can be 
^2*iT w 7 ""ijf&K a"anged to Burn Wood, Coal, 
V ^' ' Viii^ Straw or Petroleum. B or 8 H. P. 

' ' Mounted on skids or on wheals. 

TRrHAN, HOOKER A CO.. Han rranclaco. 

RUPTURE AND PILES! 

We Positively CuitE all kinds of Rupture 
and Rectal DifleascH, no matter of how long 
•tandlng, in from 3(1 to 60 days, without the 

use of KNIFE, I>RAWINO BLOOD, Or DKTEN ■ 

HON FnoM Bi'siNES!'. Terojs: No Cure, 
no Pay; and no Pay duIII Cared. 

If afflicted, come and see us or send stamp for 
namphlet. Address: 

DBS. PORTERFIELD St LOBBY, 




8SP MnrlcBt atroKt. 



• San Franolaco 



JAMES M. HAVEN. THOMAS E. HAVEN, 

Notary Public 

HAVEN & HAVEN, 

ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELORS AT LAW, 

No. 580 California Street, 
Telephooe No. 1740. SAN FBANOISOO, OAL, 



20 



f ACIFie I^URAU, PRESS. 



[July 4, 1891 




JOS. WAGNER MFG. CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

FLOUR. FEED.CORN 



No story need be told ot the Cyclone or of the number that have bden sold, p ^ -""fin working in 

every Inhabited f art of the Pacific Slope whilst hundreds are exported every year. '"^tste I^t^ — 

The Cyclone mill Is not an experiment, but acknowledged by all who have used it to i)e i— v'Si*^ sj 
durable. mill on the markets ' 

It is simple in construction, has no cogs or complicated gearing to get out of order. lias only three principal 
bearings, heavily baVibited boxes and self oiling apartments. 

The wheel and vane ot the Cj clonc (which are the most durable parts of any solid wheel mill) are made strong 
and of well seasoned wood flnished with the best lead and oil which neither blister in the sun nor is consumed by rust 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue to 

Pacific Manufacturing Company, 

575 MISSION ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Manufacturers and Jobbers of Windmills, Pumps, Tanks, TUBULAR 
WELL TOOLS, Pipe, Fittings, Etc., Etc 



WASHING FREE! 



The best bargain ever offered in Washing Machines t:r Hotel use is the celebrated 




Which always sold for $10 and $12, but is now offered at 

$5.00 O^SZZ. 

It is a Western machine, controlled by a live man, who is not ready to admit that California must take a back 
seat In manufacturing. It is worth any three |5 Eastern machines. 

Bargains in every line for evi rybody. Shoes, 40 per cent reduction on reeular price?. Dress Fabrics at 5o, 8c, 
10c, 12^ ', and up'ard, that are worth almost, or quite, double Sfnd for samples anil find this true. 

Canned fruit from 91 per dozen up. Baisins from 4 cents per pound to 7 cents. Our Homo Circle mailed free, 
ask for it. ^^^^^^^^^^ 

SMITH'S CASH STORE, 

416-418 FRONT STREET. 



ti^ttL,mY, MAJ^X AND FafclD bULiLBB MILL. 



AND 

MEAL MACHINERY, 

ELEVATING 

AND 

CONVEYING 
SHAFTING, 

PULLEYS, BOXES, 
HANGERS, ETC. 

LEATHER, 
RUBBER 

AND COTTON 

BELTING. 

HILL AND ELEVATOR 

MACHINERY 

AND 



134 & 136 MAIN STREET. SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



SEED!! SEED!! 

THE FIRST AKRIVA1> THIS SEASON OF TAHITI 
Oranges just arrived ex " Courtney Ford " Those 
desirous of Chnice Tahiti Orange Seed can obtain same 
from this largo by communicating with the importers, 
L G. SRESOVICH & CO., San Kr. noisco. 



FRUIT AND RAISIN DRIER 

FOfL SI AIjU. 

ARRANGED FOR ROTH SUN AND ARTIFICIAL 
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Vol. XLII -No. 2. 



SAN PRANOISOO. SATURDAY, JULY 11, 1891. 



DEWEY & CO., PubliBhere. 
Office, 220 Market St. 



The Great Douglas Spruce. 



[Written for the Rural Press by Prof. 
J. G. Lemmon. I 

Chief of trees in point of nnm- 
bers, and one of the largest ootn> 
posing the great forest develop- 
ment of the Northwest, is the 
Donglas Spruoe, {paendotsuga tax- 
i/olia — Sargent). 

It is almost everywhere a com- 
ponent of this great forest in all 
its vast extent, from the shores 
of the Fdcific to the slopes of the 
Rooky Moantains, and from Brit- 
ish Columbia to central Mexico. 
The headquarters of this develop- 
ment — generated by the warm 
Japan current — is an elongated, 
moist region bordering the Puget 
sound and extending southwest to 
Cape Mendocino. 

In the larger part of this belt 
the Douglas Spruce forms almost 
exolnslve bodies of dense forest, 
the tall, straight, self-trimmed 
trees making depths of exceselve 
seclusion and gloom. 

Accessible only from the ocean 
through the few arms of Puget 
sound, with the Columbia and 
half a dozen other navigable 
rivers south of it, the Douglas 
Spruce was the first lumber tree 
to be reached and utilized — and so 
great has been the consumption, 
and so inexhaustible the supply, 
that no lumber Is more familiar to 
dealers than this found in our 
markets under the names of 
"Oregon Pine," "Yellow Fir," 
"Red Fir," "Douglas Spruce," 
etc., the last being the only ap- 
propriate name. 

When standing alone or on the 
edge of a forest it beoomes a 
beautiful, symmetrical cone of 
verdure, the lower limbs sweep- 
ing the ground and all of them In 
the season, bearing their imall, 
feathered cones pendent from the 
ends of the branohlete, on all 
sides — in the manner of all the 
rest of the spruce trees — but In 
the dense forest it trims itself 
and beoomes tall, straight and slender. 

The bark of the Douglas Spruce is variable, 
nsually dark and very thick, often light colored 
and only a few inches thick. 

The wood is also variable. Two principal 
kinds are distinguishable, designated by the 
prevailing color: one being yellowish and 
close grained, the other reddish and coarser 
grained. 

Experienced lumbermen say they can distin- 
guish the "Yellow Douglas" from the "Red " 
by the general appearance of the standing 
trees, but others declare that only the ox and 
sow will reveal these characters. The latter 
fact suggests that the phenomenon ii one of 
eonditiona rather than inheritance. 

The Douglas spruce is nsed for a great va- 
riety of purposes and in Tast quantities. For 
spars and ship timber, it has scarcely a su- 
perior anywhere. Square sticks 80 to 100 feet 
long may \)e seen any day, passing on rollers 




Douglas spruce is at its best also, 
as witness its enormous develop- 
ment in the noted groves of big 
trees in the Sierra, where it 
vies with them and the sugar 
pine in size. No other tree 
seems to have such pliability of 
constitution, such powers to over- 
come environment, any soil and 
oondition, any exposure almost, 
is welcome to this cosmopolitan 
tree, and this rare quality of 
adaptability to varied cooditions 
has been wisely utilized by culti. 
vators far and near, especially 
those interested in reforesting 
denuded regions of Europe. 

Large quantities of seed are col- 
lected annually and sent abroad, 
and the nurseries of many prov- 
inces devote their greatest care to 
the production of seedlings, while 
large areas of forest preserves 
have already been planted to 
Douglas Spruce. 

Principal of the Old-World 
conntriea intent npon enrichiog 
themselves by utilizing our 
spruce is Germany, and especially 
the Kingdom of Prussia. Second 
only to the Germans are the 
French, Belgians, Auetrlaos, 
SwisF, Italians and English, while 
great quantities of seed are ex- 
ported to our antipodes of Aus- 
tralia and New Zaaland. 

The Douglas Sfrnce has been 
most unfortunate in its botani- 
cal names, having borne a half- 
dczen different ones since its dis- 
covery by Capt. Vancouver in 
1797. The subject of the deter- 
mination of the right name for 
this tree is discussed in the lately 
issued third biennial report of the 
State Board of Forestry, com- 
mencing at page 133, to which in- 
terested readers are referred. 

Oakland, July 6, 1891. 



AN UPTURNED TREE OF DOUGLAS SPRUCE-P«<«rfo<8ttaa taxifolia. 



out of the many factories on the Puget Sound 
directly aboard vessels bound to foreign ports. 
Piles, bridge timber, mining timber, railway 
ties, flooring, weather-boarding, stair lumber — 
almost every conceivable use is made of this 
truly beneficent tree. 

No tree of the Northwest is wider or more 
thoroughly distributed than this. It is as 
though. the Japan Ku-ro Si-wa and the trade 
wind had especially created this tree to clothe 
the drenched shores and mountain tops of the 
West, while the pines, firs, redwoods, etc., are 
but incidentals, chance products of little mo- 
ment, and perhaps of transient duration. 

The Douglas spruce, but slightly changed in 
appearance or qualities, is found abundantly 
in British Oolumbia and on all the cross ranges 
reaching to the western slopes of the Rocky 
mountains, and on nearly all the ranges paral- 
leling the coast far into Mexico, the only con- 
sidertble region omitted being the Interior basin 



batween the Sieira Nevada and the Wasatch 
mountains. What is also remarkable is the ap- 
parent equal vigor and enormous dimeneions 
this tree attains whether near the sea-level in 
the coast mountains or on the Cordilleras, at 
elevations of 10,000 feet. 

In favorable localities, it becomes 200 to 300 
feet high and four to seven, often 8 to 12 in 
diameter. 

Near a famons lumber camp, in the vicinity 
of the sound, I secured a photograph of a 
monster upturned tree, caught midway between 
two of its fellows, and affording a lofty plat- 
form for the operations of the lumbermen, 
looking like figures among these mighty mon- 
archs. (See illustration.) 

A tree near Webber lake. Sierra county, 
Cal., at an elevation of 7620 feet, was 240 feet 
high, 9^ in diameter and 560 years old. 

Wherever any other trees are found flourish- 
ing best, no matter of what epeolet, there the 



Insect News. — In the last 
number of Imect Life, D. W. 
Coqnillett describes "a new 
scale insect from California " 
injurious to fruit trees, and fur- 
nishes a list of trees attacked by it. Notes 
oa the habits and early stages of an Austra- 
lian moth, written by the late Henry 
Edwards, affords a singular instance of change 
of habit. Twenty years and more ago it was 
only known as occurring on a species of aoaoia, 
called black wattle, but it must now be In- 
cluded among the insects most injurious to 
fruit trees in Australia. We shall refer at 
greater length to these subjects in a later issue 
of the Rdral. 



Special Pavilion foe Black Cattle. — The 
blaok cattle are to have special housing at the 
next State Fair at Sacramento. At the last 
meeting the State Board of Agriculture provid- 
ed for the construction of an elegant cattle pa- 
vilion for the use of the "black cattle," and will 
be aided by the owners of this class of live- 
stock, who desire to make special exhibit* In 
thls^department. 



22 



fACIFie f^URAL> PRESS, 



[JlLY 11, 1891 



Qo f^F^ESf O N D E N C E. 

OorreepoDdentfl ftre alone re^^ponsible for their opinioiu. 

Porterville Progress. 

Editobs Press: — To the person unused to the 
ma(;io-Iike transformation constantly made in 
California, the changes being wrought in var* 
ious sections of the Piioifio slope, are calculated 
to excite emotions which o»n hardly be ex- 
pressed by "wonderful !" " marvelous ! " The 
old timer, however, is apt to be free from any 
apparent emotion, when after an absence of a 
few years, he retarne to a place which he left 
wrapped in a kind of Rip Van Winkle sleep and 
^aia the touch of progress has been felt. Near- 
ly 40 years of life in this wonderland had, {I 
thought, rendered me as impervious to a sur- 
prise as a pachyderm to the bite of a gnat, but 
I came very nearly being betrayed Into an exhi- 
bition of astonishment when, after 10 years' 
absence, I rolled into Porteiville a few days 
ago. The straggliog, tnmbledown, ramshackle 
village of former years has disappeared, and on 
its site has suddenly grown a modern town, 
whose brick blocks, fine hotels, well-filled 
stores, busy shops, electric lights, depot, round 
house, and other necessities of our modern olv> 
ilizstion are as dlstiDct from the picture pre- 
sented a few years ago as a first-class Pitt's 
separator is distinct from a flill, Verily, Por- 
terville has waked up and has become a busy 
mart of trade, and all around in every direction 
where a dried-up, desert-like expanse of hill 
and plain fnrnished nesting territory for the 
jackrabbit and hatching ground for the grass- 
hopper, the eye meets the glad vision of living 
green and vivid color, where the orchard and 
vineyard wave their leaves and the variegated 
flower garden attests the home of taste and 
refiaement. And what has brought about this 
great transformation ? Two things, principally. 
The advent of the "iron horse " and the lib- 
eral application of water. A system of irriga- 
tion has been inaugurated over a large expanse 
of an apparently sterile country, and beautiful 
homes have taken the place of dry vacancy, 
The Tnle river furcishes an abundant supply of 
water to Irrigate a large section of very pro- 
ductive land as late as In July, and now al- 
falfa fields, orchards and vineyards are 
occupying ground once entirely devoted 
ed to grain. From Porterville to the 
vicinity of Woodville, along each side of the 
river; but, notably on the south side, hundreds 
of acres of new vineyards are being cultivated, 
and raisin-making is the coming industry. The 
packing-house will soon be a necessity, and not 
only that, but drying establishments will be 
needed, for not all the people are "gone" on 
the raisin business, but prunes, pears, peaches, 
apricots, plums, apples, and berries of various 
kinds will be grown in a few years on aores 
no longer expressed In hundreds. 

The land Is a rich sandy loam and the 
fervid sunshine during the summer months 
gives the rich fruit juices a flavor the superior 
to which is not found. 

Many years spent in the counties south of 
the Tehaohipl range have fostered in my mind 
the idea that the citrus region par-excellence 
was only to be found in the region contiguous 
to the " Cit^ of the Angels," but a visit to the 
vicinity of Porterville and Piano will convince 
any one, as it has me, thtt .fine oranges can be 
raised here; and there are thousands of aores of 
the best of orange land between Porterville and 
Tulare, and the Tule river furnishes an abund- 
ance of water for Its irrigation. Much of this 
land can now be bought at prices which must 
be considered low. 

Many broad acres of the plains are now gray 
with the ripened grain, and the header and 
the combined harvester are fast making a great 
spread of stubble fields. The crop within ten 
miles of the foothills is fair, in many places 
better than last year, though then there was 
more rain; but the exceptionally cool weather 
during May and so far this month has had the 
effect of giving the heads of grain ample time 
to fill, and the result is a much better crop 
than was anticipated in April, when some cold 
spells gave the grain a setback and the farmers 
the blues. W. 
Porterville, June 16th. 



Agricultural Jubilee and Banquet. 

Editors Press :— On the evening of June 
11th the students and faonlty of the Oollege of 
Agriculture at Cornell University, together 
with many former students and invited friends, 
participated In aa agricultural banquet and 
jubilee to celebrate the progress and achieve- 
meets of that InBtitutlon since its foundation 
nearly a quarter of a century ago. Everything 
had been made as distinctly agricultural as 
possible. Nearly the entire building known 
as Barnes' Hall was given over for the occasion. 
All the different departments connected with 
the Agricultoral College were represented by 
collections and appliances lUuatrative of the 
science taught. The table was in form of a 
horseshoe with a large shock of grain and cap- 
sheaf Id the center. The fire-plaoa was filled 
with potted plants, while over the mantel was 
the figure '91 skillfully formed from ears of 
corn set against a background of evergreens. 

After an address of welcome by Professor 
Roberts, in which he congratulated the mem- 
bars of the pooietv upon the recent munificent 
appropriation of (89,000 by the Trustees of t^e 



University for the erection of a new agricult- 
ural building demanded by the Increased growth 
of the various departments, the party adjourned 
to the bacquet hall. Here an elaborate menu 
was served. The distinctive feature of this 
was, that all the eatables, except the sugar, 
salt and spices, had been prepared for the 
caterer bv the students from material grown 
on the University farm. To illustrate how 
comprehensive the productions of a small farm 
of 250 acres may be made, even in this north- 
ern climate, the menu as served Is printed as 
follows : 

A/€'lll. 

Sparrow Soup [English nuisances]. 
Water Cress, Radishes, Sliced Tomatoes, 
Roast Pig, Currant Sauce, 

Roast Lamb, Mint Sauce, 
Asparagus on Toast, Rhubarb Sauce, Spinach, 

Potatoes [in absentia], 
Hulled Corn in Milk, 

Sirloin of Beef with Mushrooms, 
Frogs' Legs [from off the farm], Domestic Rabbit. 
Sliced Cucumbers, Goosberry Sauce, 
L.ettuce. Chicken Salad. 

Boiled Tongue of Beef, Lamb and Pig, 
Corned Beef, 
Horte Radish, Carrots, 
Mailed Eggs on Half Shell 
[Nitrogenous and Carbonaceous Fed. i 
Cottage Cheese, 
Wheat, Rye, Graham and Corn Bread, 
Jersey Butter, Honey, 
Floating Island, Strawberry Ice Cream. 

Charlotte Russe, 
Lady Fingers, Angel Food. 

Sponge Cake, 
L,emons, Oranges, Bananas, Figs, Strawberries, 
Wheat Coffee, Milk, Water. 

The menu card Itself was very unique. The 
front cover was from oak cut on the farm, and 
the back cover of hard pine used in the oon< 
struction of the buildings. It was bound to- 
gether by wool from a Shropshire on the Uni- 
versity farm, and ratiia used in the horticul- 
tural department. A large " A " formed from 
the silhouettes of the eight professors of agri- 
culture adorned one of its pages, and a long 
entitled "The Old Farm at Cornell," written 
especially for the occasion, another. 

Prof. L, H, Bailey, as toast master, read a 
letter of congratulation from Secretary Rusk; 
also from Edwin Willets, Assistant Secretary 
of Agriculture. 

The following toasts were called for and 
responded to: 

Training and P'arming, Hon. A. D. White, Ex- 
President of the University; The University and the 
Farmer, Pres C. K. Adams; Our Early Prob- 
lems, Dr. G. C. Caldwell Profe«sor of Agricultural 
Chemistry; My M'-asure of an Education, W. Jud- 
son Smith, Secretary State Agricultural Society; 
What Shall I Do With My Education, J. Van 
Wagenen. Jr. ; The Agricultural Association, Pres. 
Chas.,H. Royce; Memories of the Farm, Hon. O. 
B. Potter. President State Agricultural Society. 

The lateness of the honr demanded the ab- 
breviation of the toast list. 9rof. Roberta then 
gave a parting address to the graduating class, 
and the jubilee was at an end. 

S. D Maynard, C. U., 91. 

Jlhaca N Y 



Allessandro Notes. 

Editors Press:— The warm weather has come 
at last, and it has coine good. - Harvesting Is 
nearly over here. Hay was a light crop and 
the demand has been good for It, much being 
sold from the field at twelve dollars a load 
loose and fifteen dollars per ton baled. Thrash- 
ing is going on near San Jacinto, and I am told 
that barley is selling there at one dollar per 
cental. 

The grasshoppers have done much damage to 
trees and vines, and are now eating the oorn. 
There are more of them than we have ever seen 
here before. The pipe is being laid aa 
fast as it csn be got on the ground, for the 
head ditch leading through Allessandro to Per- 
rie. The water is running in open ditches to 
the settlers on the plains so they can Irrigate 
their trees. Many miles of ditch are dag and 
waiting for the pipe to be hauled and laid. 

Much dry plowing will be done this summer 
so as to get the grain In early, as it is found 
that the early grain is the crop that pays. 
Potatoes are a drug in the market this year. 
So it goes. Next year there will be only a few 
planted and they will be high again. Every- 
body will want grain next year, for it has been 
high and will probably be high again this sum 
mer, especially after it passes out of the far- 
mer's hands. 

L. S. Lyman. 
Allessandro, San Diego County. 



Cheese Making in a Mountain Valley. 

Editors Press:— I was quite Interested in 
the initrnctive article on cheese making in the 
RoRAL Press of June 20th, and it occurred to 
me that you in the lowei^ valleys do not have 
much idea of what we in this mountain region 
are doing. I have done better than the party 
alluded to in this article as "The barn man." 

I am milking 23 grade Durham cows. Two 
of them are small two-year-old heifers and one 
of the others Is so lama that it is painful for 
her to walk, 

I do not know whether the figures are foV 
the cheese as it comes from the press or after it 



is oured. My best seven conseontive day's 
work this season are 6S4J pounds cheese, 
weiehed as it is taken from the press — about 
3.62^ pounds a day per cow. 

Allowing a shrinkage of 12^ per cent In car- 
ing and I will have about 3^ pounds of cured 
cheese for each cow per day, against say 2.36 
pounds made by the "barn man." 

Now, when we consider that these cows are 
feeding in a sagebrush pasture that could not 
be sold for over §4 per acre; that they were fed 
last winter on straw and hay eat from land 
worth not to exceed $5 or $6 per acre, and that 
our cheese brings here at least the cost of 
freight from Sin Francisco more than could be 
realized for it in the lower valleys, you will see 
that we In this mountain region have some ad- 
vantages over that part of the State where the 
climate is milder. 

I was taught to make cheese by a Wisconsin 
oheese-maker, and I have always, after cutting 
the curd, raised the temperature to 98 degrees 
Fahrenheit, and all my reading on the subject 
prior to this article has given the same direo- 
tions. Bat this writer speaks of raising it 
from four to eight degrees higher, I should l>e 
afraid that this would have a tendency to make 
a dry, crumbly cheese. 

Will some competent cheese-maker tell me, 
through your columns, just what difference the 
altitude should make in regard to cooking the 
curd, this valley being about 5000 feet above 
the sea ? 

I have been making cheese here for II years; 
am milking fewer cows and making cheese on a 
smaller ecale than the dairies in the lower val- 
leys, but doing most of the work myself; have 
no cause to be other than satisfied with my 
success, I always read anything I see In re- 
gard to cheese-making, and have obtained a 
good deal of instruction from your valuable 
paper. William Arms. 

BeekivUh, Plumai Co., Cal. 

[We are very glad to have this communica- 
tion, and shall be pleased also to hare the 
practical points iuTolved discassed by oar 
cheese-mikine readers. — Eds. Press.] 

Eastern Experiments with Dairy 
Feeds. 

We have received advance sheets from the 
Annual Report of the Pennsylvania State Col- 
lege Experiment Station for 1890 which give 
interesting conclusions from trials of certain 
foods for dairy cows. 

Comparison of Cora SUagre and Corn 
Fodder for MUch Cows. 

In this experiment two oows were fed during 
four periods. In all the periods the grain ra- 
tion was the same, namely, 7^ pounds of bran 
and 2^ pounds of cottonseed meal for each cow 
per day. 

The milk of each cow was weighed and 
sampled dally. Its percentage of fat was de 
termined every day and the percentage of total 
solids frequently. As the result of averaging 
the two periods npon oorn fodder and the two 
upon silage, the following general conclusions 
were arrived at: 

1. As regards the total amount of milk pro- 
duced: More milk was produced by the silage 
ration than by the fodder ration. The milk 
produced by the silage ration was more watery 
than that produced by the fodder ration, so 
that slightly more bntter.fat was produced by 
both oows and slightly more total solids by one 
cow upon the fodder ration than npon the 
silage ration. 

2. As regard' the milk produced per pound 
of food eaten: Pound for pound of dry matter 
eaten, more milk and more milk solids were 
produced by both oows, and more fat by one 
cow, on the silage ration than on the fodder 
ration. Pound for pound of digestible matter 
eaten, both cows produced less milk solids and 
milk fat, and one cow produced less total milk, 
on the silage ration than on the fodder ration. 
The greater efficiency of the dry matter of the 
silage ration was due the greater digestibility 
of the silage. The greater yield of total milk 
per pound of digestible matter of the silage 
ration was due to the fact that the milk was 
more watery. 

3. As regards the effect on the live weight: 
The experiment failed to show any material ad- 
vantage on the side of either the silage ration 
or the fodder ration when silage and fodder 
were fed In corresponding quantities, other 
than that arising from a slightly greater di- 
gestibility of the silage as compared with the 
poorly cared oorn fodder used. 

Comparison of Corn Silage and Boots for 
.Milch Cows. 
In this experiment it was the purpose to 
compare the feeding value of corn silage with 
that of roots In substantially the same manner 
as with that of cured fodder In the two previous 
experiments, viz., by feeding quantitirs of each 
containing equal amounts of dry matter. * The 
supply of roots was unfortunately small and 
the period during which they were fed had 
therefore to be made short. The conclusions 
drawn from this one trial are aa follows: 

1. The live weight of the oows did not ma- 
terially change, but there was a decided varia- 
tion in the amount of food eaten daily when 
the two were on silage. 

2. More and richer milk was obtained from 
both animals while roots were fed, but at the 
same time a larger amount of digestible food 
was eaten. 

3. It took 0.20 to 0.33 poands more digest- 



ible matter to produce one pound of milk solids 
and from 0.068 to I 94 pounds more to prodnoe 
one pound of milk fat during the period when 
roots were fed ttian In the periods when silage 
was fed. 

Shorthorns and the State Fair 
Milking Trials. 

We find the following in the Chicago Breeder* 
Gazelle of June 10th by a well known Califor- 
nia breeder and dairyman whose name is ap- 
pended: 

On page 30, Circular No. 5 of the American Short- 
horn Breeders' Association, is the fo. lowing: 

Laurel Duke 103986. bred by J. A. Brewer, Irving- 
ton, Cal., owned by Albert Horner, Honolulu, 
Sandwich Islands, was the first Short-horn exported 
there, so far as we know, from the United States. 

On the 18 :h of August, 1879, I shipped to 
Honolulu two Short horn bull calves, bred by W. 
L. O^erhiser of Stockton, C '1., and a heifer calf, 
Lady Mary, br^d by Jones & Hagan, San Jo»e, 
got by Oxford D ike 27386, dam Leopardess 9 h 
(Vol. XV, page 688), by Master Maynard 14881, 
etc. So far as 1 know these were the first 
Short-horns shipped from California to Hono- 
lulu, but none of the three were recorded in 
the herd book. 

On the 6th of December, 1880, I shipped to 
Hon. L MoCully of Honolulu the Short horn 
bull Chilton Prince 9762, S.-H. R . and the bull 
calf Fletcher's Dake, by imp, Kirklevlneton 
Duke 21 35942, dim Fletcher (Vol. XXVII, 
page 365). The next shipment made bv me 
was on the 29 h of December 1881, to Z. 8. 
Spaalding of Honolulu, to whom I sent three 
Short-horn balls, viz. : Gen. Gi'field, by Imp. 
Grand Prinoo of Lfghtburna 39184, dam Gar- 
land (Vol. XXVIL page 367); B aconsfield, by 
Oran'i Prlnc- of Lightburn 39184, dam Frantic 
6 ;h (Vol. XXVII, page 499). and Watchman, 
bv Waterman 42035, dam Frantio 10th (Vol. 
XXVII, page 366). Since that time I have ex- 
ported other Siort-horn bulls to the Hswailin 
Islands, the last one'belne Grand Oake 2d 86- 
798. shipped June 22, 1889, to Hon. A. F, Jndd 
of Honolnla. 

I sold bulls for export to Mexico as early as 
1873, since which time I have sold a good many 
to go to that country, also to Central America, 
Japan, British Columbia, the States of Wash- 
ington, Oregon, Nevada, Arizona and New 
Mexico, as well as to almost everv county in 
California, from Dal Norte in the North to San 
Bdrnardino and San Diego in the Smth. 

On page 14 of the circular California is 
named as one of the States in which the associa- 
tions dairy premium's were not awarded. 

There were six cows entered at the California 
S':ate Fair to compete for said premiums, viz,: 
Oae cow belonging to Hellbron Bros., three to 
Mr. P. Peterson and two of my own. The milk 
from Mr. Peterson's oows was weighed on four 
consecutive days and that from my own oows 
for seven days. The Hellbron Bios, cow was 
not milked for the test. 

My oows gave the most milk and so far as I 
can judge under the circumstances, did fully as 
well as any Short-horn cows reported as receiv- 
ing the association's premiums at the diff rent 
State fairs. The ciws I exhibited were White 
Maid. V"!. XXVII, p. 369, and Biden Raby, 
Vol. XXXVl, yellow, red and white, by Baron 
of St. L»wr»no<> 37610, dam Fawsly Garland 
26th. Vol. XXVIII p. 376. I hold the Califor- 
nia State Society's certificates for the following 
weight of milk given by each cow for the seven 
days beginning on the morning of S >Dt. 13, 1890, 
and ending on the evening of the 19 :h. White 
Maid had her last calf on the S' h ol Jane, eight 
weeks before dne, and gave 210 lbs. 12 cz. of 
milk an average of over 30 lbs. a day for the 
seven days, B tden Raby had her last calf on 
the 21 of July and gave 283 lbs. 12 oz. In the 
same time, being an average of 40A lbs. a day 
for the seven days. 

These cnws were put in the car on the fore- 
noon of Wednesday and arrived at the fair 
erounds on the afternoon of Thursday. On 
Saturday morning the milking trials began, 
which left very little time for the oows to re- 
cuperate after their long and tedious journey. 
Had they been on the grounds a few days 
earlier they would have eiven more milk. 
Biden Ruby Increased from 38 lbs. 14 cz on the 
first day to 44 lbs, of milk on the fifth day of 
the trial, and White Maid from 28 lbs. 4 oz, to 
31 lbs. 8 oz. on the fifth day. These cows were 
taken to the fair without any previous prepara- 
tion, which was in a certain sense an injustloe 
to them. 

So far as I know no explanation has been 
given either by the superintendent of the cattle 
department or the Board of Directors of the 
California State Agricultural Society as to why 
no premiums were awarded in the class of five 
oows milked for the American Short-horn 
Breeders' Asioolations premiums. The reason 
could have been for lack of merit In either one 
of the cows. Probably the most charitable 
construction that can be put upon the matter 
is that the superintendent forgot it, as upon in- 
quiry beforehand he told me that the awards 
would be to the cows giving the greatest ' 
weight of milk. As I understand it it was 
clearly his duty to inake a report npon the 
merits of the class, 

I see that the dairy prizes for I89I are cffered 
subject to a two days' butter test, which will 
be the means of getting at a more uniform com- 
parison between the oows tested In the differ- 
ent States. Could the assoclatiou not have gone 
a little further and offered a sweepstakes prem- 
ium for the Short horn oow giving the most 



JOLY 11, 1891.] 



f ACIFie F^URAlo f RESS. 



23 



batter at »Dy fair In any State where the oon- 
dltions are oomplled with. 

I do not know whether the California State 
Fair will accept the con(iitiona and print them 
in their premiam liat aa last year or not. All 
being well I shall have eonie cows in order for 
milking If given a little previous preparation 
better than at the last State Fair. Without 
some assarance of better management than 
before it is hardly likely that any of ns will go 
to the expense and trouble we had last year for 
the benefit of sabmitting to SDch another 
fiasco. — RoBT. AsHBURNER, Baden Station, Gal. 
From the Secretary of the American Short- 
Horn Breeders' Association. 

The following letter received since the publi- 
oation of the above, is of interest in this con- 
nection: 

Chicago, III., June 17, 1891. 

Robert AsMiirner, Esq., Baden Station, Cali- 
fornia— Sik: In the issue of the Breed- 
ers Gazette of June loth, you have a very interest- 
ing communication in regard to Shorthorns that 
have b^en exported. Permit me to thank you for 
the communication as it furnished information that 
we had no opportunity of obtaining through the 
public records heretofore published. 

The pedigree of " Laurel Duke 1039986" was 
furnished us as we published it, which was the clew 
to the exportation. 

I think I had the honor of sending the first Short- 
horns that were ever exported to Japan. Jan. 10, 
1872, I sold to A. D. Capron, purchasing agent to 
the Government of Japan, one bull and three 
heifers. A few years ago I mentioned the fact to 
the professor cf the agricultural college at Lansing, 
Michigan, and a short time thereafter one of the 
Japanese students that was attending the school 
there came and I gave him the pedigrees which he 
took back with him to Japan— I have never heard 
anything about how the cattle did there. 

You refer to the fact that no prizes were awarded 
to Shorthorn cows exhibited for the dairy prizes 
offered by this association at the California State 
Fair last year. That was no fault of ours; we never 
received reports to justify us in making the award, 
and I think you have solved the mystery; that the 
superintendent forgot to report. 

I di not know why the prizes should not be com- 
peted for this year, and hope that California breed- 
ers will compete for them. You can rest assured 
that this association will take pleasure in paying 
prizes that are properly awarded. The California 
State Fair has accepted our offer, and will publish 
the same in their premium list. 

I will make a note of your communication in re- 
gard to exportation of Shorthorns, and give a no- 
tice of the same in our next annual circular. 1 will 
thank you for any information concerning exporta- 
tions from the Pacific Coast at any time. Yours 
truly, etc.. J. H. Pickrell, Secretary. 

Chicago, III., June ij, ISgi. 

State Fair Awards of 1891. 

We find in the pamphlet isaued by the S'^ate 
Board of Agrionltnre for the State Fair of 1891, 
the following announcement under the head of 
Darhama: 

DAIRY PRIZES FOR 1891. 
Offered by American Shorthorn Breeders' 
Association. 
Prizes to encourage dairy qualities in Shorthorns; 
For the cow three years o'd and over mak- 
ing the most butter in a two days' test 

on the Fair grounds $100 00 

Second ditto 5° °° 

conditions. 
First — That she must be a characteristic Short- 
horn cow in form and color, whose pedigree has 
already been recorded, or accepted for record in the 
American Herd Book. 

Second— T\i3,i Shorthorns be committed to con- 
test for sweepstake premiums with other dairy 
breeds. 

Third— IbAi the competition be limited to the 
State in which the prize is offered. 

Fourth— Tha.'i if, in the opinion of the committee, 
the result be unworthy, no premium shall be 
awarded. 

Fifth -That these requirements be printed in the 
prize list. 



JE^ORTICULTURE. 



Apricot Disease— Leaf Aphis. 

Editors Press : — If yon will kindly permit, 
I ahauld be pleased to occupy a little space in 
the next issue of the Press, I am having 
aome trouble with my orchard thia year. Our 
country cousins would probably not call it an 
orchard, but it is large enough to practice on, 
I have 33 kindn of fruit and only 50 trees. One 
of them is a Rayal apricot, a beautiful tree 
four years old. It is planted in rich sandv 
■oil and has been one of the most healthful, 
thrifty trees in the orchard. This season the 
branches have grown from one to three feet. 
The trunk and branches and leaves, until re- 
cently, have presented a very healthful, thrifty 
appearance. Not loog since the leaves on a 
lingle branch, about a foot long, of this year's 
growth, began to ourl up and have a. scalded 
appearance. In a few days they became 
withered and dry and fell off. The end of the 
branch began to wither, and soon it was dead 
for two or three inches from the end. The 
leaves on another branch on another part of the 
tree began to wither, and this branch passed 
through the same stages of aiSiction that the 
first one suffered, Then another branch became 
affected, and another, until now it appears as 
though the disease, or whatever it may be 
called, la likely to pass over all the branchea 
and extinguish the life of the tree. Probably 
some of your many readers may have met with 
the same trouble and may know the cause and 
cure. 

Some of wy apricot trees and all of the plum 



and prune trees are covered with green aphis. 
I have tried diff rent experiments, but none of 
them have proved successful. The last one 
was a success in one respect; it cleaned up the 
bugs, but it was death on the tree, I put a 
close tent over the tree and burned about half 
a pint of sulphur in it. In about five minutes 
the aphis were gone where all good bugs ought 
to go, and the tree put on mourning. The 
leaves curled up, dry and dead, and I can't tell 
at this time whether it will put oat new ones 

or not. W. H. WiESTER, 

293S FoUom St., S. F. 

This die-back of the aprioot is an old com- 
plaint, and, so far as we know, is but little un- 
derstood. It sometimes takes parts of trees, 
sometimes whole trees. We have usually cut 
off and burned diseased branches some distance 
below the part apparently affected, and believe 
that we have thereby checked the trouble on 
individual branches. Thia is only a makeahift; 
not knowing the canse of the trouble, we have 
DO intelligent preecription for the cure. Can our 
readers enlighten ua ? 

For leaf aphis, which Is grievously abundant 
this year in the bay region at least, the best 
remedy probably is kerosene emulsion. The 
following ia Prof, C. V. Riley's formula for pre- 
paring kerosene emulsion to be used as a sum- 
mer wash: 

Kerosene, 2 gallons 67 per cent. 

Common or whale-oil soap, lb. 1 

Water, i gallon • f =33 per cent. 

Heat the solution of soap and add it boiling hot 
to the kerosene. Churn the mixture by means of 
a force pump and spray nozzle for five or ten min- 
utes. The emulsion, if perfect, forms a cream, 
which thickens on cooling and should adhere with- 
out oiliness to the surface of glass. Dilute before 
using, one part of the emulsion with nine parts of 
hot water. The above formula gives three gallons 
of emulsion, and makes, when diluted, 30 gallons 
of wash. 

Note. — It is of the greatest importance that the 
above mode of preparation is followed strictly, 
otherwise the result may produce an unstable emul- 
sion, which has all the objectionable features of a 
mixture of water and kerosene. 

The emulsion can be easily and quickly made by 
using a good force pump, so constructed that it can 
be inserted directly into the liquid, which must be 
kept in constant and violent agitation by forcing it 
through some form of spray nozzle back into the 
same receptacle. 



Uniform Assessment of Fruit Trees. 

A meeting of the Sapervisora of the fruit- 
growing counties of Southern California, called 
by the Sapervisora of San Bernardino county, 
convened at the Saoerviaor's room of Los An- 
geles county, June 19, 1891, at 1:30 p. m. 

The following counties were repreaented: 
Lo9 Angeles bv S M. Ferry, A E. Davis, H. 
C. Hubbard, E. A Forrester, J. W. Cook and 
Aspeac^r F. Elwa<d Gray; S »D B rnardino by 
J. N. Victor, I. W. Lird and G. W. Gareilor; 
Fresno by T. 0. White and Asiieaaor W. J. 
Hutchinson; San D ego by J. W. Back; Orange 
hy L. Schorn, S. Armor and A^se'saor Jacob 
Boss. 

Meeting was organized by electing T. C. 
White chairman, and S. Armor secretary. 

I. W. Lord stated the obj 'ct of meeting to 
compare valuation placed by assessors on fruit 
tree*, and adopt a schedule to recommend for 
their future guidance. 

G. W. Garoelon called for valuations in the 
different counties represented. He stated that 
the citrus trees of Sin B>rDardino county were 
assessed at from S50 to $400 per acre. 

Asseaaor Gray gave the valuation for Los An- 
gelea citrus from $50 to $200 per acre; vine's, 
$5; decidnou!* trees, full bearing, $50; walnuts, 
from $50 to $150 per acre. 

Aeaeaaor Rosa valued citrus trees in Orange 
county at from $10 to $75 per acre. 

Assessor Hutcbineon rated citrus trees in 
Fresno county at from $20 to $100 per acre. 

J. W. Buck believed citrua trees were rated 
in San Diego county at from $10 to $100 per 
acre. 

There was some discussion as to whether 
trels were not worth more in some localities 
than others, according to condition and income 
derived. 

The chairman questioned whether treea and 
vines ought to be assessed at all, referring to 
the law exempting growing oropa. 

In the diaouaaion following, an understand- 
ing was reached that trees and vines mnet be 
assessed under the law, that young trees and 
vines have a value, although not in bearing, 
and that the valuations should be more nearly 
uniform between the counties. 

On motion of A. E. Divis, the chair ap- 
pointed the following committee to draft reso- 
lutions and prepare a schedule of valuations to 
report to the meeting within one hour, viz.: A. 
E. Davis, I. W. Lord, J. W. Buck, T. C. 
White and S. Armor. 

The committee reported a set of resolutions 
and schedule which, after some amendments, 
were adopted aa follows: 

Whereas, The representatives of the Boards of 
Supervisors of the connties of San Diego, Orange, 
San Bernardino, Los Angeles and Fresno, assem- 
bled in the city of Los Angeles for the 'purpose of 
arriving at the value to be fixed upon trees and 
vines by assessors, to the end that all trees and 
vines throughout the State shall be assessed at uni- 
form valuations, and 

Whereas, The said assembly, having appointed a 
committee to draft resolutions and to fix said val- 
uations, the committee would most respectlully beg 
leave to report as follows: 

First— That it is the sense of this committee that 
there is a large difference in valuation placed upc-i 



Budded. 


Seedling. 


$ 10 


00 


$ 5 


CO 


20 


00 


5 


00 


40 


00 


10 


00 


60 


00 


10 


00 


70 


00 


IS 


00 


80 


00 


20 


00 


100 


00 


30 


00 


125 


00 


40 


00 


'50 


00 


60 


00 


150 


00 


80 


00 


ISO 


00 


100 


00 


150 


50 


110 


00 


150 


00 


123 


00 


ISO 


CO 


130 


00 


»50 


00 


140 


00 


150 


00 




00 



vines and trees in the different fruit-producing 
counties cf this State. 

Second— That the following schedule of valua- 
tions be recommended to the different assessors of 
the State, and that prior to the making of the as- 
sessment for the year 1892, we would respectfully 
recommend that all the assessors of the fruit-pro- 
ducing counties meet in convention to discuss and 
consider the following schedule of valuations: 
schedule. 

Orange trees, per acre. 



Lemons same as budded oranges. 

deciduous fruit trees per acre. 

1 year from setting $ 2 00 

2 " " 10 00 

3 " " 20 00 

4 " " 30 00 

5 years and all after 40 00 

walnuts. 

I, 2 and 3 years from setting $ S co 

4 years from setting 10 00 

5 " " IS 00 

6 " ' ■ 20 00 

7 " " 25 00 

8 " " 30 00 

9 " " 40 00 

10 " " S° °° 

11 " " 60 00 

12 " " 75 00 

>3 " " 8s 00 

14 " " 95 00 

15 " " 100 00 

citrus nursery stock per tree. 

1 year from setting in nursery i cent 

2 " " " 5 cents 

3 " " '.' 10 cents 

vines per Acre. 

1 year after setting $ 2 50 

2 " " 5 00 

3 " " 20 00 

4 " " '- 25 00 

5 " " 30 00 

6 " " and upward 40 00 

olives per acre. 

1 year after setting $ 2 00 

2 " " . 3 00 

3 " " S 00 

4 " " 8 00 

5 " " »io 00 

6 " " 15 00 

7 " " 20 00 

8 " " % 25 00 

9 " " 30 00 

10 " " and upward 40 00 

On motion of E. A. Forrester, the committee was 
made permanent and instructed to correspond with 
the different Boards of Supervisors of the State with 
a view of establishing a uniform value of assess- 
ment on fruit trees and vines. 

Adjourned sine die. 

Do Apples Pay in Butte County? 

Editors Press: — The writer was on the 
ranch ot Phillip Hefner, situated four miles 
east of Grid ley, and during a short conversa- 
tion with Uncle Phil, gleaned the following 
statistics on the apple: 

He has 30 acres, set mostly to apples, which 
have been in beariog 30 years. The trees are 
32x20 feet apart, in Feather-river bottom-land, 
and three years ago, 40 boxes were picked from 
a single tre'e which brought $1 50 per box in 
Sacramento. This gives the following grand 
total per acre— $3960. 

He also has 230 acres of peaches, apricots, 
pears, prunea, almonds and figs, two years old 
from bud, which "fruited" to a limited ex- 
tent this season and made a growth from three 
to seven feet, He raised 100 acres of Irish 
potatoes, and haa shipped three carloads to 
Eastern markets. The yield was 100 sacks to 
the acre. He uses a patent " digger," and can 
dig one carload per day. The above is a sample 
of what the old " pioneers " are doing in Bucte 
county. Mr. Hefner came to California from 
Ohio, and landed in San Francieco Aug, 14, 
1850, and is hale, hearty and prosperoua. 

Wm. W. Miller. 

Central House, Butte Co. 

Not a Valuable Wa'nut. 

Editors Press:— In the last Rural, I see a 
letter from Santa Maria, stating that Mr. .Tos. 
Kaiser haa discovered a new walnut, which the 
writer believed would prove to be a wonderful 
improvement in the walnut family in the near 
future. 

I will atate the fact that in January, 1888, I 
planted 4000 pounds of improved Eogliah wal 
nuts for nursery purposes. The first year I 
found several hundred of just such trees as 
your correspondent refers to. They made 
about the same growth, etc. A few weeks ago 
I had them all dug up and burned, as I found 
them very unprofitable, and I perhaps might 
say a nuisance, simply from the fact that I had 
one growing in the orchard ten years from seed 
that I dog up last week. It was the same that 
your correspondent has described. I measured 
the tree at the trunk, and found it measured 
5 feet and 5^ inches in circumference. It had 



long spreading branches, and always -n 
full of nuts. Bat on examination, thi 
never had any kernel. It proved to be all hull 
and shell and bogus all the way through. This 
walnut seems to be a cross between the old 
Eistern black walnut and the butternut. The 
tree might perhaps be good for a ahade tree in 
a barnyard, or some out-of the-way corner, but 
it never will do for a forest tree in the roadside 
or avenue. O. P. CoOK. 

Ventura Nurseries, 



Lemons in Sfinta Ana Valley. 

H. K. Snow of Tuatin, says the Santa Ana 
Blade, is one of the leading citrus-fruit growers 
of the valley, and is always on the alert for in- 
formation that will assist him in preparing bis 
citrus fruit for the market in the best possible 
shape. His lemon crop, which he ia now busily 
engaged in packing, preparatory for shipment 
to the Chicago market, is perhaps the finest 
claas of lemons ever seen in the valley, not be- 
cause they are of a better variety of fruit, grow 
on better soil, or that the trees received more 
thorough cultivation, bat the secret lies in the 
time or stage of ripeness and growth of the 
fruit in which it was picked, the manner in 
which it was taken from the tree, and the 
method of oaring it. A partial description of 
his way of curing and preparing his crop ap- 
peared In the Blade, but believing a 
more detailed account would be of interest to 
the lemon-growers, it is herewith submitted: 
In the first place, the lemons are picked when 
they begin to turn a rich green color, and are of 
the proper siza. Eich picker is provided with 
a pair of nippers or shears, whioh are to be 
used in clipping the fruit from the tree, instead 
of pulling it from the tree, after the old style. 
A IJ inch ring is also furnished the picker, 
whioh is used in determining the siza of the 
fruit that is ready to be picked. All fruit that 
will not fill the ring ia considered too email, or 
insufiSoiently matured to be gathered, and is 
left on the tree until the next picking, The 
next step is to take the fruit to a storehouse, 
where an evfn temperature can be maintained 
at about 60°. Here the fruit is packed in single 
layers, in trays which are stacked one upon 
another, and left to cure, which may take from 
three to four months, or they may be packed 
and shipped sooner if the owner prefers. The 
light should be excluded from the curing house 
in order to secure the best results. After the 
fruit has been sufficiently cured, it is taken 
from the trays, wiped off with a cloth or brush, 
assorted into a first and second grade, and is 
then ready for the packers. A very pretty 
(ffect is produced by. the use of colored tissue 
paper in wrapping the fruit. This is done by 
using, say white paper for the first and third 
rowa of fruit, and alternating with red. 

An idea of the prtfi's that can be derived 
from a lemon orchard by proper care may be 
gained by taking an estimate from H. K. 
S low's six-acre grove of eight-year-old trees. 
Uo to the present time, he has picked about 
1200 boxes, which is «bout two-thirds of the 
preaent year's crop. At the above estimate, an 
acre would yield 300 boxes of merchantable 
fruit, which will bring, this season, sn average 
of $2 50 per box, $750 per acre, or $4500 for 
the eight acres of lemons. Where else in the 
wqrld can thia be equaled ? 

The Almond on Heavy Soils. 

Editors Press:— I should like to inquire if 
any of the readers of the Rural Press have 
had expsrienoe, or knowof any one who has ex- 
perience, in growing the almond upon other 
soils than that which is laid down in the books 
as suitable, namely, soil adapted to the peach — 
that Is a loamy, well-drained soil— and if it has 
been a successful, a profitable experience. 

I have seen the almond growing upon a heavy 
soil of a more or less adobe character, and my 
recollection is that the trees were full of nuts. 

Los Angeles, L. C. F. 

[[f any reader counts the almond a commer- 
cial success on auoh heavy soils we shall be 
glad to hear of it. — Eds. Press.] 

Fruit Acreage in Kern County. — At the be- 
ginnine oi this year the publishers of the Bakers- 
field Echo announced their intention to com- 
pile some reliabUfigores on the fruit acreage of 
Kern county. Such a work had never been 
undertaken and no datum existed on the sub- 
ject that was at all trustworthy. Inquiries 
have been directed toward ascertaining two 
things, namely; Frst, the number of acres of 
each kind of fruit planted before January 1, 
1891; and second, the amount planted this year. 
The following table shows the result of the 
inquiry, the numbers being acres of fruit treea 
or vines : 

Variety. Before 1891. In 1891. 

Almond 71 4 

Apple ^ 44 50 

Apricot 2 IIS 

Cherry 4 6 

Fig 116 246 

Orange 30 4 

Peach 16 1 327 

Pear 4 140 

Prune 25 221 

Walnut 35 22 

Grape 1,360 1,965 

Assorted fruit 137 140 

Total 1,989 3.240 

Planted before 1891 i 989 

Grand Total 5,229 



24 



f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 



[July 11, 1891 



"Patrons of T>USBANDRY. '^^^ National Grange on More Money 



Our Grange Edition. 

The Grange news of most general iuterest is given tlirougli 
all edition? of o\ir paper on this page. Several Bupple- 
meuM pages, devoted to Grange iuterests, are added In our 
Grange edition, wiiich any suliscriher can receive in lieu of 
the regular edition wituoit i:xtka cost, by addressing 
the publishers. 

The Master's Desk. 

S. W. DAVIS, W.M. 8. O. OF CAUFORKIA. 

The Intereat shown by noaay of the Patrona 
in BDbmittlng thoughts for the Independence 
Diy RcRAL is more than pleasing to the M»8- 
ter. It is a credit to the fraternity of Patrons 
of Husbandry that so many good thoughts 
should find expression, on such short notice, in 
the Grange Organ. Yet the hut has not been 
accomplished. We can all of us do better. 
As soon as the harvest is over, we shall expect 
a liberal supply of Grange news. The growth 
of the Grange is steady, but healthy. Let this 
growth be reported from each section. Tell us 
of the grain and of the Grange harvest. Why 
not send in your good thoughts to Bro. Dewey, 
and he will give us an excellent paper ? Ad- 
mission Day, Sept. 9th, will soon be here. We 
ought to have a big paper on that occasion. 
Will you help make it? 

The newly elected U. S. Senator from New 
Hampshire, Mr. Galllnger, is a member of the 
Grange. 

If the next Legislature of California is not 
more under the inflaence of the farmers than 
the last one was, somebody will be surprised. 
Lack well, fellow-farmers to the character, 
integrity and ability of the men whom you 
send to the Legislature. Bad laws are made In 
the Legislature. They must be enforced by 
executive and judicial ofBoers, even though 
those officers know the laws to be very bad. 

It I* hoped that every farmer, especially 
every Patron, in California will be specially 
careful in selecting the seed for next year's 
crop. Now is the time to do such work. The 
harvest is on, and it ia easy to get good, clean, 
healthy seed. Foul seed will bring a foul 
crop. 

Look out for a proclamation from Worthy 
Oeres ! The golden grain will soon be garnered 
and then the harvesters and gleaners, the hus- 
bandmen and matrons will be entitled to a day 
of rest, recreation and refreshment. No more 
titting occasion could present itself for Ceres to 
preside. Won't Worthy Oeres of the State 
Grange name the day and oatline a program so 
that each subordinate Grange may act ? That 
being done, the Worthy Ceres of each Sabor- 
dinate can prepare a program specially suited 
to the local Grange. 

Is the spirit of American Independence de- 
clining? Will our children lose love for conn- 
try to such an extent as to forget to celebrate 
the Fourth of July ? They will unless parents 
and teachers te»cb them lessons of patriotism ! 



The Grange requires its members to be mer- 
ciful to dnmb animals. A very pretty story 
containing some excellent advice, has been 
written by Anna Sewell on this subject. It is 
published in pamphlet form and is entitled 
"Black Beauty." For 25 cents a copy can be 
had. Get one for the boys and girls, and when 
they have read it hand it to the hired man with 
the request, "please reed and return," 



Sell a sack of wheat or barley or a half- 
dozen ohickens, and pay your dues to your 
Grange for the year. 



Those who have amendments to offer to the 
Constitution should send them to the Worthy 
Secretary at onet. Previous notice must be 
given to the Subordinate Oranges else the 
Amendment cannot be considered. Act, act at 
once if you desire to amend the Constitution. 



Look to your County Fair! See to it that 
all money obtained from the State is honestly 
and lawfully expended! 



Visit your District school now and then. 
Your presence encourages both pupil and 
teacher. California expends money freely for 
public schools, and 'tis well to see and know 
what results it produces. 



The Grange has done a great deal to educate 
its members, but its work is not yet finished. 

You will be welcome at Haywards during 
the State Grange, Your opinion on matters 
affecting the good of the Order is needed. 



Modesty ia a virtue. Temerity is not mod- 
esty. Farmers as a class are modest and, in 
public affairs, are almost timorous. Let us see 
to it that in those matters which seriously af- 
fect the public, the farmers claim, even de- 
mand, a full and fair share of recognition, 
Don't be selfish about it, but ask recognition in 
proportion to moral, educational, financial, 
numerical worth. If this be done, there will 
be more soll-tlllers in public stitlon, and surely 
the country will not be any the worse for it. 
Stand for and demand your righti, fellow- 
farmers I 



and Low Interest. 

Now that the question of money in its re- 
lations to business in general and agricul- 
ture in particular has become the great 
question before the American people, we 
must expect diflferences of opinion ; but it 
is by these differences of opinion that we 
will finally arrive at the truth. True it is 
that people in different positions see the 
subject in different lights, and " where the 
treasure is there will the heart be also," and 
" difference of opinion is no crime," we are 
taught in the Grange. But some people 
and some papers, alas, cannot meet a ques- 
tion fairly and argue it on its merits, or by 
publishing both sides, give their readers a 
chance to weigh all the arguments, " prove 
all things and hold fast to that which is 
good," so, losing sight of the issue, they at- 
tack individuals, and, not being able to ad- 
vance ideas, they call hard names and 
throw out ridicule. Individuals are but 
soldiers in the battle — one, fifty, a hundred 
may perish, but the principle, the truth, the 
cause for which they battled " goes march- 
ing on." 

"Personal" or "Oflaclal?" 

Among the many papers that are publish- 
ing items for or against the Grange and 
other farmers' organizations, I have of late 
noticed some who charge that the ideas ad- 
vanced by the Lecturer of the National 
Grange as to lower rates of interest, and an 
increase of the money of the country to $50 
per capita are simply his own individual 
opinions, and should not be received as ex- 
pressing the views of the National Grange, 
of which he is an officer, etc. 

Of course no member of the Grange 
would thus " knowingly wrong a member of 
the Order," or permit it to be done by an- 
other, if in his power to prevent it, for 
copies of the Proceedings of the National 
Grange are sent each year to every subor- 
dinate Grange in the land, and they have 
been so sent regularly for many years past. 
Every Patron has access to these Proceed- 
ings, and they are regularly read each year 
during Grange meetings, in order that all 
members may be posted upon the well-de- 
fined policy of our Order ; and any and all 
of these members know that the Lecturer of 
the National Grange does express the "offi- 
cial " action of the Order, jn its highest 
body, and through it the policy or platform 
of the Order at large ; just as the National 
Convention of a party defines the policy of 
the party, and adopts a national platform to 
which alLthe other bodies in that political 
party adapt themselves during the ensuing 
campaign. 

Official Pointers. 

It is but right, therefore, that the Lec 
turer of the National Grange should set 
himself and the Order right before these 
good people, who, perhaps, because they 
are outside of the Grange are not fully 
aware of its " official " action in the matters 
relating to finance before alluded to 

First. For a long series of years, the Na- 
tional Grange has made it a part of the du 
ties of the Lecturer to prepare subjects for 
discussion for the Granges throughout the 
country, and to issue a portion of its litera- 
ture in the form of tracts and circulars to 
be sent out to the press and to individuals 
interested in the cause of agriculture. At 
the annual session of the National Grange 
in 1885, in the city of Boston, the following 
was adopted 

Eesolved, That the Worthy Lecturer of 
the National Grange be instructed to con 
tlnue the distribution of subjects for discus 
sion, quarterly, to subordinate Granges, and 
that questions of political economy be 
given prominence, such as gold, silver, 
greenbacks, National banks, corporations, 
Interstate and transcontinental transporta- 
tion, and the tariff as it relates to agricul- 
ture. 

Surely that is full authority for the dis 
cussion of questions of finance, just as they 
have been for years discussed in the Na- 
tional Grange. Instead of " quarterly," the 
instructions commencing with our next ses- 
sion loUowing that in Boston have been to 
issue the tracts and circulars weekly or 
semi-monthly. 

Lower Rates of Interest. 
Second. It was 18 years ago that the Na 
tional Grange adopted the " Declaration of 
Piirposes" of the Order, that has been 
printed, read and re read hundreds of thou- 
sands of times, and it still stands as the 
creed of the Grange. Its well-defined objects 
have compelled the admiration even of our 
enemies, and the bitterest foe has yet to point 
out the first plank in that grand platform 
that, if thoroughly applied, would result in 
any harm to individuals or to our country 
One of the " Purposes " contained in that 



" Declaration " reads: " We are opposed to 
excessive salaries, high rates of interest, and 
exorbitant per-cent profits in trade. They 
greatly increase our burdens, and do not 
bear a proper proportion to the profits of 
producers." Surely that is "oflScial" 
enough, and authority enough for advocat- 
ing lower rates of interest, and surelv in so 
doing the Lecturer of the National Grange 
is expressing more than his individual opin- 
ion. Largely through the educational in- 
fluences of the Grange, and brought for 
ward and sustained by its members in sev- 
eral of the States of the Union during the 
sessions of their Legislatures in the last few 
months, efforts have been made to secure 
laws fixing lower rate of interest. Among 
those States can be mentioned New York, 
North Carolina, Kansas and Nebraska ; and 
it is coming sure. If the National Govern- 
ment (the people) can lower the rates of in- 
terest on Government bonds, as has been 
done several times since the war ; if rail- 
roads and other corporations can lower the 
rates of interest on their bonds by " refund- 
ing,'' etc., just so these same benefits can be 
applied by the people to all the people. 
More Money. 
Third. The records of the National 
Grange plainly show that the Order has 
uniformly been on the side of the people in 
their demands for plenty of money and 
cheap money rather than scarce money and 
dear money. Away back in 1877, at the 
session of the National Grange held that 
year in Cincinnati, Ohio, the following was 
adopted: 

' The National Grange, representing as it 
does, the agricultural sentiment of every 
part of the United States, without intend- 
ing to infringe that feature of its organic 
law which forbids the discussion within its 
fold of any questions of party politics, be- 
lieves it to be not only its privilege, but its 
duty to give expression to the universal 
voice of its membership in condemnation of 
all such legislation, either on the part of the 
General or State Governments, as tends to 
the injury of the great productive industries 
of the country. In this spirit, and with no 
purpose to take part in the partisan politics 
of the country, we do hereby declare our 
disapprobation of the law demonetizing sil- 
ver." 

And so the National Grange plainly then, 
as it has since, spoke plainly for the re- 
monetizing of silver, and against the con- 
traction that has gone on ever since, and has 
nearly ruined our agriculture. 

In an official circular sent out over a year 
ago by the Legislative Committee of the 
National Grange, appointed to bring the 
action of the National Grange on several 
matters of interest to agriculture to the at- 
tention of Congress, our committee pointed 
out how their efforts for agriculture were 
being opposed by Boards of Trade, etc., and 
go on to say: " All these combined and ad- 
verse influences must be met by the farm- 
ers. Letters should be written to members 
of Congress ; resolutions and memorials 
should be adopted by every farmers' organ 
ization in the country, petitions should be 
drawn up, circulated and forwarded. These 
petitions should use vigorous Anglo-Saxon 
* * * * Also urge a liberal financial 
policy, not dictated by Wall street." 

Does not that sound like official language 
for more money, and the committee, at the 
end of their circular, speaking of the Con 
gressmen, used these prophetic words: 

" They may think it a cyclone, but give 
them to understand that the cyclone waits 
for the ' ides ' of November if our just de 
mands are not heeded." 
Signed bv J. H. Bhigham, 

Master of the National Grange. 
Leonard Rhone, 
Member of Executive Committee of Na- 
tional Grange. 

John Trimble, 
Secretary of the National Grange 
Other Official Action. 

Fourth. From Proceedings, Twenty-first 
Session, National Grange, Lansing, Mich., 
November, 1887: 

"That as the constantly increasing sur 
plus in the National Treasury not only con 
tracts the currency and increases the value 
of money, but decreases the value of land 
and labor, and is calculated to engender 
corrupt legislation, it should be used as rap- 
idly as possible to retire the National debt 
at par, and be so dispensed as to increase 
the circulating medium and stimulate a 
healthy state of trade throughout the whole 
country." Adopted. 

Proceedings Twenty-third Session, Sacra- 
mento, California, November, 1889: 

Whereas, Contraction of the circulating 
medium of the United States has depressed 
the prices of farm products to the great in- 
jury of the agricultural classes; therefore 

Resolved, That we favor the free coinage 
of silver, and also favor the maintenance in 
circulation of the paper money of the 



United States, independent of the National 
banks, in sufficient volume to prevent any 
future contraction, and consequent embar- 
rassment to our prosperity. Adopted. 

Proceedings Twenty-fourth Session, At- 
lanta, Georgia, November, 1890. 

One of the recommendations of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee was as follows: 

"The financial policy of a government 
has also very much to do in influencing the 
prices of agricultural products, from the 
fact that when money is plenty, it stimu- 
lates business by increasing the ability to 
consume, as there is scarcely a family that 
would not consume more by living better if 
they had the money to expend for the nec- 
essary comforts of life. 

The best time the farmers ever had, and 
when they made the most money, was when 
we had a currency of $56 per capita, and we 
are sure other industries were more prosper- 
ous. In 18G5 we had $56 per capita; in 
1S89 we had only $17. Perhaps $56 per 
capita was more than the best interest of 
the country required, but $17 per capita, 
which is worse, is as much too low. Let 
Congress fix the volume of currency at not 
less than $40 to $50 per capita ; the farmers 
will take the money and pay their mort- 
gages by the increased prices they would 
realize for their products, and keep the 
mills at work by buying better farm imple- 
ments, cotton, woolen and silk fabrics; 
make the coinage of silver free, requiring 
the people that get it coined to take it the 
same as gold. This would advance silver to 
a parity with gold in the market of the 
world, and place our export agricultural 
products on an equality with those of other 
countries. As it is now, gold being the 
standard of value, making exchanges with 
foreign countries, compels the sale of our 
products in competition with the silver 
standard nations of the world, thus placing 
Russian and Indian wheat into European 
markets lower than we can, England mak- 
ing over 33 cents per bushel in making her 
exchanges, as the difference between gold 
and silver. Before silver was demonetized, 
from 1792 to 1873, the values were almost 
uniformly alike. 

Should there not be enough gold and sil- 
ver to raise the volume of currency to $40 
or $50 per capita, refund interest-bearing 
bonds by non - interest- bearing demand 
notes. 

To get the money into circulation, the 
Government can loan it upon good real 
estate at, say two per cent per annum, un- 
der proper restrictions, limiting the amount 
to be loaned ; also the amount of each loan. 
The interest would become a source of rev- 
enue to the Government, and be the means 
of reducing taxation, and thus relieve those 
who cannot, under present conditions, save 
enough of the small earnings of a lifetime 
to secure a home that they can justly call 
their own. 

This, or some plan similar to that which 
is now in vogue for furnishing currency to 
National banks, or on any sound financial 
policy that could be devised by Congress to 
furnish money to the people at a low rate 
of interest, to relieve the depressed condi- 
tion of agriculture, would be inestimable in 
its benefits to those who toil. 

Farmers would be glad to take the money 
at two per cent, which would save them 
four per cent from present rates of interest, 
which saving, in 25 years, would pay their 
entire mortgaged indebtedness without pay- 
ing a dollar more per annum thap they are 
now paying," which was adopted by the 
National Grange. 

Surely that is official authority enough 
for the $50 per capita, in advocating which 
some have said the Lecturer of the National 
Grange only expressed his " personal opin- 
ions." The above report of the Executive 
Committee, at the last session of the Na- 
tional Grange was not only adopted, but it 
was printed in the official Proceedings sent 
to every Grange, and in addition to all this, 
the National Grange ordered 5000 copies of 
it to " be printed and sent to the Secretaries 
of State Granges in time for their Decem- 
ber meetings." The same good Legislative 
Committee followed up their action of the 
year before, and in a memorial to Congress 
in the name of the National Grange, pre- 
sented this official action upon finance and 
other matters, and in their memorial said: 
"And as in duty bound, call your attention 
to the fact that the National Grange of the 
Patrons of Husbandry has been, and is very 
emphatic in its indorsement of the subject- 
matter of this communication." 

Judge Fairly. 

With the above testimony before him, 
and much more of the same sort could be 
given, the reader is left to decide whether 
the National Grange has, or has not, de- 
clared for lower rates of interest, more 
money, free coinage of silver, and $60 per 
capita. Fraternallly, 

Mortimer Whitbhead. 



July 11, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAlo PRESS, 



25 



Farmers' Alliance. 



Alliance Edition. 

Subscribers can receive our Farmers' Alliance Edi- 
tion WITHOUT EXTRA COST, by applying for the same 
That editiuQ cootaius several supplenieutal pages of Alli- 
ance matter, in addition to tBat which appears on this page 
through all editions. 

Meeting ot the Ventura County 
Farmers' Alliance. 

A Large Attendance and Much Enthusi- 
asm at the Home of the State President. 
Editors Press:— Ventura connty has 16 
Allianoes and about 400 male members, besides 
a large number of lady members. The organ- 
ization ia In a very prosperous condition, and 
promises to beoome an important factor in the 
politics of the county. 

The annual meeting of the AUianoe took 
place in Ventura, July 6, and notwithstanding 
the busy season of the year, some 75 delegates 
were present, and as many more visiting breth- 
ren. The meeting was called to order by State 
President Cannon, who is also the County 
President. Mr. Cannon is an able presiding 
officer and does his work well. J. M. Sharp, 
the Secretary, ia also well qualified for the po- 
sition. 

The meeting of special interest to the public 
was held at night, when the large haU was 
filled to repletion with an attentive audience. 
The exercises were opened by the Montaloo 
band, which the President announced as com- 
posed of "clod-hoppers.'' One of the mem- 
bers, Mr. Baker, read a highly amusing original 
poem entitled "Hans Riding in a Buggy." 
After singing by a double quartette, the Presi- 
dent introduced 

Hon. J. L. Gilbert, 
Of Fresno, who spoke for about 1^ hours. 
Mr. Gilbert, who is the State Lecturer, is a 
farmer gifted as a speaker, and was listened to 
with interest even by those who might difi'er 
from some of his premises and conclusions. 

The speaker said that the farmers and labor- 
ers of America believe they have not bad a fair 
deal, hence the organization of the Farmers' 
Alliance. Some profess to believe that it is 
composed of idlers, bummers and political 
trioketera. This is far from being true. We 
admit the laborer to our organization because 
he earns his bread as Ood said he should — by 
the sweat of his brow. The banker and mer- 
chant eat their bread by the sweat of somebody 
else's brow. The lawyer eats his bread by the 
sweat of unlimited cheek, while the tramp eats 
his by the sweat of his feet. All these are ex- 
cluded from the organization of the Farmers' 
Alliance. It is composed of men who are likely 
to practice the domestic viitaes, and not men 
who olamor for the earnings of others. They 
say farmers cannot think or talk, and that the 
organization will soon go to pieces. Let me 
tell you that like the signers of the Declaration 
of Independence we propose to hang together 
or hang separately. 

;The Question of Pay. 

We hear a good deal about prices paid farm 
hands and laborers. In my section we pay 
$1,25 a day, which is small enough; but this 
matter of wages is not what is affecting us so 
much as it is the price we pay to monopoly. 
We are compelled to pay $65 for a sewing ma- 
ching that cost $6, and $1500 for a thrasher 
and separator that does not cost half that sum. 
We read of suffering in some parts of the 
country, but who is it that suffers ? Is the 
State ever appealed to to asBlst bankers, mer- 
ohante, lawyeri, etc. ? No, but to help the 
farmer. Why ? Because he, the producer, is 
the one that is oppressed. The industrial 
classes pay for everything. They support the 
wealthy classes, who make laws compelling 
them to do so. We are getting ready to change 
this thing, notwithstanding politioiana and 
their allies, saloon-keepers, are organized to 
defeat the will of the people. In our legis- 
lative halls are idlers and tools of infamy. 
Good men are in the minority. In the United 
States Congress are some good men who have 
at heart the interests of the laboring classes, 
but the majority are bankers, lawyers and 
millionaires. I was brought up a Republican 
and have voted with that party from the time 
it was organized and suppressed the Rebellion, 
It was one of the best and purest parties this 
country haa ever jseen, but it has departed from 
the faith. So of the Democratic party. It is 
no longer the party of Jackson, These parties 
are now too muoh the tools of Wall street and 
monopolies. 

A Party of Principles. 

The Farmerb' Alliance is our organization of 
principles calculated to help the laboring man. 
They will come to the top, and will not down. 
Equal rights for all and special privileges for 
none, is our motto. Peace on earth and good 
will toward men. In things essential, unity; 
in all things, charity, are verities upon which 
the Farmers' Alliance stands. At the time of 
the war when the Government was pressed to 
the wall for want of money, it easily found a 
way to obtain the sinews of war. It commenced 
by issuing greenbacks. This was the purest 
and beet currency we ever had. But this did 
not suit English capitallats. They wanted 
bonds, and bonds they got, and to-day we send 
$60,000,000 annually to England to pay In- 



terest on bonds held abroad. On bonds the 
Government founded national banks. Thirty- 
five thousand dollars will buy $100,000 Govern- 
ment bonds for this purpose, leaving $65,000 
profit — for bonds redeemable in gold coin, 
though bought with greenbacks, and the 
country pays the banker interest on $100,000, 
while he pays taxes on next to nothing. The 
Government uses these bonds as security. The 
banker loans you not bis own, but really the 
money of the Government at an interest of 10, 
12 or 15 per cent. The fact is, you are paying 
interest on your own money. Is this right? 
Do yon blame the farmer for protesting against 
this business? We have favored classes. 

We Need More Intelligent Laws. 

The lawyer and politician tell you just be- 
fore election that you are not capable of mak- 
ing laws; that it must be delegated to them. 
What of the laws made at our State Capitol ? 
Go visit any court and hear lawyers wrangle 
over their meaning and import, while scarcely 
any two judges agree as to their significance. 
Two lawyers never are able to decide the 
meaning of a law until their respective clients 
beoome bankrupt. We hold that laws should 
be founded upon justice and right, and that 
they should be made so plain that they can be 
understood by men of ordinary intelligence. 
We have 65 lawyers in Fresno, all making a 
living, and some getting rich. If yon find a 
good, honest lawyer, exalt him to the skies, 
but I tell you it is liard to train In bad com- 
pany and be pure. 

We have demanded that snb-treasurles 
should be established. Wall street can pnt a 
restriction on the circulation at any time. We 
claim that sub-treasuriea should be established 
where you can deposit your money and draw 
at will. We have bonded warehouses for wine 
and brandy in Fresno connty, Why not add 
something that would benefit all, aa would sub- 
treasuries ? My Idea is, that money should not 
bear interest at all. It belongs to the people, 
and putting it out at interest is too much like 
robbing our own family. The Government 
should let it go for security or bond or any- 
thing else of value. The Government is the 
motor of money, and your home and mine are 
security. They are better than gold, .for the 
productive value will stand. 

Abolish Poverty and Saloons. 
We expect to absolutely abolish poverty 
among all who will work. We expect to direct 
the energies of the gambler and saloon-keeper 
into better channels and abolish the saloon. 

Farmer. 

Congressional District Meetings, 

To Be Held July 15th for Organization of 
the Lecture System. 

The County Lecturers should realize the im- 
portance of a full attendance at the district or- 
ganizing meetings called by State Prest, Can- 
non, in accordance with instructions from the 
National F. A, & I. U., published in our Alli- 
ance edition, June, 1891. 

While the election of a Congressional Dis- 
trict Lecturer is the leading point in these 
meetings, the discussion of the demanda of the 
hour and the requirements necessary to extend 
the organization of Sub AUiancea and drill 
into effective action the new army of mem- 
bers must form an Important part of these 
meetings. 

There is no time to lose. Let no County 
Lecturer, or other officer or member who can 
aeslst by his support In this matter, think it 
will not matter if he is absent, or that there 
will be enough others present to answer the 
purpose, etc. 

Remember your presence may be the turning 
point between success and failure. 

The time is short. The President of every 
County Alliance should see to it that his coun- 
ty is duly represented. 

The following from Pres. Cannon's proclama- 
tion explains the requirements for the different 
district meetings. 

In compliance with instructions from the 
National Legislative Council, 1 herewith pre- 
sent the plan for the organization of the Lec- 
ture System of the United States adopted by 
the Council at its meeting in the city of Wash- 
ington on the 4th day of February, 1891. All 
Lecturers of the Sub Alliances, together with 
the County Lecturers of their respective conn- 
ties, will meet at the same time and place at 
which their county meetings are held in the 
month of July next, and organize themselves 
into a Oounty Legislative Council, with the 
Connty Lecturer as ex-officio. 

First Oongressional District. 

All the County Lecturers of the following 
counties, composing the First Congressional 
District, to wit.: Dal Norte, Siskiyou, Modoc, 
Humboldt, Trinity, Shasta, Lassen, Tehama, 
Plumas, Mendocino, Sierra, Sonoma, Napa and 
Marin — will meet at Santa Rosa. 

Second District. 

Counties of Butte, Sutter, Yuba, (Nevada, 
Placer, El Dorado, Amador, Calaveras, Mono, 
Inyo, Alpine, Tuolumne, Mariposa, San Joa- 
quin and Sacramento will meet at Sacramento. 
Third District. 

Counties of Colusa, Yolo, Solano, Lake, Con- 
tra Costa and Alameda will meet at Dixon, 
Solano county, on the 15th of July next, and 
elect by ballot a District Lecturer. 

rifth District. 

Oountiea of Santa Clara, San Mateo and Ban 
Benito will meet at San Jose on the 15th of 



July next, and elect by ballot a District Lec- 
turer. I have taken San Benito from San 
Diego oounty and attached it to Santa Clara 
county for good reasons. 

Sixth District. 

Counties of Los Angeles, Ventura, Santa 
Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Monterey and Santa 
Cruz, will meet at San Luis Obispo on the 15th 
of July and elect by ballot a District Lecturer. 
Seventh District. 

In the Seventh District the Oounty Lecturers 
of the counties of Stanislaus, Merced, Fresno, 
Tulare, Kern, San Bernardino, Orange and San 
Diego, will meet at Tulare City on the 15th of 
July next, and elect by ballot a District Lec- 
turer. 

Remember all these District Meetings occur 
July Fifteenth. 

All the Congressional District Lecturers will 
meet the State President, State Lecturer and 
the State Execntive Committee on the 22d of 
July next at No. 12 Front St., S. F., to organ- 
ize a State Legislative Council, 



Alliance County Notes. 

Amador. 

The County Alliance, composed of aboat 30 
delegates, met at lone City, Jnly 1st, and was 
called to order about 10 a. m. Among other 
business transacted was the following : A res- 
olution favoring the raising of the license on 
liquor saloons in the connty to $50 per quar- 
ter was passed with an overwhelming vote; 
another, restricting foreign immigration, was 
equally well supported. The following county 
officers were elected to serve for the ensuing 
term : Geo. T. Mack, Pres.; S. H, Phillips, 
V. P.; Miss F. Swift, Sec'y; G. A.Gooding, 
Treas.; Mrs. Malson, Chap,; John Harrell, 
Lecturer and Organizer; W. S. Fronty, Busi- 
ness Agent; A. Malson, Steward, and G. Pronty, 
Doorkeeper. After the adjournment of the 
convention, it was decided to hold a mass- 
meeting in the evening and explain to the pub- 
lip the aims and objects of the Alliance. — Pa- 
cific Union Alliance. 

Los Angeles. 

Los Angeles, July 7; The county organiza- 
tion of the Farmers' Alliance met thin after- 
noon and elected the following officers: P. T. 
Daffy, President; J. E. L. Russ of El Monte, 
Vice-President; Miss Maud Wardell of Daarte, 
Secretary; James MoKussick of Norwalk, 
Treasurer; S. A. Waldron, Lecturer; Executive 
Committee— W. H. Carlin, A. M. Wardell and 
J. S. Banous. In the evening another meeting 
was held, when an address was delivered by 
State Lectnrer Gilbert, who ia here with Presi- 
dent Cannon. 

Placer. 

We learn from Bro. J. G. Loomia that Placer 
County Alliance met at Loomis on Jnly 6 th, in 
Morrison's Hall. They had an enthusiastic and 
harmonious meeting, after which the following 
officers were installed by Dr. M. Sohnabel of 
Newcastle: J, N. Barther, President; A, Be- 
dell, Vice-President; J. H. Gregory, Secretary; 
J. A, Robinson, Treasurer; J. L, McDonald, 
Chaplain; E, C. Badell, Doorkeeper; Sister Bree, 
Assistant Doorkeeper; H. P. Hansen, Sergeant; 
G, J. Monser, Lecturer; Sister iDelameter, 
Steward. Loomis Alliance gave a lunch and a 
good time generally was enjoyed. The next 
meeting will be on first Monday In October, at 
the same place. 

Sacramento. 

The County Alliance of the F. A. and I. U. 
met at Florin July 6, the delegates represent- 
ing 16 sub alliances with a membership of about 
600. The following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year. President, J. E, Camp; 
Vice-President, Finley McMillan; Secretary, 
L. M. Landsborough; Treasurer, S. Kreeger; 
Lecturer, W. W. Greer; Assistant Lecturer, 
A. B, Burnt; Business Agent, P. H. Murphy; 
Chaplain, Rev. W. C. Soott. The ladies of 
Florin vied with each other in the production 
of the most toothsome edibles on the long, 
well-filled tables, and the well-filled delegates 
returned a unanimous verdict of ''hard to 
beat." — Record- Union. 

San Bernardino. 

The first annual meeting of the San Bernar- 
dino County Farmers' Alliance was held in 
San Bernardino, July 3, to elect officers for the 
ensuing year and for the transaction of other 
business. The following officers were elected: 
William Penn Rogers, Pres.; P. Van Cnren, 
Vice Pres.; S. M. Cox Jr., Sec'y; J. J. Whit- 
ney, Treas.; Prof. N. A, Richardson, Leo,; 
Mrs. J, J. Moore, Chap.; Miss Delia Van 
Curen Steward; Mrs. Mary Cleghorn, Door- 
keeper: Frank Holmes, Sergeant-at-Arms; 
ThoB. Holmes, Aes't Doorkeeper; W. N, Kel- 
ler Business Agent; H, B, Muscott, James 
Mack and R. A. Boyd, Executive Committee. 
The installation ceremony was conducted by 
State Lectnrer P. K. Wood of Los Angeles, 
who also delivered an address on the princi- 
ples and demands of the Alliance. At the 
afternoon session. State Lecturer Wood exem- 
plified the new secret work of the Order, — 
Preai and Horticulturist. 

San Luis Obispo. 

At the election of officers of the San Mi- 
guel Alliance held June 27th, the following 
were elected: President, O. P. MoFaddin; 
Vice-President, Mra. Rufua Fisk; Secretary, 
A. L. Woodmansee, Treasurer: Mrs. A. Wood- 
mansee, Lecturer, Rufus Fisk; Assistant 
Lecturer, Mrs. O. P, MoFaddin; Chaplain, 
Rev. G. P. F*w; Steward, Henry Proc- 



tor; Doorkeeper, J. S. Warth; '•ant- 
Doorkeeper, Mr. Gorbley. 

The Alliance elected, or re-eleotec :all 
board of officers Saturday, and made final ar- 
rangements for the meeting of the County Alli- 
ance. The Alliance is steadily gaining mem- 
bers, and ia working harmoniously to that 
end. This certainly la so when at the election 
of new officers the whole corps of officers are 
re- elected. The Alliance will initiate some 
new members at the County Alliance meeting, 
— Adelaide Oor. Messenger, 

San Joaqain. 

The County Alliance met in this city July 
2, The reports of Sub AUiancea showed a 
gain of 204 members during the last three 
months. Their membership is now as follows: 
Mackville 39, Valley 40, Lodi 62, Farmington 
43, Waterloo 97, Live Oak 33, Mokelumne 43, 
Union 62, Linden 32, Woodbridge 63, Roberts 
Island 21, Bellota 47, Wrightman 28, Locke- 
ford 28, Tracy 18, Elliott 31, Four Tree 80, 
Collegeville 90; total 857.— Stockton Indepen- 
dent. 

Santa Barbara. 

The Santa Barbara Oo. Alliance met at Lom- 
poc, July 1st, The following Sub Alliances 
sent delegates : Lompoc, Summerland, Men- 
tioito. Pope, Cathedral Oaka, Dos Pueblos, Car- 
penteria, Santa Barbara, Ballard, Santa Ynez, 
Stuart, Goleta, Gearey, Pine Grove and Pleas- 
ant Valley, Several speeches of considerable 
merit were made by delegates and several orig- 
inal songs sung with good effect. The follow- 
ing officers were elected : E. B. Sawyer, 
Pres.; D. T. Truitt, Vice Pres.; J. R. Vance, 
Treas.; Mrs, M. A. Spring, Sec'y; S. K. Schill- 
ing, Lect.; Mrs. 0, A. Beckwitb, Aas't Lect. 
During tiie meeting Col. J, S. Barbee, the 
State Organizer, and J, L. Gilbert, State 
Lecturer, came into the hall and were enthuai- 
aatloally received. 

Procedinga Santa Barbara Common Council: 
In the matter of the petitions of the Farmers' 
Alliance, it was moved and carried, that Plaza 
Vera Cruz be set aside for market purposes on 
two half days each week,the farmers to kee p 
said Plaza clean, and to protect the shrubbery 
thereof. — Independent. 

The Alliance, It seema from the above, is 
steadily but earnestly pushing its work in 
favor of farmers. 

Santa Clara. 

The Pioneer Sub AUianoe reports that the 
following officers have been elected to serve for 
six months. President, C. M. Sullivan; Vice- 
President, L. M. Scott; Secretary, R, Mayne; 
Treasurer, Walter Ogon; Lecturer, W. D, 
Whitehead; Chaplain, John Arnerich; Steward, 
Joseph Redmond; Doorkeeper, Matt Arnericb; 
Assistant Door-keeper, Ed La Monten. The 
Alliance is in first-class condition. 

Sonoma. 

The Bloomfield Alliance met June 27, and 
elected and installed the following officers: 
E. E. Mann, President; Orland Colburn, Vice- 
President; W, A, Danbar, Secretary; John 
Johnson, Treasurer; P, C, Smith, Lecturer; 
Frank Woodson, Steward; Mra. Colburn, Chap- 
lain; Chas. Howard, Doorkeeper; Mrs. M. 
Dunbar, Assistant Doorkeeper, Refreshments 
were served after the Installation of officers, 
A large number was in attendance, and the 
occasion was one of enjoyment to all. The 
Alliance is in a flourishing condition. — Sebaa- 
topol Times, 

Stanislaus. 

Editors Press: — At the regular meeting of 
Stanislaus Co. F. A. and I. U, held July 1st, 
the following officers were elected to serve the 
ensuing year: President, V. E. Bangs, Modes- 
to; Vice-President, J, G. Elmore, Salida: Sec- 
retary, L. M. McKenzie, Oakdale; Treasurer, 
Mrs. L. J. Kinnear, Modesto; Lecturer, Rev. 
Briggs, Modesto; County Business Agent, W, 
W, Carter, Modesto; Sergeant-at Arms, Ed. 
McCabe, Modesto; Doorkeeper, G.W. Cameron, 
Modesto; Assistant Doorkeeper, Mrs, J, G. El- 
more, Salida; Steward, A. A. Davis, Salida; 
Chaplain, Miss Lizzie McCabe, Modesto. The 
installation will take place at the regular Octo- 
ber meeting. There was a fair attendance con- 
sidering the season of the year and the hot 
weather, the thermometer standing at 112° in 
the shade. Under the circumstances there was 
no wild excitement that usually characterizes 
such conventions, but sufficient interest was 
taken in the affaire of the meeting so that noth- 
ing was railroaded over. Fraternally, 

Modesto, July 4. 3.0, Davis, 

Ventura. 

The Calonia Farmers' Alliance seems to be 
flourishing. They initiated 6 at the last meet- 
ing, and have 11 applications for the next. 
The following officers were elected for the en- 
suing year: Pres., M, J, Lament; V. Pres., 
H. C, Richardson; Sec, J, B. Alvord; Treas., 
Mrs. W. R. Snively; Lect, E. Robertson; 
Chap.. W. R. Snively; Stew,, L. W. Richard- 
son; D, K,. E. C. Butterfield; Asst. D. K,, 
Walter A. Roe. — Free Press. 



A Frank Compliment, 

Editors Press: — I thank you for your kind- 
ness in publishing my article, and also for the 
copy sent. Although I am not a subsoriber, I 
always get your paper by exchanging with my 
neighbors, but after next month ahall become 
a regular subscriber because I like the paper 
very much, for the simple reason that yon ex- 
tend the same courtesy to women that yon do 
to men. Respectfully, L, E. Ruff. 

Valley Center, June S9. 



26 



f ACIFie F^URAL, f RESS, 



[July 11, 1891 




My Friend of Other Days. 



There's an aching heart in a mountain land, 

'Neath southern skies of blue, 

And sorrow(ul notes from a deep bass throat 

Now echo the vallev through: 

" You are mournful since I left you ? " 

Yes; but what, pray, can I do 

Sive to bless thee, gentle Jakey, 

Kind fates guard thee, burro true. 

II. 

In my dreams I see thee roaming, where the thorny 
cacti grow. 

Along the pinyon wooded tracts, 'neath peaks high 

capped with snow; 
Your gait is slow and weary, your head hangs sad 

and low. 

And everything about you suggests a tale of woe. 
in. 

Last night I dreamed of other days, when you and I 
together 

Made morning trips o'er canyon trails in fairest 
summer weather; 

And while I fished the mountain streams, you wan- 
dered, minus tether. 

In search of empty oyster cans and scraps of old 
shoe leather. 

IV. 

Can I forget that summer morn? 'Twas early in 
July 

We jogged along the valley road which skirls the 

mountains high, 
When all at once you humped your back, in way so 

cute, that I, 

Like rocket from this lowly earth, shot upward to- 
ward the sky. 

And I clubbed you with a fence rail, and swore, too, 
Jakey mine. 

While you stood still and waved your ears to the 
tune of "Old Lang Syne." 

V. 

The years have come and gone their way 
Since you and I 'neath forest branches 

Spoke parting words — farewell for aye; 

I sought the Unds that nor' ward lay, 
You wander still 'mong southern ranches. 
VI. 

Hail and farewell again to thee, 
And when death comes to you at last. 

Lie down beneath some pinyon tree 
And give the coyotes a repast. 

— Irrigation Age. 



A Hop in a Hop House. 

[Written for the Rural PRKsa by Violet M. Bkowx.) 

We spent a moit dellgbtfal five montba in 
MeDdooino oonnty — th»t garden epot of Cali- 
fornia — recently, and while there kttended • 
bop, which was given in Mr. fliatt's bop-bouee 
at Yorkvllle. 

We received the invitation one ealtry after- 
noon when the acme of exiatence seemed to be 
lying in a hammock on the broad front porcb and 
lazily dream of our plana for coming winter 
when we would have returned to the busy 
city. Hucb was our position when we >8pied a 
horse's bead around the carve in the road and 
heard the barking of the " door bell " — that is 
what we call the honse dog, owing to bis habit 
of announcing the arrival of visitors the 
moment be caught sight of their horses on the 
road by setting op a terrific barking, thus 
giving us ample time to pick up the books, 
papers, children's toye, etc., which might be 
lying around the front room, as we were not 
fortunate enough to possess that city luxury — 
a parlor — before oar callers bad reached the 
door. 

Oar visitor proved to be Mrs. Melville, one 
of the most pleasant ladies in the neighbor 
hood, who would not alight, but said she 
had merely stopped on her way over the 
mountain to her home to say that a dance was 
to be given the following Thursday night at 
Hiatt's bop-house and our presence was de- 
sired. Afttr she bad left and we bad watched 
her disappear over the crest of the hill, we 
began devising a way to go, for it was four 
milea to Yorkville and we had no means of 
getting there nnless we drove ourselves over in 
the backboard; bat this was oat of the ques- 
tion, as we hardly thought it would be sate for 
two women to go over that mountain road 
alone at night, and there was not a man on the 
place who cculd go with us. 

We were staying on my brother in-law's 
ranch while be had taken a run to the city ao- 
oompanied by his wife; therefore there was no 
man of the family to take us, and we did not 
feel like asking the faired man to drive for ns 
after his bard day's work in the field. 

Mother auggested that we take a ride over to 
the next neighbor'a, a half-mile np the road, 
and see if they were going. We found them in 
very mncb the same quandary as we were, 
owing to the fact that Mr. Marshall, the man 
of the boa«e, had taken their dog-cart and 
gone below for a short time, leaving them 
withont male esoort. 

We knew there was no hopes of any one ask- 
ing to accompany as, for that la not the custom 



in that part of the country. Every family 
goes in its spring wagon, the young men and 
women meeting at the dance, paasing a pleas- 
ant time, and the maidens returning with their 
parents, while the yoang men go off in groups 
on horseback. 

After a long consaltation, we decided to har- 
ness our horse Maggie with their old family 
horse Kate in their spring wagon, and we girls 
thought we would attempt to drive a double 
team, though neither of ns had ever undertaken 
such a thing before. We did not think, in 
fact we did not know until told afterward, of 
the danger of driving two horses wholly unao- 
qaainted with each other that bad never been 
broken to double harness. 

Thus it was arranged, and when the eventfol 
day came we started off — a merry party, my 
mother, her yonng grandson and the two 
younger girls on the back seat. Miss Florence 
Marshall and myself on the front, she man 
aging the brake while I drove. A small bound 
bay of Marshall's brought up the- rear of the 
procession on an unbroken pony, the back of 
which be managed to stick on to somehow 
without a saddle. 

Talk about John Gilpin's ride 1 I don't be- 
lieve it was a bit more wild than that of ours I 
For didn't those horses tear down and up the 
grades — one loping, the other trotting We 
scarcely caught a glimpse of the magnificent 
scenery we were pausing through, owing to the 
rapidity with which our fiery 8t»ede covered 
the ground, bringing as into Yorkville too 
early. 

VVe stopped at a friend's house and put oar 
team np in bis barn. His wife Invited as in to 
primp before her glass, for which we were very 
grateful, as our toilets were In a more or less 
demoralized condition on acooant of oar rapid 
transit. 

Hiving refreshed onrselves thus, we walked 
over to Hiatt's hop-house and there found a 
jolly crowd assembled, all eager for the music 
to begin. 

Every one who could beg, borrow or owned 
a horse was there. Towns thirty miles away 
were represented by two or more persons, and 
hardly any one from the immediate neighbor- 
bo')d was absent. 

The musicians — two violinists — took their 
places on a raised platform at one side of the 
room, while all who were going to dance the 
first quadrille stood in position on the fljor. 

Prettier girls than were on that floor never 
graced a ballroom — blondes with rose-leaf com- 
plexions nntanned by the hot suns; brunettes 
with clear olive skin?, dark eyes and tresses — 
and all were arrayed in the most tasty costnmes 
imaginable, mostly their own make, too. The 
young men were fine specimens of California 
mantiood — the greater number cf them tall, 
br( ad'Shooldered and strong looking. 

But the dancing I Such dancing was enough 
to set a city bred person crazy; the ease and 
grace was wonderful. 

I was somewhat puzzled to know what to do 
when the " caller-cS " said " Come down on 
your leather;;" bat my partner knew very well, 
for he caught me ronnd the waist and awang 
me around until I was dizzy. I understood 
better when the order was given " Swing your 
partner round and round " in a sing-song tane, 
the *' oaller" keeping time to the music. 

I also ctmprehended what was meant when 
the gentleman were told to " Ghassee to the 
pretty girl on your right," but I was very 
much bewildered when "Allemande left " was 
called out; however, my partner set me right 
by starting me off on a "Grand-right-and-left." 

When a few numbers had been gone through 
with, refreshments in the form of pie, dough- 
nuts, cake, fruit and coffee were pasted aroand, 
everybody helping themselves and eating where 
they happened to be sitting. 

I was at a loss to know what to do with a 
pie, as it was rather awkward to hold, bat soon 
solved the difficulty by slipping it under a seat 
near by; I hope it is not there yet I 

By this time the babies were sleepy, so the 
mothers laid them out on the benches and cov- 
ered them with their cloaks. One bad to be 
very careful where she sat down after that, for 
an innooent'looking heap of cloaks and shawls 
was very likely to have two or more small 
pieces of humanity beneath it. 

After the company had refreshed themselves 
dancing was resumed and the fan waxed fast 
and furious. 

Although everything was carried on in a 
most proper manner, still there was not that 
formality which oharaoterizes a like gathering 
in the city. 

As for class distinction, there is none, save 
that of good behavior. We were expected to 
be as ready to dance with the hired help as 
with the rancher himself; with the sheep shear- 
er as soon as with the schoolteacher, and in- 
deed, one was quite as much of a gentleman 
as the other. 

When dawn was visible In the east, the 
party broke np and we wended our way back 
to the barn where our team was; managed to 
re barness it and started for home, thoroughly 
tired out but delighted with oar first oonntry 
dance. 

If we were tired the horses were not, and the 
way they made for home was a caution. 

However, we did arrive safely with our 
strangely matched team, but I never heard the 
latt of that ride as long as we remained in the 
neighborhood. Every one I passed on the 
road afterward would stop and ask: 

" H 'W did you enjoy yonr drive to York- 
villf T " 

67S AUet St., Oakland. 



The Body and the Dress. 

[Written for the Rural Prkss bj' Mrs. Ciiarlotts 
FSRKI.SS Stbtson.J 

In a previous paper on "The Dress and the 
Body," the fact was mentioned that to most 
minds the bnman body does not exist save 
clothed; that humanity, to most of ns, oonsiste 
of head, bands, feet and cloth. It is the natural 
effect on the mind of seeing only and always 
olotbes. 

There Is another side to the question — the 
natural effect on the body of always wearing 
those clothes. We are too apt to look at liv- 
ing forms as we do at rocks, to consider them 
as fixed facts which can be used as we like 
withont any alteration in their structure. 

Bat the moat cursory student of natural 
science knows that the shape, size and essential 
qualities of any living thing are but the result 
of external conditions; that it is stamped b> 
cironinstanoes, shaped like jelly in a mold, and 
that as the mold varies the creature varies, be 
it little or much. Animal and vegetable are 
both thus pliable aod open to change — it Is the 
secret of their development. 

The human body has this capacity for varia- 
tion to an enormous degree, as we oan easily 
see about us. The walking skeleton of six 
feet six is no more like the walking barrel of 
four feet ten than a greyhound Is like a poodle. 

This external visible variation no one ques- 
tions. What I wlxh to olalm Is a more subtle 
but equally scientific fact — the way in which 
the sizj, shape, and action of the body are af- 
fected by external impressions too slight to be 
noticed by the common observer, who is indeed 
no observer at all. 

In the former paper I asserted that we think 
not of a body clothed as something more than 
a body, but of a body nnolotbed as something 
less than a body, 

In point of fact, U is the body which is 
always dressed has to adapt itself to the 
weight, pressure, restriction, use and care of 
that dress, jast as a peacock has to adapt him- 
self to his tail. A curtailed peacock given to 
an ornithologist would prove to him both by 
the presence and absence of certain pbysioal 
traits that It must have had a tail and just 
such a tail. So a skilled anatomist could tell of 
a human body, not only that it was accustomed 
to such and such work, but to such and such 
surronndiuKS and habits. 

Of course we all know that the boxer oan be 
told by his biceps and the baseballist by his 
broken bones, but beyond these extreme cases 
it could be told, for Instance, by a thousand 
delicate signs that a person was not only a 
dancer, but a good dancer, not only accus- 
tomed to driving but to the racket and the rifle, 
not only a lady or gentleman, but one of high 
rank. 

This is supposing a good deal, perhaps, but 
not too much when we remember how an ex 
ternal Impression creates a feeling, a feeling 
prompts to action, and repeated action modifies 
nerve, muscle and bone. 

Now the constant wearing of clothes compels 
the body to receive all its impressions through 
those clothes — to act through them, to move in 
automatic adaptation to their demands. 

Do you recall how Mr. George, in "Bleak 
House," always aat on the edge of a chair be- 
cause he had worn a knapsack so long that bis 
body allowed for It as a permanent fact T Any 
woman used to a bustle shows the same peculi- 
arity, 

In all that unconscious nerve action which 
measures size and distance before moving, we 
allow for clothes. Fur Instance, we want to 
reach something. If anolothed, we coald 
reach it by a simple arm action. Clothed, we 
know that that action would pull and strain our 
garments, even If we could compass It at all; 
and we move the body also, allowing for 
clothes. Do this for a lifetime, for many life 
times with their cumulative inheritances, and 
you find the balance of muscular development 
widely modified by clothes. 

All the surfaces of the body, hourly and mo- 
mently conscious of a never-ceasing restriction, 
adapt themselves to it In the blind and patient 
manner of natural forces; and when that re- 
striction is removed, the form, size and relative 
activity of the tissues beneath are Incomplete 
— unaccoanted for. 

Our external skin, which, when subjected to 
the sun and air and to the friction of surround- 
ing objects, has certain distinctive qualities, 
becomes, when constantly covered, an internal 
ekin, perceptibly different from the other, 

We all know how a person accustomed to 
certain garments or to certain weapons or tools, 
or even to certain ornaments, grows to inhabit 
those ohjectn, as if they were a part of the 
b.idy, and to miss them when gone, with some- 
what the same sense of loss that follows an 
amoutated limb. 

Our most instinctive and automatic motions 
prove that the excito-motnry nerves allow for 
clothing as they do for bodily tissues, as In the 
story of the woman in man's olothes, who, 
when a mouse appeared, tried to catch up her 
skirts; as the sailor hitches at his wiiistband, 
even when suspendered; as a man feels for the 
cane be is accustomed to carry, with a genuine 
sense of incompleteness. Not only do our 
physical nerves respond to external aurroand- 
logs in this manner, but that Inner spiritual 
body (If practical readers will forgive so ab 
struKC a phrase) adapts itself to them and /eels 
aooordingly, 

The whole mental state or attitude of moat 



men and women Is changed by changing their 
olothes. That lady who receives you so 
graciously, who so Impresses you with a sense 
of harmonious calm, would be another oreature 
if yon had chanced to surprise her in any cos- 
tume or lack of costume which her inner con- 
solouiness declared unfit. Her poUe, her man- 
ner, the completeness of her exlstenoe, does not 
stop at the skin, but at the rtffl ; plus her 
costume, she exiata, mlnna, she does not. 

So with the most diguified and self-satisfied 
of men. That dignity and self-satisfaction are 
literally a part of bis clothes, and his clothes 
are part of them; alter or dlmhiibh his immaou- 
late attire, and bis whole soul suffers; that 
man, that woman are not entire beings with- 
ont their clothes. 

If any one doubts this, let him or her, in 
well-manned and well-locked apartments, sit 
down, garmentless, to any dally task or amuse- 
ment. The very chair Is meant for clothes, 
and does not fit without them. The " feel " of 
every familiar otj)ct is strange to us. Un- 
usual beats and chills come from things we 
thought we understood. You cannot settle to 
yoar sewing or painting or writing; yon cannot 
settle at all. Your whole body is as full of 
perturbation as an uncovered anthill. It Is 
not only that yon are not dreaud; you are not 
done; you are not whole; you are not you! 
Yon only are when clothed. 

A Thought lor the Working Women's 
Society. 

The Fortnighdy Itevitw, not long ago, set 
Lady Dilke and Florence Routledge to dis- 
cussing " Trades Unions Among Women." 
They both approved the recent adoption of it 
among women, and found considerable to 
lament In that It did not begin earlier. The 
National Observer, commenting on this disons- 
slon, says: 

" OF course they are right. The modern 
woman's movement Is marked on every side by 
the formation of societies for every object 
deemed desirable. What we should call the 
socialization of woman Is setting In violently, 
and will produce among them all the results 
which it produces among men. * In union Is 
strength.' Discussion disciplines and develops. 
Co ordinate action gives force. From a mob, 
women will organize an army, and the army 
will carry many positions impossible to the 
mob. 

" This organization of women Is one of the 
special characterizations of this generation. 
The woman is coming to consciousness, as the 
Germans phrase it. She Is becoming an indi- 
vidual. No longer slave, servant or play- 
thing, no longer a spoiled beauty or a glorified 
child, or a despised drudge, she begins to 
reach out toward the creation of a world 
suited to her wants. She no longer wishes to 
drag at the heels of man, the pensioner of his 
pocket and the sport of his caprice. She will 
be herself; and she will become not less but 
more womanly In the process. Specialization 
will take place, and what she oan do better 
than man, she will do most, till the overlap- 
ping spheres of each are quite separated, and 
her part In the world will be differentiated 
from bis, and Integrated Into one suitable for 
her. 

" The opposition to her individualization is 
already dying. She Is now allowed to do what 
she oan. No one protests. And she Is found 
to be great help to affairs. Her new discipline 
makes her more effective and less burdensome. 
She assists civilization. In this country she is 
far In advance of her European congener. There 
she ploughs and makes hay and drudges at 
cattle tending, and is a beast of burden. In 
England she la an Iron worker, and awlnga a 
hamm(riikea man, and lovea her -'ponderous 
drudgery, protetting against being deprived of 
such employment. Like a caged animal whose 
door Is suddenly opened, she is afraid to go 
outside and escape. 

" But when she develops and learns to know 
that where women work at trades, the man 
working at the same gets just so much Ie*8 wages 
for his work, she will change her mind. She 
will learn that the family is the unit of sub- 
sistence, and that wages are determined by 
the cost of rearing a family. Where men 
only work, the man gets enough to support all. 
Where the women and children j^in in toil, all 
together get only as much as the man alone 
got before. The law is an Iron one. 

" Women are doing best where they Invent 
work of their own and devote themselves to 
that. Single women alone should seek em- 
ployment. The married should devote them- 
aelvee to the family In the largest sense, not 
merely Us food and olothes, and with increas- 
ing intelligence they will make the home so at- 
tractive and interestlrg that the saloon will 
lose Its charm and the club Its dull fascination. 
L-it women r« fleet on the possible growth lo 
this direction." 



The Ventilator of the Saul— "Do yon believe 
the eyes are the windows of the soul, as 
Emerson says 7" "No, I don't. "The mouth Is 
the soul's window — at least, that is where the 
soul ventilates itself." 



Men of noble birth are noted to be envious 
toward new men when they rise; for the dis- 
tance is altered; and it is like a deceit of the 
eye, so that when others come on they think 
they themselves go back. 



July 11, 1891.] 



pAciFie i^uraid press. 



The Stanford University. 

The L^land Stanford Janior University has 
annonnoed the arrangement of the coursea of 
instruction and the list of profeasors and 
atadies. 

The appointmenta of members of the faculty 
80 far made are David Starr Jordan, formerly 
of Indiana University, President; Andrew 
Dickaon White, ex Mlniater to Germany, non- 
resident Profeaaor of European Hiatory (resi- 
dent in March, April, Maj); George Elliott 
Howard, formerly with the Unlveraity of Ne- 
braska, Profefsor of American History and the 
Hiatory of institutions; John Caaptir Branner, 
formerly of the University of Indiana, Pro- 
fessor of Geology (work to begin in 1892); Oli- 
ver Peebles Jenkine, formerly of Da Piuw 
Uaiveraitv, Profeaaor of Physiology and His. 
tology; John Henry Comstock, formerly of 
Oornell Uoiveraity, non-resident Proftssor of 
Eitomology (resident in January, February 
and March); Melville Bast Anderson, formerly 
of the State University of Iowa, Professor of 
EagUeh literature; John Maion Stillman, for- 
merly of the University of California, Profeaaor 
of Indnatrial and Inorganic Chemistry (work 
to begin in 1892); Ferdinand Sanford, formerly 
of Lake Poreai University, Professor of Phyaica; 
Henry Alfred Todd, formerly of Johns Hopkioa 
University, Professor of the Romance Lan- 
guages (work to begin in February, 1892); 
Charles David Marx, formerly of the University 
of Wisconsin, Professor of Civil E igineering; 
Joseph Swain, formerly of Indiana University, 
Professor of Mathematics; Ernest Mondell 
Pease, formerly of Bowdoin College, Professor 
of the Litin Language and Literature; Horace 
Bigelow Gale, formerly of Washington Uni- 
versity, St. Louis, Professor of Mechanical 
Eagineering; Charles Henry Gilbert, formerly 
of Indiana University, Professor of Vertebrate 
Zoology; Douglas Houghton Campbell, formerly 
of Indiana University, Professor of Crypto- 
gamic Botany; Eirl Birnes, formerly of Indi- 
ana University, Professor of the History and Art 
of Eincatlon; Eiwin Hamlin Woodrnfif of 
Florence, Italy, Librarian; James Owen Grif- 
fin, formerly of Oornell University, Aisistant 
Professor of German; George Mann R'cbard- 
BOn, formerly of Lehigh University, Adsiatant 
Professor of Inorganic Ohemistry; Arthur Gor- 
don Laird, formerly of Cornell University, In. 
structor in Greek; Orrin Leslie Elliott, formerly 
of Cornell University, President's Secretary 
and B^'gistrar and Acting Inetructor In Eqo- 
nomics; Linis Alexander Buchanan, formerly 
of the St Louis Polytechnic Evening Sohool, 
Foreman of the Wood-working Shop; Daniel 
Kirkwood, formerly of Indiana University, 
Non- Resident Lecturer on Astronomy (resident 
in May); Jacob Gould Sohurman, formerly of 
Cornell University, Non-Resident Lecturer on 
Ethics (resident In March), 

Mecbaclcal and Mlnine EnBineerlDGr. 

The course of instruction perhaps most com- 
pletely arranged is that in mechanical engineer- 
ing. Four years' work is outlined, and by the 
time the student finishes it he ought to be able 
to thoroughly understand the construction of 
everything from a steam pump to an under- 
ground electric cable and conduit. 

In the first year, those ambitloue to be me- 
chanical engineers will get a splendid chance at 
advanced mathematics and English composition, 
and work in the physical laboratory and the 
shop. In the second year, they will get more 
of mathematics, more of physics, and will study 
machines where icaohinea are made. The third 
year's feature will be atudiea in analytic and 
applied meohanioe, chemistry and drawing, 
with options and elective studies in mechanical 
engineering. The last year will be given up to 
elective studies in mechanical engineering. 
The aim in this course will be to turn ont 
thoroaghly practical men. 

The oourae in civil engineering has been ar- 
ranged with the aame end in view. The atu- 
denta will have a chance at railroad engineer- 
ing, land surveying, bridge work and surveying 
for sewerage and pavements, and will be 
obliged to take the collateral work that belongs 
to auoh a course. 

The work In mining engineering will not be 
begun before the aecond year. First-year 
students in the department will be taken 
through that year's work in civil engineering 
with the coursea in elemental geology. 

Studies In Geology. 

The work in geology will not be begun until 
the aecond term, and will conaiat first, in ele- 
mental geology, in lectures on dynamic and 
atrnotnral geology; second, in topographic geol- 
ogy. In field and c£Bae work in topography, 
and third, In palaeontology in leoturda and 
laboratory practice in identifylog fossils. 

The work in zoology will comprise laboratory 
atndlea of the typical forme of animals and ays- 
tematio zoology. The comparative anatomy of 
the vertebratea will be studied In the labora- 
tory, and there will be an advanced course in 
systematic ichthyology, and a oonrse of lec- 
tures on the laws of organic life. 

Physiology and histology will be taught in a 
similar way. There will be elementary and 
special couraea, atndents preparing for medicine 
being advised to take physiology as a major 
aubjiot in chemistry, botany and zoology. 

Instruction in entomology will be given dur- 
ing January, February and March, and will be 
In the form of lectures, together with laboratory 
and field work. There will be four oonraea in 



botany, each arranged for five honra' work a 
week. 

The work in chemistry is planned to be done 
almost altogether in the laboratory. For in- 
stance, in elementary chemistry, lectures are 
three hours a week and laboratory work daily. 
In this, as in most of the other studies, work 
will be arranged to meet the needs of individ- 
ual students. 

In the other studies, Greek, Latin, German, 
the Romance languages, Eaglish literature, 
philosophy, history, economics, mathematics 
and physics, the coursea of study are arranged 
much as in other modern universities, and it is 
explained that the announcement for 1891-92 is 
largely tentative and subject to such modifica- 
tion as the needs of the students may require. 

There is a coarse on the history and art of 
education, and teachers not candidates for a de- 
gree will be given every facility for carrying on 
special studies in the department. 



Y"0U|^G JifoLKS' QobUjVIN. 



Black Jack and Yellow Jack. 

(Written for the Kural Press bj Cl*R4 S. Brows.) 
It was odd that I should have, at one and the 
aame time, two little doga named Jack, waa it 
not? 

It happened this way. Fanny had four little 
puppies, all brothers, and all jaat aa cunning 
as they could be. We picked ont the one we 
liked best to keep, and when they were big 
enough we gave the others away. We named 
our puppy Jack, and one of his brothers, whose 
new home was not far away, was named Jack 
by his owner. Oar Jack was yellow like a 
hound and a slim-bodied, long-legged fellow. 
His head waa one of the most beautiful I ever 
saw on a dog, and his eyes were full of intelli- 
gence and aSeotion, and after awhile of sad- 
ness, for poor yellow Jack had a hard time of 
it while he lived. The other Jack waa the 
smallest of the puppies, a little, short-legged 
black fellow, with a tan-colored breast. You 
would never have thought by their looks that 
they were brothers. Yellow Jack was much 
the best looking, but black Jack had a good 
heart, as yon will aee, like many a peraon yon 
and I meet who is not very handsome. 

When yellow Jack was six montha old, and 
an uncommonly smart fellow, good to mind, 
too, for we never had to speak to him but 
once, he waa taken sick with distemper. For a 
long time we thought he would die. We gave 
him medicines and nuraed him very carefully, 
but nothing seemed to do any good. At last 
he began to get over bia sufferings, but he 
could not walk or even stand up. His hind 
legs were paralyzad. He got almost entirely 
well, with the exception of his legs, so we 
kept him, hoping that aa he was so young he 
would outgrow the trouble. For more than a 
year he had to be carried around and tended 
like a baby. It made a lot of work, but he 
was such a dear dog that we were willing to 
do it. He showed bis love for us as plainly as 
a human being could and he was always very 
patient. 

It waa sad to see him unable to run off and 
play with other dogs, when he was just a? 
bright In his head as he ever was. When the 
weather was pleasant, I used to carry him out- 
doors and let him stay nearly all day on the 
lawn, where he could aee everything that was 
going on, and bark about it, too. 

Little black Jack often oame to see 
na, and when he found that his brother 
was a cripple, he did everything he could 
for him. He played with him and amused 
him and lay beside him on the grass for 
hours at a time. He kissed yellow Jack all 
over hla head many timee. He would not 
allow any other dog, or any strange person to 
come near his brother, for fear that he would be 
hurt. No matter If a dog five times aa big as 
he came around, black Jack would stand be- 
tween him and yellow Jack and growl. Some- 
times people who were passing wanted to go np 
to yellow Jack and see what was the matter 
with him, but his little guardian barked and 
growled so savagely that they were afraid. 

Black Jack did not have a good home, and 
he liked to stay with his brother ao well that 
we fed him and let him live with us, ao that 
was how we came to have two Jacks. 

Do yon remember Tom and Jerry, my 
cats, that I told yon of awhile ago ! Tom was 
a little kitten when yellow Jack became crip- 
pled, and never was afraid of him. He played 
with him a good deal, and was fond of sleeping 
with him. Jack had a little bed that was 
hardly big enough for two, and if he was 
stretched out so as to cover it all, Tom would 
get up on Jack's back very coolly and go to 
sleep there. Sometimes he would crowd in be- 
tween Jack and the wall, and almost push the 
dog off his bed. I don't think Jack liked that 
very well. It was very hard forua to end poor 
yellow Jack'a life, but it was a mercy to him as 
well aa a relief to us from care, for it became 
certain that he could never walk again. We 
still have black Jack, and, do you know, that 
little bit of a fellow thinks he is onr watch- 
dog and must take care of us ? He will not let 
other dogs come near ns, and, if any one comes 
to the house that he does not know, he makes 
a great fuss about it. I have seen black Jack 
many times jump right on the back of a big 
dog and scare him so that he ran away with 
his tail down between hia legs. Don't yon 
think my little dog ia pretty apnnky ? 



The Eyesight of Coal Miners. 

Dr. J. Court of Stavely, England has rtcenlly 
made a report upon a series of investigations as 
to the effect of safety lamps upon the eyesight 
of men engaged in coal mining. The investi- 
gations were carried out in the Derbyshire col- 
lieries, a number of men working with safety 
lamps and a number nsing naked lights being ex- 
amined. It was found tliat out of 524 persons 
using safety lamps, there were 164 afBicted 
with nystagmus (which consists of a peculiar 
oscillation of the eyeballs), 127 had night blind- 
ness, and 61 photophobia. Thia clearly proves. 
Dr. Court states, that there is a serious amount 
of disease, and ia in striking contrast with the 
diaeaae found among the miners nsing 
naked lighta, of whom only .32 had nystagmus, 
one had photophobia, and 12 night blindness, 
This difference is made greater still when it is 
borne in mind that, out of these 32 cases of 
nystagmus, 29 of the men bad previously used 
safety lamps, and the one man with photo- 
phobia and 11 of the cases of night blindness 
had also been employed in mines worked with 
safety lamps. In other words, of the 544 
men who had always used naked lights, there 
were only three who had nystagmus, and 
they worked with candles. 

Among the torchlight men, 228 in number, 
there was not a single case. Dr. Court holds 
that the insnffioient light of the safety lamps 
ia the chief if not the sole cause of nystagmus, 
night blindnesss and photophobia. The rem- 
edy proposed by him is that a light should be 
found that would be greater in quantity and 
with less shadow than there is in the Mareaut 
and similar lamps, At first he thought the 
position of the men in working the coal waa 
one of the chief oansea of nystagmuB, but his 
inquiries have convinced bim that it is the 
want of a good light that is the only cause of 
the mischief. 



Whisky as an ANEf3THETic, — I have for 
soma years past haen advocating the use of 
whisky as an anesthetic in certain surgical 
operation?," remarked Dr. I. Love of St. Louis 
to a group of interested auditors in the Arling- 
ton rotunda. "I recall to mind a ludicrous in- 
cident in this connection that occurred in my 
practice only a few days since. A negro came 
into my ofiiae and asked me to operate on a 
felon. ' 'Fore God, doctor,' he exclaimed, 
' don't hurt me; I'se drefiul 'frald of pain.' 
'Joe,' said I, 'it will cost yon $5 to give you 
chloroform, but I have something that will pnt 
you to sleep and you wont feel the operation, 
and the whole job will only coat yon $1.' I 
then took a half a pint of whisky and divided 
it np into three doses, and ordered him 
to take them with a half hour in- 
tervening. Along in the evening I got into my 
carriage and drove to the negro's cabin and 
knocked at the door. The only response waa 
lond snoring. I pushed the door open and 
found that my patient waa not only aound 
asleep, but was alone. I took the hand af- 
flicted with the felon, unwound the rag and 
proceeded to cut open the thumb. The only 
sign of conaciousneas was when the knife struck 
the bone, when he gave a moBt tremendous 
snort and a jerk of the arm. I fixed up the 
wound nicely and laid the arm on his breast, 
and on taking hold of the left hand to arrange 
it also, I fonnd, tightly clutched, a dollar bill. 
I relaxed the fingers, took out the bill, put It 
Into my vest packet and withdraw, leaving my 
patient still snoring as loudly as ever." — Globe- 
Democrat. 

POINTER.S FOR TllOSE WITH POOR TeETU. — 

Abicessua teein, esptcially m the bftuk uf the 
mouth, and more especially in the lower jaw, 
should not be left in the mouth after a reason- 
able amount of skillful treatment has failed to 
control the discharge of pus. Chronic abscesses 
discharging pus, which is swallowed with the 
aaliva, are too frequently allowed to pass un- 
noticed, and serious derangements may arise 
from thia constant assimilation of a septic 
poison. If the abscess cannot be cured, ex- 
tract the tooth. As to when to extract teeth, 
I have only to say that once it is decided to 
have the teeth removed, the sooner it is done 
the batter. If it ia designed to take gas, the 
dentist shonld not be visited immediately after 
a meal, as the presence of food in the stomach 
is likely to result in nausea and vomiting, 
which is unpleasant for both the patient and 
the operator. Take gas on an empty stomach. 
—A Denlisl in N. Y. Herald. 



The Pulse. — A physician who kept a night- 
ly record of his pulse for five years, reports 
that every year it falls through the spring until 
about mid-summer, and then rises through the 
autumn to November or December. Then 
comes a second fall and a second rise, oulminat- 
ing In February. 



Habitdal Divers in salt water often have 
iaflimmaciun of the eyes. The exposure such 
diving necessitates is not benefioial. 



" Pa, " asked aleepy Bobby, "can I ask you 
a question if it ain't foolish ?" "Ye-esT' almost 
shonted the old man, who was trying to read. 
"Well, if a toad had a tail, pa, would it inter- 
fere with his jumpin, or would It help him like 
It does the kangaroo 7" In leas time than it 
takea to tell It Bobby waa between the aheeta. 



X)oMESTie QcOJ^OMV 



Tested Recipes. 

[Compiled for the Rural Prsss by Ada E. Tavi.or.J 

Cocoanut Drops. 
Grate finely two cocoannte; weigh after they 
are grated and add an equal weight of pow- 
dered sugar. Baat the whites of four eggs to 
a froth and keep adding it and beating it In 
with the cocoannt and sugar until it forms a 
rather soft but thick paste, Uie a wooden 
spoon to beat it with. Drop small portions of 
thia paste upon wafer paper and bake in a alow 
oven. They should be a pale cream color. 
When done, break away all the paper except- 
ing that which adheres to the cakes, and let 
them remain until cold. 

Oranere Oream. 
Take the juice of six large juicy oranges and 
the grated rind of two; put it in a stew-pan 
with one pint and a half of water and 12 ounces 
of sugar; stir till the sugar is dissolved, then 
add the well-beaten whites of six eggs; stir 
over a slow fire till it thickens, then strain 
through a hair sieve and atir till cold. Put 
back into the pan and add the yolks of the eggs 
well beaten; stir over the fire till the mixture 
begins to simmer, then pour Into a basin and 
stir again till cool enough to be transfer) ed to 
glasses. 

Olaret Jelly. 
Soak one ounce of gelatine for two hours, in 
one pint of water, then put in half a pound of 
sugar, and stir till the sugar and gelatine are 
dissolved, then add the beaten whites of three 
eggs, one pint of warm claret and the juice of 
three lemons, whisk well together and let boil 
two or three minutes, strain until perfectly 
clear; put the lemon rinda into a basin, and let 
the jelly run on them; after running through 
the jelly-bag, remove the lemon rinda and 
pour into a mold. 

White Soup. 
Boil fonr large potatoes in just enough water 
to cover. When done, mash fine, and add one 
well-beaten egg, a few drops of the extract of 
celery, salt, and a little white pepper. Mix 
one pint of rich milk with the water the pota- 
toes were boiled in, and let come to a boil, 
then stir in the-potato mixture and a spoonful 
of butter, and send to the table at onoe. 

Corn Oysters. 
Grate young sweet corn into a dish, and to a 
pint of corn add one beaten egg, a very small 
teacnpful of flour, half a gill of cream and a 
teaspoonfnl of salt. Mix well together and 
fry, dropping it from a spoon into boiling lard. 

A Currant Tart. 
Roll out a rich pie paste to the thickness of 
half an inch, and put it in a buttered tart tin, 
prick a few holes in the bottom with a fork, 
and bake in a brisk oven*. Cut ont some leaves 
and bake also. Let the paste cool a little, and 
fill with preserved currants, place the leaves on 
top and eat while fresh. 

Cream Preserves. 
DisBolve an ounce of isinglaas and add to it 
a pint of good cream and acme sweet almonds 
pounded In a mortar, sweeten to taste, and 
boil gently together. Place aome nice pre- 
serves in a glass dish, and pour the cream over 
them when nearly cold. When stiff, the 
cream mnst bs stuck full of almonds. 

Red Currant Jelly. 

Sqae:z9 the juice from the currants and 
measure it in pints, set on the stove, and boil 
ten minutes, skim carefully and remove from 
the fire. Allow one pound of granulated sugar 
to every pint of juice there was be/ore boiling, 
stir the sugar slowly into the juice and pour 
into tumblers. If this receipt is carefully fol- 
lowed, one cannot fail to have firm jelly ; but 
remember the sugar must not be added till the 
juice is removed from the fire. 

Vallfjo, Gal, 



Green Tomato Chow Chow.— One peck of 
green tom<>tuts, six wnile onions, three red 
pepperp, sliced and salted over night. Drain 
them well and put in your kettle together with 
one cupful of grated horseradiah. One cupful 
of brown augar, one tableapoonful each of 
muatard, cloves, allspice and cinnamon, if you 
like. Cover with good vinegar and boil two 
minutea, stirring occasionally. Here ia another 
way: One quart of amall onions, a quarter 
peck of beans, boiled in salt water, one head of 
cabbage; cut up 50 pickles, three stalks of 
celery, one root of boraeradish, three heada of 
cauliflower, boiled in salt water. Mix all to- 
gether and salt for two hours. Three-quarters 
of a pound of yellow mustard, one onnce each 
of whole cloves, mace and cinnamon. S^ald 
the spices in the vinegar and strain. Mix the 
mustard with a little cold vinegar. Stir all to- 
gether well and put in air tight jars or bottles. 
And here is a third way: A quarter peck of 
white onions, one-qaarter peck of string beane, 
one dozen green peppers, three heada of cauli- 
flower, one head of cabbage, fifty encumbers. 
After cutting the vegetables season them with 
celery seed and mustard seed; add one-half 
pound of table mustard and a spoonful of tur- 
meric. Cover the whole with good vinegar 
and boil slowly for two hours, then add two 
tablespoonfnls of olive oil and bottle, — Mrs, 
D, J. Owen, Albany, Qa, 



28 



pACIFie f^URAb PRESS, 



[July 11, 1891 




A, T, DKWBT. W. B. KWKB. 

PubUshed by DEWEY ft CO. 



Office, 22QMarketSt., N. E. cor. Front8t.,S. F. 
tr Take the Slevator, Ho. U Front St.'m 



Our Subscription Rates, 

OoB AxNUAL SuBSORipnoa Rati is thb» doUiAbs » 
year. While this notice appears, all snbacrlberB pay- 
ing tS In advance will receive IS months' (one year and 
18 weeks) credit. For 12.00 in advance, 10 months. For 
11.00 in advance, five months. Trial subscriptions for 
three months, p:kid in advance, each flo cents. All 
agents and clerks are required to adhere to these terms. 
No new names entered on the list without payment In 
advance. Oar premium offerings are subject to these 
terms. 

Advertlalne Rates. 

I Week. I Month. S iIonth$. 1 Year 

rat Line (agate) t .26 1.60 t 1.20 t 4.00 

Half Inch (1 square)... 1.00 2.60 8.60 22.00 

One inch 1.60 6.00 18.00 «Z00 

Luge advertisements at tavorable rates. Special or 
rsadlng notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordinary type, or in particular parte of the paper, 
at ipedal rates. Four Insertions are rated in a montn. 



Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 



aCIBSTiFlC PRESS PATBNT AGBHCT 
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Registered at S. F. Post Office as second-olass nutil matter. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July ii, 1891. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



EDITORIALS.— The Great Douglas Spruce; Insect 
News; Special Pavilion for Black Cattle, 21. The 
Week; Meeting ot Olive Oil Producers; An Agricul- 
tuial Survey; An Important Decision Against Corners; 
Swine and Sheep from Canada; Grasshoppers, 28. 

ILiLiUSTRATIONS.— An Upturned Tree of Douglas 
Spruce, 21- Worth'o Continuous Pressure Uvdraulic 
PreaS, 37. 

PATRONS OP HUSBANDRY. — The Master's 
Desk; Nuble and Fraternal; The National Grange on 
More Money and Low Interest, 24. 

FABMiSKS' ALiljlANOJfi. — Meeting of the Ven- 
tura County Alliance; Congressional District Meetings; 
Continued Growth of the Alliance; Alliance County 
Notes, 25. 

OORRIiiSPONDENCB — Porterville Progress; Agri- 
cultural Jubilee and Banquet; AlUssandro Notef, 22. 

THE DAIRY Cheese Making in a Mountain Valley; 

Eastern (experiments with Dairy Feeds; Shorthorns 
and the Slate Fair Milking Trials, 22. 

HORTICULTURE.— Ai.ricot Disease— Leaf Aphis; 
Unifurm Assessment of Fruit Trees; Do Apples Pay in 
Butte County V Not a Valuable Walnut; Lemons in 
San;a Aua Valley; The Almond on Heavy Soils; Fruit 
Acreage in Kern <:ounty, 23 

THE HOME CIRCLE. -My Friend of Other Days; 
A Hop in a Hop House; The Body and the Dress; A 
Thoui(ht fur the Worklnjf Woman's Society, 26. The 
Stanford Universitv, 27 

YOUNG POLKS' COLUMN — Black Jack and 
Yel iiw .lack, 27. 

GOOD HEALTH The Eyesight of Coal Miners; 

Whiskv as an Anesthetic; Pointers for Those with 
Poor Teeth; Tlie Pulse, 27. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Tested Recipes; Green 
Tomato Chow Chow, 27. 

THK IKRIGaTOK.— Company or District Plan, 29. 

SUERP AND WOOL — Shoddy and Wool, 29. 

FARMERS' INSTITUTES — An Appeal to Cali- 
fornia Farmers; VN hat Farmers' Inktitures Are, 29. 

ME IBUKOLUGICAL.— The Heated Term and Its 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES.-From the Various 

Counties of California, 80. 
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE.— Investigation of 

California Oranges and Lemons, 32-33. 
TRACE AND FARM.— Additional Bases for Horse 

Contests, 34. 

FLORIST AND QARDENEB.-The Los Angeles 

Society Dis'-usses Paiisits, 34. 
THE FIELD. -Value of Manures, 34. 



Business Announcements. 



[NBW TBIg ISBDI.] 

Carte, Buggies, Wagons, Etc.— California Wagon & Car. 
ria^e Co. 

Sale ot Trotting Stock— Killip & Co. 

Adjustable Bolster Spring— Deere Implement Co. 

Preservative Compound — Carbolineum Wood-Preserving 

Company. 
Ranch for Sale-L. H. Baker, Williams. 
Pianos— A. L. Bancroft & Co. 
Cards— Justin T. Smith, Salt Lake City. 

tS'See Adverti»ng Columns. 



The Week. 



The after effects of the protractsd hot spell 
are seen In the harried ripening of fruits in 
some parti of the State, and the conseqneot 
necessity of immediate cutting and spreading 
of much fruit. This makes the use of many 
hands urgent; and there may be some losses. 
Much can be done to help the trouble if all 
'adjacent to the fruit districts will turn in and 
go into camp in or near the orchards. Ap- 
parent shortages in the labor supply have been 
quickly oared by such remedy In the past. 

The national holiday has passed with quite 
general obaervance and with no great conflagra- 
tion, though San Francisco baa to mourn the 
loss of a good church, which she can ill afford, 
A few aaloons or gambling placet woald not 



have been missed, bat the impartial fire- 
cracker is like the quality of mercy — It drops 
its fire upon the just and unjust. 

The RuBAL this week haa a good range of 
contents — the practical and scientific in all de- 
grees. Take a rest in the shade and look it 
over. Yoa can work the batter for the reit, if 
for nothing else. 



An Important Decision Against Corners. 

The courts seem to be taking correct views of 
the vioioos operations of those who aim to ad- 
vance themselves by visiting hardship upon 
large bodies of their fellow citizens. We re- 
cently cited a Chioago decision which prevent- 
ed a combination from collecting money from 
one of its alliee in an iniquitous operation in 
wheat-cornering. The ground was that the 
project was against the public weal, conse- 
quently recalcitrant conspirators could not be 
brought to keep their agreements by the courts, 
which are custodians of the publio welfare. If 
the conspirators fall out and break their con- 
tracts with each other, so much the better. 
When rogues fall out honest men get their de- 
serts, or words to that effect. 

We had last week in this city a case In the 
tame direction, which haa been decided in the 
same way as the Chicago case just alladed to. 
The Pacific Factor Co. brought sulk against A, 
A. Adler for breach of contract. On May 16, 
1888, Adler entered into a contract with the 
company by which he agreed to give it the ex- 
clusive sale of all grain bags, amounting to 
187,500 bags, which were or would be under 
his control prior to January 1, 1889. Adler 
broke his contract, and the company sued him 
for damages. He claimed in defense, that the 
contract, unknown to him, was part of a clever 
scheme of the company to control all the grain 
bags in the State, and then force the price up 
and compel the farmers to pay. Such being 
the case, Adler claimed that all contracts in 
any way aiding the scheme, were against pub- 
lic policy and consequently void. 

The lower court decided in his favor, and the 
Supreme Court affirmed the decision. It 
showed at length that any such scheme, as out- 
lined would be obviously against public policy 
and illegal, and in Adler's case, sufficient proof 
was presented that the acheme was in exist- 
tence when he made the contract. 

It Is not of particular moment whether the 
victorious defendant took advantage of the 
iniquity of the plaintiff* bacause of his general 
appreciation of the ethics involved, or because 
It was to his financial advantage to break the 
agreement. If the fact can be held and held 
again by the courts that agreements looking to 
cornering of necessities cannot be sustained in 
law, the whole business will become so shaky 
that few will be venturesome enough to have 
anything to do with It. This is whipping the 
devil around a stamp, bnt It gets a good lick at 
the evil one just the same. Leave the rognes 
to their own roguery, and they will soon de- 
stroy themselves. It is a most excellent thing 
to olose the doors of the courts upon them or to 
throw them over the bar whenever they suc- 
ceed in getting in. The tide is setting in the 
right direction, and we hope It will have force 
enough to sweep away some of the great trusts 
and combines who have vast money-bag* to 
hold up before judges and lawyers as well as to 
drown the small fry who quarrel over grain 
bags. 

Grasshoppers. — The State Board of Agri- 
culture has done well by telegraphing to the 
Department of AgricuUure at Washington for 
2500 copies of Professor Riley's pamphlet on 
the "Dastruotlon of Locusts." This is an es- 
pecial "emergency bulletin," In which Profess- 
or Riley has compiled all valuable suggestlcms 
on the destruction of these peats. We ho pe 
the edition for this State oan be obtained. Ap- 
plication for the pamphlet should be made to 
Secretary E. F. Smith, Sacramento. 



Berkshire Association. — At Its last meet- 
ing the Executive Committae of the American 
Barkshire Association adoptad resolutions of 
respect ti the memory of its lament ad secre- 
tary, the late Phil M. Springer, and unani- 
mously decided ta advance to the position of 
secretary. John O. Springer, Esq., a brother of 
the deceased, who has proved himself a very 
capable assistant during the past eight years' 
service In the office o( the asaoolatlon. 



Meeting of Olive Oil Prodncers. 

According to announcement, a large number 
of Californlans interested In the olive oil 
product assembled in the rooms of the State 
Board of Horticulture on Wednesday of this 
week. Elwood Cooper of Santa Barbara pre- 
sided. B. M. Lelong, Secretary, read a report 
from the committee to which the subject of or- 
ganization wae intrastod last April. The re- 
port was in favor of organization and contained 
a plan therefor, which we shall describe fully 
in a later issue. 

President Cooper delivered a very Interest- 
ing address favoring union of action among 
prodncers in the Interest of pure products, and 
citing the laws against falsification in Great 
Britain and this country, including the recent 
enactment by the California Legislature. Mr. 
Cooper alluded forcibly to the prevalence of 
adulteration in the south of Europe, and the 
extreme improbability of exportation of pure 
oil. Letters were read from A. P. Hayne Jr., 
of Santa Barbara, now In Earope, showing that 
base oils were carried to the oil mills, that the 
merchants were pushing base oils to the ruin 
of the legitimate prodncers, and that the latter 
in discouragement, were in some cases, cutting 
down their olive orchards. He saw nothing 
but indications that oil brought from Europe 
to this country was adulterated, and that 
American prodncers must arise against it. 

Mr. Hayne also gave very interesting ac- 
counts of simple chemioai tests for the detec- 
tion of adulterations, which are now being suc- 
cessfully applied in Europe. Mr. Cooper also 
read a letter from an old Quaker friend of his, 
now in Europe, who testified strongly against 
the debasement of olive oil, saying that the 
European consumer did not expect to get pure 
oil from the merchants, bnt were forced to seek 
it from producers with whom they were per- 
sonally acquainted. All these facts and others 
like them showed strongly the need of a move- 
ment by pure-oil producers in the interest of 
their own industry. 

After the address by President Cooper, sev- 
eral essays were read, showing forcibly the 
value of olive oil as food and as a remedial 
agent. Mr. L. Paparelli of the University Ex- 
periment Station read a paper on chemical tests 
for detecting adulterations, and demonstrated 
the same by the nse of the reagents. 

At the afternoon session Prof. Hilgard gave 
an intaresting extempore address upon the olive 
and its uses. He instanced the experience of 
olive eaters of Southern Earope, which he had 
observed, showing the food value of the pickled 
olive when gathered at the proper time and 
well pickled and argued that the consumption 
of olives would vastly increase In this country 
as people became better acquainted with the 
olive so prepared that it would appeal to them 
as a food and not merely as a condiment. The 
demand for our olives would increase as has 
the demand for our raisins, prunes, etc. The 
demand for our pure olive oil would also vastly 
increase as the supply of pure first-class oil, 
becomes available and people understand its 
superiority over the animal fats which now so 
largely supply the oily elements In our foods. 
Prof. Hilgard gave many other reasons why 
there was reason to believe that our olive 
products could meet a satisfactory market even 
when largely increased, but it was essential 
that the movement in support of pure products 
should prevail. 

Prof. W. B. Rising of the State University 
addressed the meeting on the subject of food 
adulterations, premising that adulteration Is 
commercial fraud and its prevention has been 
energetically undertaken by the nations of 
Europe. An account was given of observations 
recently made by the speaker of the practical 
working of European measures against such 
fraud, and they were shown to be very elab- 
orate and effective. In this country, the idea 
of greater liberty seems to have carried greater 
license in the debasement of human food. In 
Massachusetts, we find perhaps the best system 
of detection of adulteration in this country, 
and the result has been a great advance In the 
purity of foods, drugs, etc, and the result is 
that adulterators ship their base products to 
other States for sale. Hence the necessity for 
other States to guard against adulterations in 
the interest of their own citizens. Prof. Rising 
gave an interesting outline of the tests by 
which ohemista determine the parity of oils, 



and stated that he had investigations In prog- 
ress which would be reported later. 

Prof. C. H. Dwinelle stated his observation 
at Nice, France, that olive wood was largely 
used for fuel, the result of digging out trees 
because the industry had been largely rendered 
unprofitable through adulteration. There were 
some, however, who were planting olive 
orchards, thinking that even though adultera- 
tion flourished, there would be demand for 
pure oil which could be known to be each. 

This outline covers the proceedings up to the 
time when the Rural went to press. We shall 
reour to the subject next week. 

An Agricnltural Survey. 

It seems that the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture Is undertaking an agricultural survey 
of the country. We suppose it is in prepar- 
ation for the grand exhibit at the Columbian 
Exposition, although the official announce- 
ment we have seen does not say so, but refers 
rather to " a bulletin in preparation for publi- 
cation." However, either use of the facta will 
be In the public interest, and we trust they 
will be freely furnished. 

Hon. J. R. Dodge, Statistiolan of the De> 
partment, haa written to Prof. George Hus- 
man, U. S. Statistical Agent in this State, re- 
questing information concerning the topog- 
raphy and available uses of the lands of your 
county, the proportion of arable, pastoral, 
timber and waste lands, with such specific 
description as you may deem useful." 

It is also requested that the Department be 
furnished with addresses of persons best quali- 
fied to give facts in their experience in any 
branch of stock-raising, in the cultivation of 
wheat, oats, alfalfa, potatoes or any specific 
crop, and In any successful experiments in any 
branch of fruit-growing, naming each person In 
connection with the branch of rural husbandry 
for which he Is noted. It is quite desirable 
that progressive farmers should bring them- 
selves and their neighbors into communication 
with the Department. The publications with 
which they will be furnished are often very 
valuable and important. It is also desirable, 
from the fact of making our coast as well known 
as possible, to furnish the Washington author- 
ities with all possible local data. 

The Weather Boreau.— The United States 
Signal Service closed its labors on the last day 
of Jane. General Greely is now the head of a 
purely military staff corps, while the Weather 
Bureau is a part of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, with Prof. Mark W. Harrington of Aon 
Arbor in charge. General Greely has been in 
the signal corps since 1871. He constructed 
telegraph lines In Texas, Dakota and Montana 
until the scientific societies united In sending 
expeditions to the north polar region. Lieu- 
tenant Greely was put in charge of the Ameri- 
can party, and was absent three years. On his 
return, he was made a captain, and later, when 
Gen. Hazen died, was made Chief j Signal Offi- 
cer, a position which carried with it a Briga- 
dier Generalship. He is now Commander of 
the Military Signal Corps. Prof. Mark Har- 
rington has been all his life a scientist and 
naturalist. His is known as a botanist, as an 
astronomer, as mathematician, and as the 
editor ot the first meteorological journal Issued 
in this country. Hereafter all those engaged 
in the Government's meteorological work will be 
civilians, from the head of the bureau to the 
novice in the service. 

Swine ansSbebp From Canada. — Seoretary 
Rusk gives notioe that the quarantine of sheep 
and swine imported from Canada Into the 
United States, required by the order of May, 
1891, Is hereby removed, and sheep and swine 
may be imported from Canada into the United 
States without quarantine; provided, on inspec- 
tion of said sheep or swine at the ports of entry 
they are found to be free of disease, and pro- 
vided further that sheep or snine imported 
into the United States from Great Britain or 
the continent of Earope through Canada shall 
have been held In quarantine by the Canadian 
Government for 15 days, and the importer 
shall produce at the port of entry into the 
United States, a certificate from the proper 
quarantine officer of said Government, showing 
the fact of said quarantine. 

Alameda Co. Farmers' Institute. 

This Institute will meet at Haywards at 1 
r M,, August 7(b, and continue curing the 8lh. 
All farmers and their families are invited. An 
instructive and attraotlve order of ezeroisM 
wUl be presented. 



July 11, 1S91.] 



f ACIFie I^URAb PRESS. 



29 



PQhe Irrigator. 



Company or District Plan. 

Editors Press: The Oakdale Irrigation 
Company bavini; quite exhausted its means, 
closed work on the canal laet fall. With $10,- 
000 more they could complete their proposed 
canal to Oakdale. The stockholders of said 
company do not feel competact to raise the 
sum needed by any aystsm of financlerin); they 
oare to adopt, A considerable portion of the 
people residing in that tract of country sua- 
oeptible of irrigation from the same source or 
■yetem of works which could be formed Itto an 
Irrigation District under the Wright law, in- 
cluding quits a large number of the stock- 
hold erg of the 0. I. Co., are quite outspoken In 
favor of forming a Dtatrict under ^ald law, and 
purchasing the works of the 0. I. Company. 

There are also several large stockholders who 
own considerable land who strenuously oppose 
such action without giving any good reason for 
80 doing. We have several land owners whose 
land is accessible to irrigation from said 0. I. 
Co.'s canal who own no stock in said canal nor 
have ever paid a dollar toward its conatrnotlon, 
who are bitterly opponed to forming a District 
under the Wright law, which would draw them 
into the meshes of taxation where they ought to 
be. Though they want a ditch as much as any- 
body, they are willing that others should 
build It. 

From any system of figuring within my 
knowledge I am firmly conviooed that the gen- 
eral system of irrigation as set forth under the 
Wright law, Is the faireet, moat mutually bene- 
ficial, and most judiciously advantageous that 
has ever been devised in this or any other 
State. It is no burden or incumbrance on 
their property that all should be taxed for the 
creation and support of any public enterprise 
that would be mutually beneficial to all the in- 
habitants of a town or oommonity in propor- 
tion to their means at stake. Bonds are issued 
payable twenty years hence bearing six per 
cent, semi-annual interest, and we may reason- 
ably expect that the rise in valuation and 
natural accumulation of property during the 
maturity of said bonds, the result of such ex 
pendlture will not be less than from ten to 
twenty times its present value, and nothing 
but the intereet on the bonds is to be paid dur- 
ing the first ten years. It can not reasonably 
be considered a burden that all real estate 
owners should be taxed In proportion to the 
value of their property to pay the interest on 
aaid bonds. The interent on the bonds does 
not increase from year to year, but as property 
Increases in value the rale of interest decreases. 
If irrigable lands are benefited more than 
town property their taxation increases in pro- 
portion. 

If town property in the vicinity of Oakdale 
was to be assessed for one-fonith of the whole 
value of the property in the district, and land 
anbjdct to Irrigation at three foutths of the 
whole valuation, of course town property 
would be In for one-foutth the tix, and lands 
for three-fouiths. 

If In the course of five years lands would 
have increased in value four times, and town 
property twice or jutt double it) &rtt assess- 
ment, the town propeity, Instead of being 
taxed for one-fourth, would pay one-aeTeoth 
the interest on bonds, and the irrigable land 
six- sevenths. Thus the kind of property that 
receives the greatest benefit Invariably ptys a 
oorreeponding portion of the interest on bond>; 
and during tbe time the bonds are to be paid, 
between 10 and 20 years hence, it is reasonable 
to suppose that nine- tenths of the property in 
the district will have accumulated since the 
bonds were issued. The man in the Oakdale 
Irrigation Company who holds $5000 of said 
company's stock, and has 300 acres of land 
aocesssible to irrigation, on which he must, 
according to rules of the 0. I. Oo., pay $15 
per acre for perpetual water right before be 
can use the water, stands in his own light when 
he opposes the district plan. Should a district 
under the Wright law be formed, he could ex- 
change his $5000 stock for $5000 in bonds, and 
would save $4500 on purchase of water rights. 
This sale of water rights Is intended to produce 
a fund to meet the present indebtedness of the 
company, wh'ch the district would assume if 
organized. Now suppose that this neighbor's 
300 acres of land were to be assessed 
at $9000 for the purposes of taxation, 
and tbe rate of taxation, which has 
been carefully computed at 1.8 per cent, 
the amount r f tax on $9000 (it .018 per cent) 
would be $162, tbe ittirett on tae $5000 in 
bonds at 6 per cent amounting to $300. In- 
terest on $4500 ptid for wat.r rigbti at same 
rato would be $270 making sum totsl of inter- 
est $570, less Uz $162. Tbe balance interest 
in favor of district is $408, which, added to 
stock and water rights (unsvaiUble propeity 
and exchanged for bonds, $9500) makes the 
■um total in f«vor of the district plan in this 
one instance $9908. 

All atock-holders and property-owners in the 
district would be proper tionat ly affict^d. It 
would especially be for the intareit of every 
stock-holder In the O. I, Co. and land owner in 
the district to change from the corporation to 
the district plan, for the reason that he could 
exchange his stock that will, if the canal is com- 
pUtsd and held by its present owners, be un- 
prodnotive for years, besides save ai maohmore 



in the purchase of water rights, which is only 
paying the debts of the company which thedis 
trlot would assume for bonds bearing 6 percent 
interest In gold, except that he might have to 
pay 30 per cent of the interest he receives on 
bonds as a tax to meet his proportion of the in- 
terest on bonds, 

Some raise the objection that it is so very 
difficult to sell the bonds. In our case we 
could use four-fifths of the bonds In the pur- 
chase of the 0. I. Co.'s property at par, which 
obviates the necessity of selling the balance of 
bonds where money la to be bad. The present 
owners of the O. I. Oo.'s stock had better loan 
the money on tae bonds at par than furnish the 
means to complete the canal at their own ex- 
penoe- C. S. 8. Hill. 

Oakdalf. 



JSheejo aj^d (j0Cooi.. 



Shoddy and Wool. 

A matter that is seriously antagonizing our 
wool trade, s*ys the Drover'i Journal, is found 
in the great flood of shoddy that has, within 
the past few years, been let loose in all the 
woolen trade centers, we may say, of the 
world. Shoddy Is made from all the old woolen 
goods that may have been worn out and 
thrown in the alleys or dumping ground in any 
locality where they are carefully gathered np 
by tbe old rag pickers and which are sent by 
the oar load or dozen car loads to the great 
shoddy factories where the old blankets of all 
kinds, the old clothing and any old worn out 
woolen goods are all, by ingeniously contrived 
machinery, brought into live wool condition. 

Large shoddy factories have now been es- 
tablished both in Great Britain and in our own 
country, and in the aggregate enormous quan- 
tities of this shoddy wool la sold and worked 
into new cloth, much of which is aold aa super 
fine, and it is all warranted to be all wool; a 
small amount of good wool ia mixed with a 
large amount of shoddy in making cheap all 
wool goods, and this cheap goods Is worked up 
into pants or new suits as the case may be, and 
any number of wearers may be seen any day 
decked out in tbe shoddy goods cut in the 
lattst style and made in the most ar .istio style. 

Of course the many millions of shoddy that 
is being made into new cloth creates and keepn 
alive hard competition against the general wnol 
trade. According to the census report of 1880 
our woolen goods were then made of 118 parta 
of pure wool to 108 pjrts of shoddy, hair, cot- 
ton or other aubstitutes. 

According to that oensua the raw material 
put into our woolen gooda were as followc : 



Pounds. 

Domestic wool 222,991,531 

F ti ic;n wool 73,2110,698 

Cam I'a hair 1,583,119 

Mcihalr 159 678 

Buffilo hiir 671 027 

Hair of other animals 5 664,142 

Cottou mixture 48,0(iO 857 

Shoddy 52,163,928 

Total 404,434,978 



The wool as reported in the above table is 
wool in the grease. It is estimated by the 
treasury department, and by the ways and 
means committees of Congress In making up 
the wool duties, that wool in the grease wilt 
shrink in washing and scouring to one-third of 
its weight. 

Daring the decade ending with 1890 this 
kind of adulteration has been kept up, the 
shoddy part has even been largely increased ac- 
cording to the present aspect of that trade. 

It is about an even race between cotton and 
shoddy now in tbe making of all grades of 
woolen goods. Tho finest grades of worsted 
goods for ladies' wear are now as a common 
thing heavily adulterated with either shoddy 
or cotton, or with both. In the making of car- 
pets, rugs, etc., cotton and shoddy are made to 
play an important part. An exchange sums 
up the matter as follows: 

The Djbsons of Philadelphia, gentlemen 
whoae frankness should not deprive them of 
their repute for being the most honest carpet 
manufacturers, defending their trade agtinst 
the charge of importing "carpet wools" for 
u»e in clothing manufacture, estimate that of 
55,000,000 pounds of carpet material 10,000,000 
are clean wrol. equivalent to 27,000 000 oounds 
raw wool; 20,000,000 are shoddy and 25, 000,- 
000 other mixtures. 

The growth of the shoddy business has 
called into being a great number of factories 
especially devoted to the manufacture of the 
stuff, some of which are concerns of large 
capacity. One of these mills, that of F. 
Mnhlhausen & Co., of Oleveland, Ohio, has 
been described in a trade journal as the most 
extensive shoddy mills in the country, and 
probably the largest in the world. The 
capacity of the concern ia thua stated by the 
same paper: 

" The production of these mills is very large, 
and since the new addition has been in opera- 
tion, 20,000 pounds per day has been turned 
out, yielding an annual product of about 
5 000 000 pounds. Their last pay-roll shows 
over 480 hands employed; their help are 
mostly Bohemians. They have 300 sorters to 
keep the material ready for the m'tnhlaes. 
This plant was first established in 1871. It 
is Interesting to note the success which has 
attended the firm in its business and the 
(teady manner In which it Is iacreasing, the 
demand for their shoddies growing larger and 
larger every year," 



Farmers' Institutes. 



An Appeal to California Farmers. 

Editors Press: — Now that plana have been 
evolved whereby the farmers of California 
can, if they desire, have Institutea, I hope that 
they will avail themselves of the opportunity, 
and arrange for a number of them in Tarloua 
portions of the Siate. I am a firm believer In 
Institutes for I have seen what they have done 
for farmers in a dozen or more States, and know 
that by reason of the Information gained at 
these meetings, the farmers have bettered their 
condition to a large degree, and in all the 
States where Institutes have been held, theory 
Is for more. In Wisconsin every county has 
at least one Institute each year, and in some of 
the larger counties two are held; and at each 
aession, even if the Institute is held for three 
''ays, large numbers attend. What la true of 
Wisconain, ia true of the other States. 

In California with her diversified agricultural 
interest, tbe Institute would have to be of a 
diversified nature so as to meet the wants of all. 
Every farmer wants to know bow he can get 
the largest returns from his land, whether 
engaged in grain-growing, dairying, fruit 
raising or grape production, and if he can learn 
from the experience of others, it will ba cheaper 
to him than if he has to learn from his own 
experience. 

We are all interested in California, and we 
do not want any failures in the agricultural 
line, and we can avoid failures by profiting by 
the mistakes of others. There are many new 
Bettler,s coming Into the State, and they will be 
sadly in need of Information, and In no way 
can they get it so cheaply or so concisely aa by 
attending Institutes, and even at the risk of 
offending old aettleri>, venture to say that 
they do not know it all, and they will no doubt 
be g!ad to attend Institutes and learn tbe 
" how " of their business. 

The requirements for obtaining an Institute 
in any locality are simple and inexpensive, and 
there should be no hesitation about promptly 
arranging for them. When you have deter- 
mined to hold an Institute, arrange to have 
plenty of vocal and instrumental music, so tha'c 
if the leader finds the meeting growing dull or 
lagging, it oan be enlivened by a song. There 
is plenty of local talent in each community for 
this, and a song will enable the speakers and 
workers to get their "second wind," and take 
a new tact in the meeting and so increase the 
intereet. I apprehend alttr the Institute Is 
well started, there will be little need of waking 
up the audience. 

Now, brother agriculturists, yon have it in 
your own hinda to senure Institutes under the 
plan presented to the Regents of the State UqI- 
versity, and I am sure that Prof. Wiokson will 
do all be can to give yon meetings that will be 
profitable and interesting, and if yon will do 
your part, California will soon take rank with 
the best of the States In this new departure. 
There is talent enough on the farms in each 
locality to run an Institute, and all that is 
needed is a leader to put them at work. 

When I was engaged in Institute work In the 
Eistern States several years ago, I could al- 
ways pick out the fore-handed farmer by the 
way he asked questions and his manner of list- 
ening, and it ought to be tbe rule here that 
all should seek to increase their store of knowl- 
edge by asking questions and by noting down 
the answers to the more important of them. 

We oan learn from one another if we will, 
and we should not content ourselves with doing 
our work in a haphazard manner, "remember- 
ing that "the best way is none too good," and 
prepare ourselves to take every advantage that 
may be offered. 

So then let every farmer help make the Insti- 
tutes a grand success and, in doing this, help 
ourselves immeasurably, «nd thus place agri- 
culture in this State on a higher rUne than it 
has yt oconpin<l. R P. McGnNcr. 

Campbell, Gal . June IS, 1891. 



What Farmers' Institutes Are. 

J. C. Shinn of NUes, Seoretiry of the com- 
mittee, now preparing for the Alameda Oountv 
Institute, to be held at Haywards, Augutt 7 
and 8, furnishes the following excellent para- 
graph to the county papers: 

A movement has been started in this county 
to organize a Farmers' Institute to work in a 
good deal the same lines as the organizations of 
the name at the East, which have been of so 
much benefit there. The Inttitate is neither a 
Democratic or a R3publican side show, and in 
deed has absolutely nothing to do with politics 
of any kind. The subjects for discussion are 
restricted to the common every-day questions 
that come up In every farmer's mind, and in 
these gatherings of farmers, a great deal of 
hard common sense, practical experience, and 
much information on farming subjects is brought 
out. There seems to be a misapprehension in 
the minds of many about this same Farmers' 
Institute, and I want to make it clear right 
here, that it Is not a club or a secret society, 
has no passwords, grips, or danger signals, and 
last, bat not least, no dues. It costs nothing 
but time, unless, perchance, when necessary, 
enough to pay for the use of a hall. At the 
first regular meeting of the Institute, the as 
sembled farmers will elect such offioera as are 
absolutely necessary to conduct the business of 
tbe meetings. This will probab'y be simply 
a President and Secr&tary. A Committee on 



Program for the next meeting will be 
pointed and a place of meeting and time ti. 
for the next Institute. 

The program as arranged by the present tem- 
porary committee on program will be carried 
out, and will, In all probability, consist of a 
speech by some well known farmer or horti- 
culturist an explanation of the enda and alma 
of the Institute and the best way to reach 
these ends; this by Prof. Wiokson. Then 
there will be abort papers or speeches by well 
known farmers from all parts of the county on 
subjects such as the following: Horse breed- 
ing, the draft horse, the roadster, the truck 
horse, cattle breeding for dairy purposes, or 
beef, hoga and sheep on the farms, poultry, 
fruit raising, shipping, canning and drying, 
nuts, sugar beets, variety and mode of culture, 
cost of growing arid effect on land, other 
vegetables, early and late, on the hills or on 
valley land, grain and hay growing, insects and 
remedies, floriculture, and any of the thousand 
and one Interests that are Interwoven with the 
life of the farmer. Aa farming must be well 
and nicely done in these days of sharp competi- 
tion, of greedy middle men, and grasping rail- 
roads, every farmer needs the help of every 
other farmer, and all the information as to 
best methods of growing and mark^fng hia 
oroDS, be they cows or canteloupes, that he can 
obtiln. Where can he better obtain such In- 
formation than in a oonvention of his brother 
farmers, Let us all go prepared to make a fair 
exchange of the good things we know for the 
good things that others know, and be ready to 
get up and talk a tew minutes if called on, and 
to ask as manv qnestinna as wensn. 



QX ETEOI^OloOGieAb. 



The Heated Term and Its Causes. 

Editors Press:— The month of June has 
been remarkable for extremes of temperature 
and excessive rainfall. The temperatures have 
been the highest for many years,if notthebfgh- 
est ever recorded in Cillforoia. Prom the 1st 
to the 20th of the month the temperatures 
were generally below the normal and much 
cloudiness prevailed. This was the period also 
of frequent precipitation. All cyclonic dis- 
turbances dnrlner the month have moved east- 
ward north of Washington, but their energy 
in a number of instances wa« so marked as to 
carry the area of procipitatlon southward to 
Central Californfa. The month has been of ex- 
treme interest from a meteorological point of 
view, in that It has sffordfld opportunity for 
the study and forecasliog of the two most im- 
portant features of summer weather, viz., cold 
westers and hot northers. The former have 
been marked but not unusually so, while the 
latter have been extraordinary, it was very 
fortunate for all kinds of vegetation that the 
hot northera came near the end of the month, 
for plant growth and fruit development had 
progressed so far as to be in a condition to 
avoid serious damage. Tbe distribution then 
of these two extremes of summer weather has 
really been most fortunate for agricultural and 
horticultural interests in California. In Oregon 
and Washington the distribution of precipita- 
tion and the variability of temperature has 
been very favorable to crops generally speak- 
ing. There has been some complaint, however 
of too much rain, which has been excessive in 
Northern Oregon and Central Washington. 

Rilnfall — The prominent feature of the 
month has been the excesn of precipitation in 
Northwestern California, Nevada, Oregon and 
Washington, where the departure above the 
normal, ranges from O.I 1 inches in Nevada to 
2,50 inches in Northern Oregon and Central 
Washington. This large amount of rainfall has 
been due to tbe frequent passages of cyclonic 
disturbances 'rim the Pacific Ocean eastward 
over Britlab Cjlumbla. In spite of their high 
latitude, excessive precipitation has resulted 
from their unusual number and the rapidity 
with which they succeeded each other. In 
Southwestern California and Ariz'>na a de- 
fioiony has occurred which ranges from 04 to 
0-57 inches. Rain fell on 18 days in C>li- 
fornia; on 5 days in Arizona; on 13 days in Ne- 
vada; on 27 days in Oregon, and on 28 days In 
Washington. Snow fell in Northern and East- 
ern California, Nevada and Southern Oregon on 
the 8th, and in tbe monntaiiiBOf California and 
NoVctda on the 3d and 7''b. The greatest rain- 
fall in 24 hours occurred at Walla Walla, 
Wash,, 1,56 Inches on the 13:h and 14tb; at 
Spokane, Wash., 1.12 inches on the 13.b. 

Temperature — This element has been one of 
the most interesting meteorological features of 
the month, but the mean values give very little 
indication of the unusual extremes which have 
been experienced. The average values ssiooth 
out tbe abrupt changes. The inflaence of the 
cold westers has outweighed the hot northera 
the last week of the month. We therefore find 
that the temperature is b^low the normal in all 
districts except Southern Arizona, Southwest- 
ern Oilifornia and Southwestern Oregon. The 
deficiency ranges from two degrees in C»llfornia 
tnd Washington to three degrees in Nevada. 
The excess haa been moat marked in Cda'rr%\ 
Cjillfornia. The hfp^est t°mperature, 116 
degrees, occurred at Yuma, 29th, and 145 de- 
grees at Salton, Cal., 29:ih. The minimum 
temperature, .SO degrees, occurred at Winne- 
muco^, 8th. K'lling frosts North»rn Oallfornia 
and Northern Nevada, 6th, 8 h, 20th. 

John P. Finlby, 
Lieutenant 19lih Inf 'ty, A, S. 0. 



30 



f AClFie F^URAId f ress. 



[July U, 189) 



jg[r5RlCULTURAL J^OTES. 

CALIFORNIA. 
Fresno. 

Hakvest Notes. — Freano Republican : The 
wheat is beginninf; to move. The first ship- 
ments of any eize bep»o yeeterday when 30 
oars were forwarded. Rjoeipts from the fur- 
roandiD); towns will continue to increase daily. 
The Singer train comes in loaded each morning 
and retarns with a string of empties at night. 
The valley is quite well supplied with empties 
at present, having been bronght hsre in antici- 
pation of the wheat movement. Reports frcm 
the West Side say that in the shipment of 
wheat to the north the new West Side road ii 
doing its first heavy business. The wheat crop 
In the valley is not as large by considerable as 
it was last year, bat it la prime wheat. The 
season is a little late, bat it is the same throngh- 
out the State. The recent cool weather and the 
retarded hot weather has given the berries a 
chance to fill oat, so that the grain as it comes 
from the thresher looks fresh and of high grade. 
The prices are good, and even with a less yield 
there will be little difference. R. M. Turner 
recently sold a big crop at $1.50. His Reedley 
ranch, which is now being cut, will run about 
six sacks to the acre, and of fine, good grade 
and quite heavy. John Height's place on 
the tule lands of the West Side, probably has 
some of the beat wheat In this or any county 
near by. He reports receiving as high as 20 
sacks per acre, and each sack weighed upward 
of 120 pounds. This is probably the heaviest 
yield in the section. 

Humboldt. 

Fruit Prospects. — Willow Greek Cor. Blue 
Lake Advocate: The weather is quite warm 
here at present; the rain quit jast in time to 
give the farmers a chance to harvest their hay 
and grain, which is in fine condition. The re- 
cent cold weather has not in any way damaged 
the fruit crop in this section of the county. The 
apple crop this year will be larger and better; 
the peaches will not yield so big a crop as last 
year, bat they will be larger and of superior 
qnality. 

Kem. 

Planting Vises and Killing Alfalfa. — 
Califomian: In the Panama district, F. P. 
May has a place on Section 4, in which he has 
this year set out IH acres of Muscat vines, 
The stand is splendia and all that could be de- 
sired. The vines are thrifty, with dark-green 
foliage and scarcely any of those set out have 
failed to grow. He firmly believes in forcing 
grapevines to root deep down in the soil and to 
aid in accomplishing that result, he uncovers, 
or at most, leaves barely covered, those rcots 
which spread out near the surface. Naturally, 
then, they will dwindle and the vine throws 
its more vigorous roots downward into the 
ground. The place chosen for his vineyard 
was an alfalfa field of vigorous growth, and, of 
course, had to be cleared. He fixed a lO-lnch 
plow so that it would cut only four inches be- 
low the surface, first sharpening the share. 
Then, with a six-horse team, he speedily went 
through the land. Catting so near the surface, 
of course, the alfalfa was not plowed under, so 
in a day or two afterward, be went over the 
ground with a horse rake, gathered the dried 
stubble, for it was nothing else, in winrowsand 
burned it. His second plowing, ten inches 
deep, cut the underground works of the alfalfa 
a second time, to its total destruction, for not 
a spire of it is now seen. This method of get- 
ting rid of alfalfa is worth coneidering, for it 
seems to accomplish the desired result and 
only costs about $1,50 per acre. The other 
way of plowing deep at first, throws a great 
deal of the alfalfa under roots as well as stalka, 
mixing everything up together and making the 
task of separating roots from soil, difficult as 
well as expensive. Then, after plowing and 
harrowing, for olod-breaklng he uses a drag 
instead of a roller, claiming that the soil is 
left more open and not so much compressed aa 
with a roller. 

Potato Crop and VEaEXABLE Growing. — 
Bakercfield Califomian: It is said that 5000 
sacks of potatoes will be raised in Tehachipi 
this season in excess of home demands. With 
the 25,000 sacks raised here, that makes 30,000 
sacks for shipment to the Eastern markets from 
the first crop. The second planting this season 
will be very extensivp, and will perhaps treble 
the early crop. The same arrangements will 
be made to handle and ship the product as now 
exist, no matter how large the output. The 
finest cabbage in the world is raised here frcm 
plants set out in the middle of August, or even 
a little later. They will grow all the ynar 
around, but those set oat in August can be 
gathered and shipped in December, and so on 
through the winter when there is no Eastern 
supply. Cabbage can be handled by the parties 
who are now shipping potatoes, and they will 
make arrangements to ship them, provided a 
safficlent quantity is raised to make the effort 
worth while. Onions grow amazingly in this 
valley, and during the entire year. Wethers- 
field onions, the choice of the Eist, grown upon 
the rich bottom lands of the Connectiont river, 
do not ripen fairly for market until September, 
and yet here today are this season's onions, al- 
ready ripe and equal to the very best product 
of the Connecticut Ri ver valley. It is easy 
enough here to raise 300 sacks to the acre. 

Loa Anseles- 

Prcne Crop Short,— Pomona, July 6; The 
Pomona Valley Horticultural Society has re- 



ceived reports from all fruit districts south of 
Tehachipi, and every one of these is ta the 
effect that the prune crop in this part of the 
State will be about one-third of the fall crop 
and fully 70 per cent less than that of last year. 
Many prune orchards that yielded a crop worth 
$500 per acre will not yield over $50 an acre 
this year. The damp and cool aprlng weather 
cansed the failure of the crop. 

Increased Land Valuation. — Pomona, 
July 3. — The assessors of property find that 
the valuation of fruit orchards in this locality 
has increased wonderfully in the paat two years, 
and that the valuation of orange and lemon 
land in Pomona valley alone has increased over 
$230,000 In IS months. In some districts 
where the land valaation was less than $40,000 
in 18S9, and where orchardn have been planted 
the valuation is now over $90,000. In orange 
trees only there has been an Increase in prop- 
erty valaation of about $215,000 in Los Angeles 
and San Bernardino coanties since 1889. 

Oranse. 

CiRCDiT Fairs. — Santa Ana Blade, July 2d: 
District Circuit Fair Asaooiation convened 
June 30, and Mr. Blee read his report of the 
meeting at Los Angeles on circuit business, as 
follows: Alter a general discussion the follow- 
ing committee was appointed to report on 
dates for the holding of annual fairs of 1891: 
J. G. Hill, Ventura; R. J. Blee, Orange; 
Charles Cole, San Barnardino; McDongall, 
San Diego; J. C. Newton, Los Angeler, N. 
Oovarrubias, Santa Barbara. The committee 
reported as follows: Santa Barbara, August 
18th, 19tb, 20tb and 21«t. San Luis Obispo, 
August 25tb, 2()Ch, 27Ch and 28th. Sinta 
Maria, September 1st, 21, 3d and 4tl^. S^nta 
Ana, September 29t;b and 30th; October 1st 
and 2d. San Diego, October 6th, 7tb, 8tb and 
9:h. San Bernardino, October 13th, 14th, 
15th and 16tb. Los Angeles, 19lih, 20th, Cist, 
22d, 23d and 24th. The report was adopted. 
The new circuit will be known as the Southern 
California Circuit. It was recommended that 
all the Associations close their entries on 
August loih, except Los Angeles, which will 
close later. It was also recommended that the 
different Aasociations include 2:40, 2:30, 2:25, 
and free for all trotting classes in their pro- 
gramme; also a pacing class. With the excep- 
tion of Los Angeles, ail these events are to be 
open to the horses owned in the southern 
coanties. 

Great Potato i?EASON. — Anaheim Oazeitt: 
This season will be looked back to as the great 
potato year. It is said the potato crop of 
Southern California will go $3,000,000, more 
than the orange crop. Anaheim is keeping op 
with the procession, and in this immediate 
vicinity a couple of thousand acres of potatoes 
are being dug. Potatoes are going oat of 
Anaheim at the rate of about 50 oarloads per 
week, and the whole crop will go upward of 
one thousand carloads. The money brought 
into this section from this crop will amount to 
a quarter of million of dollars. The net price 
received for a carload of potatoes of 180 sacks 
ehipoed to Chicago by E. P. Fowler was 
$226.95. Mr. Fowler thinks the present prices 
will prevail for a couple of weeks yet. His 
potatoes will average bim $1.25 per sack net, 
and will pay more than double the purchase 
price of his land. Lhsb than a year ago he 
purchased bis tract at $60 per acre, and now be 
is taking potatoes off the land amounting to 
$125. Meanwhile, his walnnt trees are 
growing, • 

Lemon Shipments to Chicago. — Santa Ana 
June25: Paul Seegar of Tuatln and 
Dr. Wall, A. D, Bishop and H. K, Snow, un- 
der the direct management of H, K, Saow, are 
shipping lemons to Chicago, which were put in 
the cold-storage rooms last February. Another 
car will be shipped on Saturday. Two brands 
are shipped, the Favorite and the Perfection; 
both are excellent. The lemons are clean and 
are as solid and good as when they were put in 
storage last February, many of the trays hav- 
ing no spoiled ones on them at all, and there 
never being more than two or three at most. 
The temperature in the storage rooms is kept 
at about 60 degrees, never varying more than 
six degrees throughout the whole day. 

Sacramento. 
Hop Notes. — Sacramento Newt, July 1: Ac- 
tivity in the California hop world at the pres- 
ent time is confined to the yards, where the 
extreme hot weather is acting like magic. The 
hnmuluB twiners have found their way to 
the tops of the poles, and thence down and 
around until they have found no farther trel- 
lising upon which to cling. Early yards are 
beginning to show perfectly developed bopo. 
Among others may be mentioned that of R. J. 
Merkley's and Carl Manger's yards. Almoet 
all the fields are barring out, and the hop crop 
will ere long be in the hands of the pickers. 
The hot weather is a great boon, though it 
comes a little late, as moat of the vines in the 
Sacramento valley have quit growing. The 
prospect for a large yield remains good, al- 
though much uneasiness baa been caused dur- 
ing the week by the appearance of millions of 
grasshoppers in certain localitiea. Especially 
lias this been true in the hopyards on the Co- 
sumnes river- Daniel Flint, who lately returned 
from a visit to his large interests there, reports 
myriads of the pestiferous Insects, He says 
the hopyard is full of them, but that they are 
fall-grown and flying, and doing little, if any, 
damage to hope. He noticed numerous leaves 
through which they had eaten holes, but the 
burs were untouched. Much damage is being 
done by the hoppers to oorn fields and alfalfa 



meadows, Mr, Raymond, who owns the hop- 
yards jointly with Mr. Flint, reported to-day 
that for as much as 1000 feet the air is full of 
migrating hoppers, which were passing over in 
greet swarms. He believes tbis may ha ao 
oounted for by the presence of extensive fires 
about Carbondale and in the vicinity and north 
of Plymouth. Mr. Flint has resorted to nu- 
merous devices to drive away the insects, in- 
cladiog tar smudges, sulphur smoke, etc., but 
nothing eo disturbs their serenity as the 
crackling of burning grass and dry twiga. The 
emoke they apparently enjoyed, and sat quietly 
on the poles and vines while blinding clouds of 
smoke enveloped them. However, when the 
grass and twigs were lighted and allowed to 
burn rapidly, they were alarmed by the 
crackling flames, and arose by thousands and 
flew from the fields, Mr. Geo, Mcnke reports 
a similar experience with the grasshoppers, bat 
says that after watching their movements for 
some time he is satisfied there is no cause for 
alarm, as they are doing no damage whatever. 
The Haggin ranch people are barning over 
much of their pasture and grain field with the 
hope of driving the insects away. There is 
quite a general building impetus. Glacken & 
Wagner are constructing a new kiln and cool- 
ing room. Ezra Caaaelman, Mrs. N. A. Bend- 
ler, W. H. Leeman, Lovedale Bros.. Palm & 
Winters of Walnut Grove, Flint & Riymond, 
W, F, Warburton of Elk Grove, and George 
Menke are also erecting similar buildings in 
which to handle the new hops, 

San Diego 

Oakdale Horticulturists Favor Protect 
ING Birds. — Correspondence Esoondido Times: 
The Oakdale Horticultural Society held a 
very interesting meeting on the 27th inat., 
at which E. B, Lowman spoke very earnestly 
and pointedly regarding the destruction of 
bird's nests, defending the birds on the ground 
of their being of much more benefit to the fruit- 
grower by destroying iniarious insects than 
they damaged the fruit. He also deprecated 
the practice from its evil t«ndenoioB. He was 
strongly seconded by Mr. Walker and others, 
showing its evil tendencies and censuring 
parents for allowing their boys to roam the 
country and even entering private grounds and 
yards and robbing birds' nests. The general 
expression was that there should be a law 
against the practice. 

Horticoltural Society. — Julian Sentinel: 
The Cuyamaca Horticultural Society was al- 
lowed to die an honorable death. With its de- 
mise the Julian Horticultural Society was or- 
ganized with a fair sized membership- The 
officers choaen are aa follows: L. N. Bailev, 
President; Arthur Miller, Secretary; H. F, 
Wilcox, Treasurer; Chester Gunn, Vloe-Presi 
dent; W, A, Sickler, Financial Secretary, 

San Joaauln- 

Increase in Fsuit and Nut Trees, — Inde- 
pendent: The State Board of Eqoaiizatlon did 
not ask Assessors this year to return statistics 
on the grain acreage and no request was made 
for a viticoltural report, hence no statements 
of such crops were taken by the field deputies 
In this county. The State Board wanted this 
year a report of the number of bearing and non 
bearing fruit trees in the county, and the fol- 
lowing statement has been made from the rC' 
turns sent in by the deputies under Mr, At< 
wood: 

Fruit Trees. Bearinif. Non- Bearing. 

LeraoD 22 65 

Oraoge Hi 2,640 

Olive « 39 10,704 

Pear 9,482 17,465 

Peach 28,974 69,817 

Apricot 25.223 38 579 

Walnut 1,371 2,844 

Fig 2 949 10 802 

Prunes, French 10,560 38 666 

Prunes, other varieties 1 797 8,777 

Plums 4,327 3,0-39 

Cherry 2,769 7,392 

Almond 6,060 ^ 81,883 

Totals 93.635 291,676 

The non-bearing trees are young ones and 
must have been set oat daring the past four 
years. The totals given show an increase in 
young trees of 199,000, which is a remarkable 
showing for a grain-raising section. The great 
est increase was in almondp, the number of 
non-bearing trees being 81,883. There has been 
also a large increase in peach, apricot and 
French prune trees. The Assessor returned 
the namber of growing fruit trees in 1890 as 
238,367, which included all ages. The total 
number of trees in the county this year is 386, 
211, an increase in one year of 147,844. 

Santa Clara. 
Fruit Canning Industry. — San Jose Mer- 
cury: At the San Jose Fruit Packing Com- 
pany's cannery 200 hands are busily engaged in 
handling cherries, currents and gooseberries. 
The pea and strawberry canning has been 
about completed; 1000 hands will be employed 
when the season opena fairly. "Laat year," 
said Manager Wright, "we packed about 200,- 

000 case*. The fruit was mostly apricots, 
peaches, plums and berries. Of course it is 
hard to say what the market prospects are. It 
depends for the most part upon how the 
Eastern crop turns out. There is a good deal 
of unsold Oalifornia goods on the Eastern mar- 
ket now, and that will, of course, affect more 
or leas this year's crop. And again it depends 
upon the financial status of the country, 
whether consumers will have the money to pay 
for the fruit. Freights are yet uncertain and 
they will be probably higher than last year. 

1 do not think that there is any danger of the 
supply of California fruits exceeding j tlie de- 



mand for them." George M. Bowman, man- 
ager Fourth-street cannery, said: "We are not 
doing much yet, only handling a few cherries.' 
We are employing 300 men now and will em- 
ploy 400 or 500 men when the season fully 
opens. We packed last year 80,000 oases. I 
am unable to say bow many we shall pack this 
year. It depends a great deal upon the price 
of green fruit and the demand for cannf-d 
goods." E, L. Diwson, manager of Dawson's 
Fruit Packing Company, said: "We have at 
present about three hundred men working. W^e 
are handling cherries now. We will employ 
about four hundred men during the season. We 
packed last year 70,000 cases of canned fruits 
and we anticipate that about the same namber 
will be packed here this year," 

A Fruit Grower, near San Jose, writes, 
July 4: The busy season is upon us. The 
apricots are beginning to turn, and the Eoanda 
of preparation are heard on every hand. The 
late hot weather has hastened the ripening of 
the fruit to the detriment of ita growth in size 
somewhat, but I do not think the fruit baa 
been materially injured here. 

Solano. 

A New Seedling Peach, — Vacavllle, July 
— F. B. McKevitt has developed a new seed- 
ling peaoh of great value, called the " McKev- 
itt's Early." It is a yellow freestone of high 
color and nnaeually sweet flavor, combining all 
the essential requisites for canning, drying, 
and shipping. It ripens earlier than the St. John, 
hitherto the earliest yellow freestone known, 
maturing about the same time as Rjyal apricot. 
Returns received from the East say it meets 
with great favor and commands the higheat 
prices. Its propagation on a large scsle and 
earliness of bearing will make it an Important 
factor in the fruit trade of California. Tbis is 
the first year it has come largely into bearing. 

Fruit Shipments. — Vacavllle Enterprise, 
July 4: Up to and including Monday last the 
total shipments of green fruit by the Southern 
Pacific Oompany for the season were 390 oar- 
loads as against 166 carloads for the same 
period last year. The business so far has been 
principally In cberrlea. 

Sonoma 

An Undkrorodnd Rivtii. — Sonoma Index- 
Tribune: Two years ago Dr. L. B Liwrence, 
after a thorough research In the matter of artesian 
water supply, became convinced that a subter- 
ranean river flawed beneath the town site at a 
slight depth, and that flowing artesian wells in 
abundance could be developed in Sonoma at 
very alight cost. Selecting a spot on Terrace 
Hill he bored a well, with the result that at a 
depth of less than 200 feet a flow of over half a 
million gallons in 24 hours was obtaioed. 
Shortly after the above well had been devel- 
oped, S. Shocken sunk a well on hia property 
only a few hundred yards from the Lawrence 
well, and at a depth of 125 feet a flow exceed- 
ing that of the Lawrence well was struck. The 
close proximity of these wells did not diminish 
the flow of either in the least, proving without 
a doubt that Sonoma's artesian-water supply 
was illimitable. The latest development in the 
arteaian-water supply was that made by Henry 
Weyl one day lately, when at a depth of 120 
feet his artesian well-borers struck a flowing 
well that is the equal of any one of the others. 
The combined flowing capacity of these several 
wells, which are located almost on a line within 
a running distance of 2000 feet, amounts to be- 
tween 2,000,000 and 3,000,000 gallons every 24 
hours. The average depth of these welts is 
about 150 feet, and the water is forced up 
throngh 6 inch pipes to a bight of from 5 to 20 
feet. So far little has been done to turn So- 
noma's artesian- water supply to account, owing 
to lack of capital and enterprise, and the old 
town slumbers quietly along while golden 
streams of sparkling water gash op from a half- 
dozen wells, and blending together flow aim- 
leasly out of the town toward the sea. 

Tulare. 

Briggs' Orchard Yield. — Visalia Delta: 
Oanty Bros, expect to ship 600 tons of green 
frnit of all kinds from the Briggs ranch this 
year; and the prices are better than have ever 
been paid here before. It is worthy of men- 
tion that the prune yield, which was enormous 
on their place last year. Is also large this sea- 
son, and will be a very remunerative one. 

How Alfalfa Pays. — Hanford Sentinel: 
Oa last April J. J. Courtnor rented 80 acres of 
alfalfa pasture on the Gant ranch foar miles 
north of Hanford, for a term of nine months, 
paying $550 cash for the rental. He covered 
it up with hogs, horses and cattle for a couple 
of months and then sold out the remainder of 
bis lease to a sheep owner for $800. The lat- 
ter has cut a good stack of hay and pastured 
several thousand head of abeep on It, until 
about two weeks ago when he turned off the 
sheep to get another crop of hay, and it new 
stands knee high as thick as the hair on a dog. 
This instance shows the wonderful production 
of alfalfa and goes to show that as our lands are 
being planted to fruit, the remaining pas- 
tures will be very valuable in prodaoing what 
the country must have — feed for the stock that 
it must necessarily take to work the country. 
Alfalfa hay is selling this year for nearly 
double the price of one year ago. 

Ventura. 

Bean Crop. — Ventura Free Preat, July 3: 
Farmers say that the fog which has prevailed 
this week is very beneficial t} beans, that be- 
fore the fog* beean the beans were looking a 
little yellow. There is every indication now of 
a big crop. 

(Continued on page 37.)' 



July 11, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 



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pACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 



[July 11, 1891 



Investigation of California Oranges 
and Lemons. 

University Ezperlmenc Station Bulletin, 

No. 93. 

A full inve^tieation of the various fruits produced 
inCalif ornia with respect to their proxima'e as well 
as ulumaie composiiion, has long been contemplated 
at this .-taiion, but the fewness of the available 
workers aud the heavy demands made upon them in 
other directions has, until now. restricted this some- 
what aborious branch of research t« occasional 
tests, such as have heretof )re been published in re- 
spect to particular lot?' of fruit sent for exami 'ation. 
Witti the iiicrea&ed foice now at hand, it is proposed 
to inve.stiKate, as rapiilly as may be. all the more im- 
portant frniis produced on a commercial scale so as 
to determine accurately the composition of the 
various Itinds and varieties both with regard to food 
value aud the draft raad<- by them upon the store of 
plant food in the soils of the several regions. Since 
the latter vary very greatly in their nature, and 
thertfore the replacement of the ingredients with- 
drawn by the crops will need to be made in accord- 
ance win the sptcial lequirements of each casein 
order not to " carry coal to Newcastle " at unneces- 
sary expense, such inveetieatiousareof the mostobvi- 
ous praciiCril i upottauce; out at the same time they 
are extreme y complex, and much time will be re- 
quired to biiug them to even a moderate degree of 
completeness. 

The work here discussed was entered upon in re- 
sponse to the < onstant demand of growers of citrus 
fruits f.)r information as to the m jst appropriate 
fertilizer-, to be used by th»m. While it is far from 
complete and will of course be continued and ex- 
teiide j hereafter, it settles some of the immediately 
pressing q leslions. 

In the exe- ution of the work, Afsistant Colby had 
the buuetitofthe very efiicient aid of Mr. Hubert L. 
Over, a giadtiate of the University and po.st-graduate 
student in this department. Without such nelp, we 
Won d have had to remain satisfied with a much 
smaller number of analyses, and a much narrower 
basis for conclusions. E. W. Uiloabd. 

The purpose of this work is to show compre- 
hensively the proximate and asli composition 
of the leading varieties as grown in some of 
the principal citrus regions; and iiiferentially 
the influence exercised upon them by the prom- 
inent conditions of soil, climate, fertilizers, 
etc. The physical data (per cent of rind, pulp, 
juice, etc.) are of special interest from a com- 
mercial standpoint, as showing what is being 
purchased; lor there can be no liesitation be- 
tween an orange or lemon of average rind, 
pulp and juice aud one of over one-third its 



weight of undesirable rind and one-quarter dry 
pulp. 

The consumer, though usually considering 
fruit as a pure luxury, would derive much val- 
uable knowledge from studying the orange in 
its relative value as a food. The nourishing 
portions, shown especially by the nitrogenous 
and saccharine contents, vary greatly with the 
variety and condi'ionsof growth. Itis not.then, 
a matter of indifference to the consumer what 
fruit he uses, but an important question of do- 
me.stic economy. 

The ash ingredients, together with the nitro- 
gen contents of the standard varieties, are of 
high interest in connection with the vital 
(juestion of soil exhaustion and fertilization. 
The soil ingredients extracted by an ordinary 
crop are a serious drain upon the supporting 
soil, and the lines of heaviest draft can only be 
determined by actual determination of the 
constituents withdrawn. 

DESCEIPTION OF ORANGES AND LEMONS RECEIVED. 

ORANGES. 

NAVELS. 

No. 1. MaryitviUe — G. W. Hutchins, grower; 
sample received Jan. 22, '91. A large, fairly 
solid and hoavy fruit, with rough thick skin, 
indented ribs and loose " rag"*; juice only fair 
• u amount, with pronounced acid and good 
flavor. 

No. 2. Niles, Australian f — J. Shin n, grower; 
sample received March 30, '91. Undersized, 
rounded in shape, thick, loose skin and 
" rag," with tender pulp and pleasant acid. 

No. 3. Niles— Australian f — J. Shinn, 
sample received May 19th. Kruit diflfered in 
shape, being both rounded and elongated; base 
ribbed; both skin and flesh remarkably tender. 
'■ rag" thick, only moderately juicy, butof very 
agreeable flavor. Both Australian (7) Navels 
were budded for Washington Navel by Mr. 
Shinn, who thinks, however, that the' graft 
was taken from a sample tree of the Australian 
Navel. 

No. 4. Riverside Washington Navel — From a 
box snipped to Prof. Hilgard by Dr. Jarvis; 
grower unknown, received Jan. 22d. Agrees 
well with description of typical Navel as given 
in Wickson's " California Fruits,", p. 451. 

A^o. 5. Riverside — R W. Meacham grower; re- 
ceived May 12, '91. This orange was selected 
by a prominent nurseryman of Riverside in re- 

*"Rag" is the white tissue between the pulp and 
bUh proper. 



sponse to a request from this department. A 
large, thick-skinned orange with heavy "rag" 
and coarse pulp, much more elongated than 
typical Riverside Navel; some with base mark- 
edly depressed, or crater shaped, others flat- 
tened; acid medium. 

No. 6. Pomona — Palmer and Shaw growers, 
April 10, '91. From tree six years old on hill 
land north of Pomona. An average sized fruit, 
high in color but with thick skin, heavy " rag" 
and broadened, fleshy base. On the whole a 
very desirable orange. 

No. 7.— Selected by Shorb and Schwab of Po- 
mona from a week's shipment as " over-size," 
received April 10, '91. From young trees (5 
years) bearing only five or six oranges. Double 
the usual size and of cor.-espondingly coarse 
structure although not unpleasant to the taste; 
decidediv " watery " as compared with Nos. 6 
and 8. 

No. 8. Pomona — L. M. Davenport grower; 
sample received April 10, '91. An average-sized 
and thin-skinned fruit of rather tender pulp 
and agreeable acid. 

MEPITERRANEAN SWEET. 

Nos. 9 and 10. Smartsville — Seedling resem- 
bling Mediterranean Sweet, Jas. O'Brien, 
grower; sample received Jan. 22, '91. Above 
medium size, light colored and smooth skin, 
acid very sharp, sample apparently not quite 
ripe. 

No. 11. Riverside — R. W. Meacham, grower; 
May 12, '91. Somewhat elongated; color, yel- 
lowish-red; skin, thick and with sooty pits. Very 
juicy, pulp tender. 

A'o. 12. Pomona — J. D. H. Browne, sender; 
May 5, '91. Rounded in shape, smooth and 
rather thick skin; rag" coarse; pulp very juicy 
and slightly tart. 

ST. Michael's. 

No. 13. Marysville — G. W, Hutchins, grower; 
sample arrived Jan. 22, '91. Undersized as 
compared with those from Pomona and River- 
side; medium heavy "rag" and rind; solid 
texture but pulp melting, and acid high. 

No. 15. Pomona — Exhibit at Los Angeles 
Citrus Fair, sample received April 10, '91. A 
larger and less compact orange than the pre- 
ceding; of very thin skin and tender pulp; acid, 
very pleasant. Two other samples from J. D. 
H. Browne were received a month later (May 
5, '91); first, paper rind (No. 16) of round shape, 
smooth thin skin aud very good flavor; second, 
(No 17) considerably larger than the first, skin 
thick; of elongated shape and agreeable taste. 



No. 14. Riverside— K. W. Meacham, grower; 
sample received May 12, '91. Larger than the 
Pomona fruit but of the same general appear- 
ance, save that the skin is lighter colored; also 
of rather flatter taste, but very juicy. 

MALTA BLOOD 

No. 18. Pomona — Reeves, grower; sample ar- 
rived April 10, '91. Rather larger and mure 
rounded than the typical specimen; skin mod- 
erately thick, pulp tender; seeds, none; acid 
remarkably sharp; juice, light red colored and 
of considerable quantity. 

No. 19. Pomona — J. D. H. Browne, sender; 
May 5, '91. Agrees in size and shape with 
the previous sample but has a thinner skin and 
"rag"; acid less pronounced: pulp, melting. 

A'o. 20. Riverside — R. W. Meacham, grower; 
May 12, '91. More elongated than those from 
Pomona and of rougher and thicker skin; base, 
heavy; " rag," porous; pulp, not quite so juicy 
but of deeper red color; somewhat " mushy, 
indicating over-ripeness. 

VALENCIA. 

A'o. 21 . Pomona — J. D. H. Browne, sender; 
date of arrival May 5, '91. "Known here in 
So. Cal. as 'Valencia Late' or "Rivers' or 
■ Rivers Late,' according to H. Van Deman 
identical with 'Hart's Late' in Florida. He 
is of the opinion that properly the name should 
be Nonpareil." About of the same size as the 
Mediterranean Sweet, but much larger than the 
St. Michaels' and of markedly elliptical form; 
smooth thin rind; " rag " of fine texture; pulp 
melting. 

TANGERINE. 

No. 22. San Oabriel—A.. B. Chapman, grower; 
date of receipt April 11, '91. A small deep- 
colored fruit with loose thick rind and fibrous 
texture of pulp; taste very sweet; acid low, flavor 
pecuhar (like garden balm) but agreeable. 

SEEDLINGS. 

A^o. 23. Niles — J. Shinn, grower; samples re- 
ceived May 19, '91. A large, round orange of 
light yellow color; base, ribbed and fleshy; 
heavy, tender skin; thick "rag," melting pulp, 
and exceedingly pleasant flavor. General ap- 
pearance marred by coast scale and fungus. 
LEMONS. 

EUREKA. 

iVo».24 and 25. Pomonaand Ontario — Two sam- 
ples sent by Messrs. Short and Schwab, 
Pomona, April 10, 91. Of medium size and 
with light ribs: juice rather bitterish. 

A'o. 26. San Gabriel — A. B. Chapman, grower; 



ANALYSES OF CALIFORNIA ORANGES AND LEMONS, CROP OF 1891. 

A.— PROXIMATE ANALYSES. 



ORANGES. 



ORANGES. 



Navel. 



Name of variety. 



Number 1. 



Place of protluctioQ.. . . 



2 


.3. 










J 




s 




i 


> 




s 



trees. 



MedfterraDean Sweet. 



Be'dlinglike 
Med. S»fet. 



Bl. Miobaela. 



Malta Blood. 



■3 ^ 



At ; After 
pick'g 2 juo.*) 



St 



- C « . 



AVERAGES. 



12. i 13. 



B«D'Jcr or grower. 



' H 
13 



.Tau. 
22. 



Date of receipt and analyRift 

PHYSICAL ANALYSl.S 

Average weight, i.. grammeat i43.2 

El 11(1, 7. 35.4 

Palp, less juice, % ; i 25 

Seeds. % i 0.0 j 

Number of c.c.m juice, average 83.3 

JUIUE I 

8o"ld c^ntenti by <i Inillc, /( 10.93; 

"Total sugars by c: pper (inversioni. %... ] 8.0 >i 

Caue sugar (pi>latUcupe), % | 3.21! 

Acid (citric), % I 1.11, 



Mar. 

JO. 



22. 



■3' o« 



10. 



10. 



185 
•«5.3 

27.7 ' 
0.0 

60.0 

11.70 
8.80 
4.36 

i.oe 



Nitr gen in fresh fruit, % 

Albuujiaoiils iu freati fruit, equlvaleoti 
to uitr*'geD { 



.189. 
1.18 . 



GENERAL PROXIMATE ' 
ANALYSIS. I 

Water ' 8V56|. 

Orgaoic matter 13.04|. 

Ash .40 . 



13.52 
10 83 



.;222.3 
,1 17.5 
28.4 
, 0.0 

,m u 

12.70, 
9.6 
4.32! 
1.011 

.245 

1.63 



378.3 
34.2 
22.9 
U.O 
142.5 

12.80 
9.92 



8i.2' 
14.31 
.45 



.88 

i 

.247 
1.54! 



373.0 

29.5 

28.8 
0.0 
122.5 

14.50 
11.20 . 

6.U9i. 
.77;, 

.197 

1.23 



tso.o 

31.0 
26.0 
0.0 
215.0 

12.60 



18 6 
33.6 
0.0 
127.5 



s 


a 


V 





n 


& 


b 







>-» 


Jau. 


Mar. 


26. 


26. 


180.0 


124.5 


23.9 


14.4 


29.1 


32.0 


2.0 


2.7 



71.6 j 54.8 



31.1 
19.7 
.1 

90.0 



27.2 
23.0 
.3 
96.6 



S 

el 

J3 

03 

May 

12. 



14.70 12.601 13.64' 12.80 12.40 

11.10 10.091 10.33 9.60 9 80 

5.77 4.14 4.7? 4.60 

1.14 1.68 1.72 1.12 1.34 




Total ;ii;0.t,0 JIOO.OOICO.OOKO.OO 



.180 
l.U 



85.82 
13.70 
.48 



.160i. 
•l.OOi. 



.167 
l.OS 



.146 
.91 



1.41 



178.7 
21.7 
26.3 
2 1 
78.1 

11.50 
8.40 

■".84 

.23o| 

1.42 



116 2 
14.4 
30.3 
.8 
53.3 

12. 6f 
8.50 
4.2 
1.03 

.217I. 

1.27' 



16. 


17. 


18. 


19. 


•> 


•< 


<a 




§ 


p 



B 



§ 


a 


S 


a 


a 




e 








h 






V 






. 


g 


g 


of 


1 


s 





« 


s 






> 


n 




ta 




m 






1 


d 


1-5 


•-s 




•-s 


May 


May 


April 


May 


5. 


6. 


lU. 


5. 


122.0 


143.0 


166.6 


163 3 


18.0 


20.0 


32.0 


24.1 


25.4 


23.2 


26.0 


25 1 


1 9 


1.1 


U.O 


0.0 


61.2 


72 5 


66.0 


73.3 


13.4' 


12.40 


14.70 


I4.C0 


9.80 


8. £9 


11.10 


11.02 






5.85 




1.27 


1.15 


2.l>4 


1.57 



24. I 

§ I 
B 



£6. 37. 



c • 

5 I 



36.1 
22.0 
u 
73.3 



t : t 



M 

H I 

^ I 



19. 



il April April April 
10. ; 11. 22. 



22.! 
24.5 

5 

86.0 



5».5 2,0.0 

26.0 38.6 

31.4 23.4 

2.4 .6 

21.6 83.3 



125.0 10'. 
26.7 28.2 
25.0 24.5 
.10 .2 
4S.5 38.0 



86.9 
40 6 
24.1 
.1 
27.5 



80.0 
39.0 
24.0 
.1 
23.3 



300 
28.4 
27.7 



138 
19.2 
25.9 
1.6 
6i.4 



LMB. 



104 
33 
S4.S 
.12 

3S 



9 20 11.03 
4.9' 7.41. 
1.12: .87; 



.IVi. 
.76 . 



1.23 

.222 .144| .155 
1.39 .90 .97 



1.40 

.nil 



11 40 12.10 i2.i'i n.'-4, 

2.22 2.37 1.66 1.60 

.68 . 58 ' 66 .X 

6.86 7.21 7.88 6.79, 



.173 .155 .138 
1.07' .97 



83.431 85.83 85.72 84.10 86 49 88.69 .... 

16.05 13. 6 13.80 15.42 13.1.' 16.75 .... 

.53] .41 .46 .48 . 36. .66 



84.501 86.87 85.66 84.90 87.1' 

15.05 ! 13.73 13.95 14.64 12.59 

.461 .40; .39, .46 .29 



83.39 85.99 82.10 
15.98 13.60 17.36 
.63! .611 .64 



12.80 12.60 li.ir 13.55; 11.90 

9.92 9.70 8.71 10 30 2.08 

4.8U 4 35 3 48 6.85 .57 

1.02. 1.38 1.36 l.«I 7 06 

.311' .154 . 238 .168; .ISl 

l.Sli .96 1.43 1.05 .94 



100.00 100.00; 100.0o!lOO.OOilOO. 00 100.00 100.00 100.00 lOO.Ob.lOO. 00 100. (.0,100.60 100.00 l(,0.0010i).0(j . 



t30 grammes are equivalent to one ounce. 



B— ANALYSIS OF THE ASH. 





ORANGES. 


LEMONS. 




LMS. 




1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


6. 


6. 


7. 


8. 




10. 


11. 


12. 


13. 


14. 1 15. 


IS. 


17. 


18. 




SO. 


n. 




33. 


34. 


25. 


26. 37. 


1 ORANGES. 












9. 








Navel 






Navel 


a 


3-3 




Navel 






iS g V 




« 












^1 


« 

a 


11 


a ■! ' 
s 1 


ca 

M 

s 

H 


« 


d 












PI 


K a 




Seed 
li-e ; 
Swe 








"»« 

S' g 






«e 


• 

1 


a 

S3 


n 

•3 
> 




|2 

00 


k, 

3 

w 


u 

a 
H 


AVERASKS. 














!2 


« 

e 
S 


i 

a 




« 

a 



<i> . 

c ® 




s 
» 






1 = 

s a 
►■ 
5 , P. 






* 

a 








a 





8 


ce 

a 



_o 

"u 

3 
a 



a£ 














S 




.0 
u» 




a 
£ 


E ► 




1 

<= 


a- 






S 





> 


a 


0. 







e 

A< 


C 






Raw ash % on f ' esb fruit 

Oarbunt ; acl 1 in raw aah 

Pure ash fredh fruit, % 


.6M 

27. 7i 
.399 






.6i9 
39.40 
.461 


.538 
28.11 
.386 


.f43 
25.10 
.4.7 


- 


.660 
36.11 
.483 


.733 
35.50 
.C39 




.560 
25 5D 
.413 


.62; 

27.0(1 
.480 


.657 
27.33 
.477 


.638 .767 
33.251 26.51 
.360 . 556 






.664 
31.12 
.454 




.629 
23.13 
.397 


.533 
25.58 
.387 


.612 
23 10 
.461 


.41) 
31. 7i 
.286 


.928 
32.21 
.632 


.761 
33.67 
.50- 


.744 

28.21 

.635 


.'433 


'i!.'!!!! 
1 .est 


COMFOSI llON OF PURE ASH. 
Potash (li2 Ol 


55.26 






49.C7 




47.51 






43.90 




51.25 
2.41 
18.78 




47.60 
4.09 


45.82 

3 85 

37.M) 






53.30 








47.87 
1 67 
38.65 




45.32 
3.03 
34.07 




51.26 

l.fO 

25.67 


48.94 

3.50 
32.71 


48.t< 

1.76 
29 87 


Soda (.Nai O) 


1.39 






3.3 




3.06 






2.31 








:::::: 


1 48 

19.07 














16.ST 
5.6' 
.41 






26.42 


17.50 
6 33 
1.41 






27.77 






34.70 
















Peruii le of iron (Pe2 03) and Alumina 






5 08 

.42 






9.26 
2.00 




4.76 

.ta 




6.36 
1.18 


' 4.99 






4.76 
.84 








5.48 
.94 




1 4.01 




4.81; 

•H 


5.34 
.97 


4.40 
.43 

.28 




.28 
12.41 
6 81 






.44 

9.80 
4.23 




.24 
14.16 
7.91 






.18 
13.10 
4.34 




.33 
14.46 
6.(8 
.85 
.93 




.40 
10.00 
4.81 
.38 
.63 


1 






.84 









.45 




1 ''^ 
.38 




.38! , , 


.37 


Sulphuric acid (3 03) 
















3.93 

i 31 

1 37 






A «0< 






9.76 
6.36 
.K3 
1.23 




10.19 
2 74 
.54 




I3.0i,L.... 
3.94".... 

.l«7j 


12.37 
5.25 
.65 

.92 


11. '9 


Silica (.■)1 02) 

Chlorine (01) 


6; 
l.trt 






.79 
.63 




.98 
1.00 






.53 
.69 










.95 












2.84 
.6i 
.39 


I^s excess of Oxygen dae to Ohio- 


100.02 






100.18 




100.09 






99.98 




99.95 




100.18 


10J.13 






99.99 








100.03 
.27 




99.96 
.11 










.2; 






.13 




.32 






.13 




.20 




.13 


' .30 






.3 





















99.79 








M.87 






99.86 




9».76! 


100.00 






99.79 








«9.76l 


99.85 




99.87' 


90.9« 





Jolt 11, 1891.] 



pACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 



S8 



receipt of sample April 11, '91. Undersized; 
Some markedly ribbed and with very thi k skin^ 
Seeds small and undeveloped; flavor, more 
agreeable than in the preceding Eurekas. 

ARROYO GRANDE PRIDE. 

No. 27. Arroyo Orande — D. F. Newsom, 
grower; date of" receipt April 22, '91. Under- 
sized; smooth, heavy skin; bitterish to taste. 

The large table above shows the analytical 
work accomplished for this season (1891); sub- 
division A gives the phvsical and proximate 
analyses; B, the results of the analysis of (he ash. 

In order to bring out more clearly than is 
shown by the table the prominent points of 
similarity or difference, we discuss briefly the 
data presented. 

ORANGES. 

Proportion of Rind to Flesh. — Considering the 
matter first from the standpoint of the con- 
sumer, it seems that although the Navel is the 
largest of oranges it has, contrary to the pop- 
ular impression, no advantage with respect to 
the proportion of skin to flesh over either the 
Mediterranean Sweet or St. Michaels. The 
average Navel can fairly be considered as con 
taining nenrly 72 per cent of flesh, while the 
average Mediterranean Sweet shows 73 per 
cent, the St. Michaels 81 per cent. 

Juiciness or Projmrtion of Juice to Flesh. — A 
comparison of the figures in the table shows" 
that of the named varieties examined the 
Navel is the driest, while the St. Michaels has 
the largest proportion of juice; the Mediterra- 
nean Sweet being next and the Malta Blood 
third. 

These facts will be better understood by ref- 
erence to the little table below, which gives 
the percentage ratios: 



Proportion of 
Kind to Fle^h. 


Proportion of Pulp 
to Ju'ce in Fle>h. 


Averages Rind 
Navels.. 28.4 


Fh'sh 
71.6 

73 

81 

69 


Pulp. 
39 
33 
31 
36 


Juice. 
61 
67 
69 
64 


Med. Sweet 27 

8t. Michaels . 19 
Malta Blood 31 



Evidently the hard and solid, although tnin 
rind of the Navel weighs heavier in the balance 
than the more "corky " one of the Mediterra- 
nean Sweet and doubtless outweighs also that 
of many seedlings. No. 4 from Riverside and 
No. 8 from Pomona, however, show the lowest 
rind-percentage of any in the series, save No. 
15, St. Michaels, Pomona, the genuine " paper 
rind. The study of the conditions contribu- 
ting to thinness of rind will be of high com- 
mercial importance. 

Sugar Contents of the Juice. — The table shows 
the maximum of sugar in the hill-grown 
Navel from Pomona (No. 6), but this is ap- 
proached very closely by Navel No. 8, the 
Mediterranean Sweet No 9, the Malta Blood 
from Pomona Nos. 18 and 19, and the Tanger- 
ine from San Gabriel No. 22. It is notable that 
the latter shows at the same time the highest 
proportion of cane sugar to be found in the 
whole series; (he Pomona Navels and Malta 
Bloods standing next. To what extent the 
proportion of cane sugar determines the sweet- 
ness to the taste is a matter not yet fully un- 
derstood; the proportion between the other 
two sugars (grape and fruit), not yet deter- 
mined, being an essential factor in the case. 

The average sugar contents of the fully ripe 
Navels (gath' red in April and May) from all 
localities is 10.8 per cent. Against this we find 
Mediterranean Sweets from Riverside and 
Pomona (Nos. 11 and 12, gathered in May) to 
average 9.70 per cent only; while the Seedline; 
from Smartsville, gathered in January, shows a 
little over 10 per cent, thus indicating a very 
early maturity. 

The Valencia orange fiom Pomona (No. 21) 
shows a decidedly lower sugar percentage, as 
does the contemporaneous Malta Blood from 
Riverside. The St. Michaels shows the lowest 
average of all the oranges (8.71 per cent), 
although the roundish sample from Pomona 
(No. 16) falls only a little below 10 per cent. 

Comparing these data with those of previous 
years, heretofore published, we find that the 
sugar percentage of the Navel appears to have 
risen trom 9 89 per cent to 10.80 per cent. For 
the Mediterranean Sweet the figure remains 
practically identical. For the St. Michaels it is 
higher than we have found it this season. 

Acid in the Juice. — In respect to acid we note 
at once the maximum in the Malta Blood of over 
two per cent, with an average of 1.6 per cent in 
the three samples examined. The next high- 
est figures occur in the early samples of Med- 
iterranean Sweet from S[uartsville, a maximum 
of 1.68 peir cent; but the average of the May 
samples from Riverside and Pomona is 1.23 
per cent. The St. Michaels of Marysville, Jan. 
22d, shows the next highest maximum with 
1.46 per cent, but in the later samples of April 
and May we find in the Riverside sample (No. 
14) a minimum of .84 per cent with an aver- 
age of 1.07 for the four later samples examined. 
In contrast to the Malta Blood, therefore, the 
St. Michaels.counts among the varieties of low 
acid, combined, however, with rather a low 
sugar percentage, as stated above. 

The Valencia rates in the same respect nearly 
with the St. Michaels, while the Tangerine 
shows the low figure of .87 per cent of acid with, 
at the same time, a very high sugar percentage. 
A former analysis showed for its close relative, 
the Mandarin, a lower minimum of acid (.36 
per cent) and the highest sugar percentage on 
record, of 13.84 per cent. 

The Navel justifies the statement made in a 
former report of the low acid percentage, even 
in samples gathered as early as January (Nos. 
1 and 4), and still more in those of later date 
from Riverside and Pomona (Nos. 5 and 6). 
The minimum of all (.77 per cent) is shown by 
the Pomona fruit (No. 6), with, at the same 
time, the highest sugar percentage (11.20) of 
the series. In the asgrogate, the average acid 
percentage of the Navel is the lowest of all, with 
the highest average of sugar, (9 92 per cent) 
ontai de of the Malta Blood. These data to- 



gether with its firm flesh, thin and smooth 
rind, and excellent keeping qualities, explain 
sufficiently the great preference given it in our 
markets. 

Comparing these results obtained in 1891, 
with those in previous publications of this de- 
partment, 1879-1887, we note, first, an appar- 
ent increase in the average weight of the several 
varieties. We also find that while the per- 
centages of rind show very nearly the same 
average as in 1891, there is a marked discrep- 
ancy in respect to juiciness, the pressed pulp 
averaging about 25 percent less in earlier spec- 
imens. How far these differences may be due 
to influences of season or accident in sampling, 
is difficult to decide with the dara before us; the 
more as the acid and sugar percentages show 
very nearly the same absolute as well as rela- 
tive figures. Increased age of the bearing trees 
may possibly account for some of these differ- 
ences. 

No. 7 is interesting as showing just how an 
abnormally large orange differs from the ordi- 
nary fruit. It is markedly " watery " as com- 
pared with fruit of normal size. 

Nos. 9 and 10 are of special interest,since they 
show the changes produced in an orange by 
two months storage. There is a considerable 
loss in wt-ight, which is found in the dimin- 
ished weights of rind and flesh. Both the 
sugar and acid contents have increased, the 
former so appreciably as to warrant the con- 
clusion that the fruit was sweetened by keep- 
ing, apart from evaporation. It was noted o.i 
receipt of No. 9 that the sample was not thor- 
oughly ripe, and the tabte of the samefruit two 
months later was decidedly better. 

Nutritive Values — Nitrogen contents — The flesh- 
forming ingredients (albuminoids) of any 
article of food being of great imoortance as re- 
gards its proper uses, it is of special interest to 
compare in this respect the orange to other 
fruits, and the different varieties of oranges 
amongst themselves. According to the latest 
European data oranges stand first in the amount 
ofalbuminoids(1.73 percent,) pi unes second (.78 
percent), peaches (and probably apricots) third, 
bananas and grapes fourth while apples and 
pears stand nearly the lowest on the list (.375 
per ceni ). Our determinations of the same sub- 
stances in California oranges as a whole (rind 
included) show materially smaller figures, 
averaging 1.20 per cent; and as it is known tnat 
the rind is very poor in these substances, we are 
forced to conclude that the C ilifornia fruit is 
less hourishing than that of Sicilian produc- 
tion. Much lower percentages, however are 
quoted for oranges from other sources. Here, 
again, the differences observed may be largely 
due to the age of the trees bearing the fruit, 
which in California is usually the minimum. 

Of the entire series the Riverside Navels (Nos. 
4 and 5) show the highest contents of albumin- 
oids (1.54 per cent), while the average of the 
Pomona sample is. 1.18 per cent only. Next 
highest to the Riverside Nave's come the St. 
Michaels from Marysville, Riverside and 
Pomona, with an average 1.40 per cent; nearly 
the same is shown by the Riverside Malta 
Blood, The average of the Mediterranean 
Sweets falls below 1.0 per rent, that from 
Pomona falling to .91 per cent. The Malta 
Blood aud Niles seedling show the minima of 
.69 per cent and .75 per cent. The Valencia and 
Tangerine, with the Eureka lemon, seem to 
range about 1.0 per cent. 

Ash Composition, and Nitrogen contents — As 
will be seen by reference to Bulletin No. 88, of 
the department, the orange stands second 
tgrapes being first) among orchard fruits in the 
quantity of mineral matter withdrawn from 
the soil. Heretofore, we have been obliged to 
base all conclusions bearing upon the ash and 
nitrogen of these fruits on European data; we 
are now enabled to present for oranges and 
lemons the outcome of California growth. The 
following summary (based on averages from 
the large table) shows in tabular form the 
amounts, in pounds, of the soil ingredients ex- 
tracted by an orange or lemon crop, that , will 
have to be replaced by fertilization. 



ORANGES 

European (seedless) 

Crop of luOO lbs 

Crop of 20,000 fts... 
California 

Crop of 1000 fts 

Crop of 20,000 fts... 
LEMONS 

Crop of 1000 fts 

Crop of 20,000 fts .. 



Total 
Ash, 
fts. 


Potash, 
fts. 


Phos. 
Acid, 
fts. 


Nitro- 
gen, 
fts. 


6.07 
121.4 


2.78 
55.60 


.67 
13.40 


2.69 
53.80 


4.32 
80.40 


2.11 
40.14 


.53 
10.60 


• 1.83 
36.60 


5.57 
111.40 


2.69 
53.80 


.61 
12.20 


1.51 

3J.20 



It thus appears that so far as oranges are con- 
cerned, the California fruit draws materially 
less upon all the soil ingredients that have to be 
replaced by fertilization; while as regards the 
leiuon, it approaches closely to the European 
standard for the orange, save in the much 
smaller draft upon nitrogen. 

There is of course no material difference in 
the relative proportions of ash ingredients 
among themselves, or toward nitrogen. 

Potash is seen to be the predominating in- 
gredient araonhting to quite half of the 



weight of the ash; it is, therefore, highly im- 
portant that the supply of this substance should 
be kept up; but fortunately, as has been shown 
by previous investigations of this department, 
the supply of this substance in California soils 
and irrigation waters is exceptionally largp; so 
that in many cases the current demand for the 
fruit will be amply supplied in the ordinary 
course of cultivation. 

Phosphoric acid is not so heavily drawn upon; 
but as it is usually present in our soils in 
limited quantities only, it is probable that it 
should constitute large proportion of any 
fertilizer used iu the orange orchard. 

Of nitrogen nearly the same may be said as 
regards the natural supply, especially in south- 
ern mesa soils; but as the draft made by the 
orange upon this substance is very heavy it will 
always be among the first to be currently sup- 
plied. 

As regards other ash ingredients, it will be seen 
that lime is the one most heavily drawn upon 
next to potash, although its percentage varies 
rather widely (from 16.37 per cent to 27.77 per 
cent for oranges.) The supply of lime in Cali- 
fornia soils is almost universally so ample within 
the orange-growing region, that np replacement 
of this substance in fertilization will be called 
for. 

The not inconsiderable demand of the 
orange for sulphuric acid, as seen in the table, 
suggests that gypsum will be acceptable in this 
as in other respects, as a fertilizing ingredient. 

A further discussion of the ash ingredients 
would not be profitable at this place. 

LEMONS. I 

The incompleteness of the difta concerning 
lemons renders it inadvisable to enter upon any i 
extended discussion, the more as no extended ! 
data from the old world are available for com- 
parison. It will be noted that the most im- 
portant ingredient of this fruit, viz., the acid 
percentage, considerably exceeds for the Eureka 
lemon, at least, the commonly assumed average, 
and in the case of No. 26, from San Gabriel, the 
acid percentage is extraordinary. This point 
alone should insure to California-grown lemons 
a high position in commerce. 

The relatively large percentage of sugar shown 
by the analyses is a feature which will further 
commend them to the consumers taste as 
against the percentages usually reported. It 
will be observed, however that very great 
differences exist in the proportion of rind to 
flesh and extractable juice. In this respect the 
lemons of Pomona and Ontario stand at the 
head of the list as far as it goes. 

In ash composition there is no material 
difference between the orange and lemons 
examined: with a more extended series the 
variations iu both would doubtless be shown 
to run parallel. Geo. E. Colby, 

Berkeley, June, 25, 1891. Hubert L. Dyer. 



Our Agents, 

Ocra PstiNDg o»n do much In aid ot our paper and th: 
eause of practical knowledge and Boience, by assisting 
Ajfents in their labors of canvaaelng, by lending their In- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

Oio. WiLSOK— Sacramento Oo, 
J. C. HOAS — San Francisco. 
G. B. Gill— San Luis Obispo Co. 
Frank S. Chapin— Tulare Co. 
J. H. P. Williams— Tulare Co. 
Samorl E. Watson— Sonoma Co. 

HBKNAN STANLEY- Modoc Co. 

C. J Wadb— San Rernardino Co. 

W. W. MiLL"R- Butte Co 

R. G Bailkt— San Francisco. 

J. O. Underwood— Solano and Yolo Cos. 

K H. ScuAKPrLB— Central California. 

F. B. Logan— Afizona. 

Wm. M. HiLLRARy— Oregon. 

Arthdr M Mitchell— Oregon. 

N. M. Newport— Oregon. 



Cold, cough, coffin is what philosophers term " a logi- 
cal sequence." One is very liable to follow the other; 
but by curing the c Id with a dose of Ayer's Cherry Pec- 
toral, the cough will be stopped and the coffin not 
needed— just at present. 



When Heisobel stadied astronomy, only four 
doable stars were koown. Now nearly 7000 
of them are diatiDKaisbable, 



Important to Farmers. 

We have «3 000,000 in sums of 86000 up to loan on 
County Ranch Property below marljet rates. 11 you 
desire a loan or wish to renew one at lower rates, write 
us the rate of interest you are i.ow raying and we will 
immediately adviae what amount we can save you. 
MERCANTILE AGENCY & INVi-STMENT CO., 16 Post 
St., S. F. Will E Fisher, Pres.; Eujfene G. Davis, Vice- 
Pres.; Wm S. Tevis, Treas.; Alfred D. Hall.,Seo'y. 

Unitarian Literature 

Sent free by the Channing Auxiliary of the First 
Unitarian Church, cor. Geary and Franklin Sts., San 
Francisco. Address Mrs. B. F. Giddings as above. 



IT WILL SUIT YOU. 

J. F. HouQQTON, President, J. L N. Shepabd, Vice-Frss. 
CUAS R. Rtory, Secy, R. H. Maoill, Gen. Aer't. 

Home Motoal iDmnce Company, 

216 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

Incorporated A. D. 1864. 

Losses Paid Since Organization $3,176,759 21 

Assets, January 1, 18al 867,512 19 

Capital Paid Up in Gold 300,000 00 

NET SURPLUS over everything 278 901 10 

V <y . / I'OS BEST Qlf SOTES ^ g e 

^^ARTIFICIAL LIMBS "0 

^m'JcBir ADDRESS ^oS 

P^^W), MEN20 SPRING. g-S 
^^J^kj ?| e Geary St. |.^ ^"^cS 

g^l SAN FRANCISCO, Cal |a ?b«g 




WELL BRED TROTTING STOCK, 

Comprising 47 Head of Brood Mares, Colts and Fillies, 

By REDWOOD, 2:27, Son of Nutwood, 2:18; BRILLIANT, Son of Director, 2:17; STEINWAY, 2:26^, (ta. 

Property of MR. GEO, CROPSEY, Pleasanton. 
Al«o, Offerings by F. C. TALBOT, P. J. SHAFTER, P. PUMYEA, and Others. 

AT II A. M., AT 

OAKLAND TROTTING PARK, on SATURDAY, JULY 25, 1891. 

tS" Catalogues ready July 9tb. 

KILLIP & CO., Auctioneers, 22 Montgomery St., S. F. 




THE IMPROVED 

Howard Patent 
ADJUSTABLE 

Bolster Spring. 

25,000 SEiS IN USE. NO FRUIT RATSBR CAN AFFORD TO BE WITHOUT A SET OF THBlVI. 

They are complete and require no tdjustmcnt to put tliem on. 

BUILT IN TEN SIZES. CAPACITY FROM 1,000 TO 10,000 POUNDS. 

State wliether wanted S ft. 6 in. or S ft. 8 in. wide. 




84 



fACIFie R.URAI0 f RESS. 



[JCLT 11 1891 



Additional Bases for Horse Contests. 

The term "ueeful hoiBtt." ia used in oppo«i' 
tion to track boraes or race boraea. All con' 
testa kt tbe present day are npon the baaia of 
apeed only. Trne, the weight to be carried or 
drawn is stipulated, but the maximam required 
la ao low that it cnta no figure npon the basis 
of the utility of the horse. 

It is not the parpoae of this paper to decry 
apeed boraes or speed contestf, nor t} ignore 
the benefits which have accrued to all olaaaes 
of uaeful borsea, through the infusion of etand 
erd-bred and thorough-bred blood. Tbe world 
affords such an easy living, and ao many com- 
forts and luxuries are accessible to all claases 
of people, that aome of the snrplua of both time 
and wealth is bound to be expended In such 
enj lyments as horse racing. Bat is it necessary 
or advisable that tbe direct effort of develop- 
ment or attaining perfection, should be ex- 
pended in acquiring speed only? 

In addition to the speed horse, which ia used 
largely, if not almoet exclusively, for pleasure, 
the country needs others. Tbe desired de- 
velopment and perfection would doubtless be 
attained or approached, by establishing stan- 
dards for the qualities desired — or if three 
standards in all for harnesa or driving horses 
were established, and then by intermingling 
tbe blood and the qualities of all of the three, 
the exact shade of qualities desired could the 
better be attained. Of courae this is constantly 
being done in an unsystematic way, bat the 
additional standards would assist, and make 
tbe efforts in that direction more definite and 
iotelllgent. 

If standards for fine classes of harness horses 
be established, one of them must naturally be 
for track boraea aa they at present exiat. A 
second ahould be for horses capable of doing 
heavier work, and tbe contests should be npon 
that basis. An appropriate technical designa 
tion of that class would be road horses or road- 
■tera. A third class ahould be for the heaviest 
kind of work, and to be known as draft horses. 
The three olassea would then be known tech- 
nioally as track boraes, road boraes and draft 
horses. 

The test of the merits of track horses, ia npon 
the basis that everything used in oonnectioo 
with the contests shall be of aa light weight as 
possible; harneaa, ahoea, sulky and even the 
drivers as a class are light weight, Lat it 
stand as it is. 

Toe test for the road horse should be quite 
different. Everything should be upon a basis 
of usefulness. The weight of the harness 
should be fixed, and should be heavy enough 
to draw a buggy load and to stand continnous 
ase. The weight of the shoes should be not 
leaa than that decided upon. The vehicle 
ahould have four wheels, and be auffiaiently 
strong to carry two full-sizad men, with a 
valise or two and some extra bundles, etc., 
over a rather rough country road. The weight 
of the buggy should be stipulated, or a mini- 
mum weight should be fixed. Toe weight of 
the load to be carriei by tbe buggy and to be 
drawn by the horse npon the basis of the two 
full-sized m<>n, etc., would be about 450 or 500 
pounds. Under these cDnditions tbe length of 
the road to be contested should be anffidient 
for the countryman to make the railway train 
or to fetch the doctor — say for from five to 20 
miles; and the horse which covers it in the 
least time to be considered the best. 

The contest among draft horses shonid be 
upon a still different basi°. Weights of har- 
nes!>, shoes. Wagon and load should be appro- 
priate. The vehicle should be a fonr-wheeler, 
with strength to carry a full load, say 1800 or 
2000 pounds and the weight of it as well as of the 
shoes and harness be determined. With these 
points fixed, tbe conteet) could be upon several 
different bases. Oae where each horse hauls the 
lame weight the same distance, to see which one 
oan do it in tbe shortest tiaae, and walk the 
entire distance. A second contest might be 
ander the same stipulations, but each driver 
to "go as he pleases" — any gait or combination 
of gaits. A third where a horse transports a 
given weight a given distance, and his contes- 
tant does tbe equivalent, in such a way, for 
instance, as hauling half tbe weight double the 
distance. 

The same general rules should be applied to 
saddle horsea. Let the basis of the testa for 
thoroQghbreds be practically the same aa now; 
all the accoutrements light, and speed the only 
obj active point. They might be known technic- 
ally as race horses. 

A second class ia oalli>d riding horses, to 
carry a weight of 225 or 250 pounds for rider, 
saddle, bridle and shoes. A third class to be 
known as cavalry hor»eA, to carry a weight, all 
told, of perhaps from 375 to 420 pounds. 

The bases of these several classes of oonteata 
ahould be carefully conaidered by a oombina' 
tion of talent having the best judgment avail 
able, and be fixed permanently in order that 
all contests might be the aame in all parta of 
the country. With theae points determined 
and established, contests should be held at all 
the county or district and state fairs, and also 
at some of the protracted raca meetings as well 
A standard of achievment for each class shonid 
be fixed, and all stallions and mares reaching 
It shonid be entitled to reglatration in a atud 
book for their partlontar oTaas — npon the aame 



general plan that boraes may now become stan- 
dard trotters by performance. 

In this way would useful hones be progress 
ing towards the standards of perfeotion of their 
respective claases. — Pomaoadel, Contra Oosta 
countv, Cal. in National Sioekman. 



JQbORIST >VND ©AR.E)ENER. 



The Los Angeles Society Discusses 
Pansies. 

A regular meeting ot tne Ssnthem Oallfornia 
Horticultural Society was held Jane 28th in 
Chamber of Commerce hall, and ia reported in 
the Exprets as followa : 

In iQe absence of Preaident Lee, C. E. 
Brydges occupied the chair. The Committee 
on Arrangements reported progress and was 
granted further time. 

On Motion of Jjhn Ftanklyn, it was voted 
that the society engage the pavilion for the 
last week in Oi;tober on the terms mentioned 
by the committee. 

Fine specimens of orchids and an Egyptian 
lotns were passed around. 

J. H. Tomlinson read a paper on Pansies, 
written by Wm. Barclay. Reference was 
made to the extensive culture of the pansy in 
the north of Eagland and in Scotland; also to 
the pansy atcietiea, which exert a powerful in- 
fluence in creating a popular taste for this 
fljwer. The pansy can be grown in Southern 
California the year round. Although there are 
some hundreds of varieties in cultivation, 
scarcely two of them are very near alike. They 
are easily grown here. 

After quoting from Darwin, the essayist con- 
sidered tne question whether all varieties of 
tbe pansy were originally derived from viola 
trl-oolor and viola lutea. The best aorta of 
cultivated pansies will revert to one of these 
wild forms. Some experiments show that seeds 
of viola tri color will sometimes produce flow- 
ers like the favorite pansies. 

The history of the flower goes back over 200 
years, and it has been known in commerce for 
about half that length of time. It was the 
middle of the present century before fine varie- 
ties were produced. 

John Djwney is known as the father of the 
pansy family. It was bronght to Eagland 60 
or 70 years ago. The first fancy pansy was 
brought from Holland to Scotland in 1845, 
and tbe flower has made rapid strides in im- 
provement, 

Tbe pansy requires a deep, free, open aoil. 
A heavy, damp aoil ia not auitable, and too 
light aoil does not carry the plant weil through. 
Plenty of moisture ia very neceasary. The 
panay should not be planted too often in the 
same place. Three seasons will be quite 
enough. 

The best cultivators give one-fonrth of 
a ponnd of salt to the square yard- This kills 
worms and prevents mildew. Tbe plant will 
stand a moderate amount of artificial manures. 
Charcoal keeps the ground from getting sour. 
The pansy can be grown under a tropical sun, 
if it has plenty of water. 

To get good results, it must be well thinned 
out. The green fly can be driven away by 
sprinkling with water. Flour of sulphur is an 
effectual remedy for mildew; for fungus growths 
use sulphate of potash or put turnip, carrot or 
potato jaet under the ground. Propagate 
tbe plant by cuttings in the fall or winter 
months. 

Gather seed from only the very finest flowers. 
Sow from September to May, in boxes in sandy 
loam. Prick off the small plants into similar 
boxes. 

Daring tbe discussion which followed. It was 
stated that there was plenty of peat at Comp- 
ton, and it was used as fuel. J. 0. Harvey re- 
ferred to alkaloids in the soil. Peat has a good 
effect upon petunias. Jas. Barrett spoke of th ^ 
wholesale cultivation of pansies. Mr, Frank 
lyn stated that the best results may be ex- 
pected from seed sown in September and 
October, Scotland is pre-eminently a pansy 
c'>untry, the climate being cool and bnmld. 
Viola carnata makes a aplendid edging plant. 
Treat it aa an annual, and aow it every fall. 

Thanks of the society were voted to the 
essayist and the reader. Mr. Harvey stated 
that the specimen of orchid was a native of 
Brazil and Mexico — Laelia purpurea. It is 
grown in baskets with charcoal and moss. 
Several other gentlemen made brief remarks. 



" When your heart ia bad, and your bead is bad, and 
you are bad clean through, what is needed ? " asked 
a Sunday-scbool teacher ot her class. " I know— Ayer's 
Siarsaparilla," answered a little girl, whose sick mother 
had recently been restored to health by that medicine. 

Hoasewivei, Attention ! 

Two new first-class Sewing Machines for sale 
cheap. Will be sent direct from warerooms if de- 
sired. Address, H. F. D., Box 2517, San Fran- 
eisco, Cal. 



$500,000 

To LOAN IN ANY AMOUNT AT THE VERY LOWEST 

market rate of interest on approved security in Farm- 
ing Lands. A. SCHULL^R. Room 8, 430 Call- 
•omla St.. San Frandsco. 



$3,250,000 

To LOAN ON MOBTGAGB ON RANCHES AND CITY 

real estate below market rates. HOWE & KIM- 
BALL, 508 California St.. S. F. •* 



(5he [EIieud. 



Value of Manures. 

The Experiment station of Cornell Univer- 
sity has made a aeriea of investigations on tbe 
loss in stable manures by exposure in open 
barnyards, the results of which are summarized 
in bulletin 27 of that atation, publiahed in 
May, 1891. 

In tbe experimenta of 1890 horse manure was 
saved from day to day until a pile of two tons 
had been accumulated. This was done from 
April 18th to 25th. Out wheat atraw waa nsed 
plentifully aa bedding, the relative amount of 
straw and manure being 3319 pounds excre- 
ment and 681 pounds straw. 

Chemical analysis showed that one ton of 
this frisb manure contained nearly ten pounds 
of nitrognn, seven and one-half pounds of phos- 
phoric acid and eighteen pounds of potash, 
making its value about $2 80, if theae oon- 
atituenta be valued at the same rate as in com- 
mercial fertilizers. 

The pile of manure tbna made waa put in a 
place expoaed to the weather and where the 
drainage waa ao good that all the water not ab- 
Borbed by tbe manure ran through and off at 
onoe. It remained exposed from April 25:h to 
September 22ii, at which time it waa carefully 
scraped up, weighed and a sample taken for 
analysia. 

It was found that the 4000 had shrunk to 
1730 pounds dnring the six months, and analy- 
sis showed that this 1730 waa less valuable, 
pound for pound, than tbe original lot of ma- 
nure. It had not only lost by leaching, but by 
beating or "fire fanglng" dnring periods of dry 
weather, and the value of the pile of 4000 
ponnds had shrnnk from $5.60 to (2.12— a loss 
of 62 per cent. 

In aumming up the reaults of this experi- 
ment. Director Roberts says: "It aeema aafe to 
say that under the ordinary conditions of piling 
and exposure, the loss of fertilizing materials 
during the course of the summer is not likely 
to be mnch below fifty per oent of the original 
value of the manure." 

Further experimenta showed that the liquid 
manure from a cow ia worth as much per day 
aa the aolid manure, and that the combined 
value of tbe two ia nearly ten centa per day. If 
valued at the aame rate aa commercial fertlliz- 
era; that from a horse at aeven centa, that from 
a sheep at one and one-half centa, and that from 
a hog at one half cent for liberally fed, thrifty 
shoats of medium size. 

Director Raberta ia careful to explain that 
theae values will have to be modified to suit in- 
dividual circumstances. What he means is that 
If farmers can afford to buy commercial fertiliz- 
ers at current prices, then the manures of the 
farm are worth the prices given. 

The bulletin closes with plans illustrating a 
cheap manure shed, under which manure may 
be saved with practically no loas. 

The bulletin Is oublished by Cornell Univer- 
sity, Ithaca, N. Y. 



GOLD MEDAL BUTTER. 

" It should be remembered that it was a firm of Jersey 
breeders, Moulton Bros , of Randolph, Vt., who by their 
enterprise saved the credit of American butter at the 
late Paris Expodtion," writes the editor of Hoard's 
Dairyman. 

In making the butter that tock the gold medal, Wells, 
Richardson & Co.'s Improved Butter Color w-as used, and 
investigation has shown that the rich golden yellow of 
most of the prize butter at the diHerent fairs, etc., is due 
to this same color. It is strange that any butter maker 
in this »ge of progress should make uncolored butter or 
use anything but WclU, Richardson & Co.'s Improved, 
for this color is the strongest, and hence the moet 
economical, while it always gives the same ratural June 
shade, and its presence in the bu'ter cannot be detected. 

. BAGGAGE NOTICE. 



Don't give up your BAOOAOE CHECKS to Transfer 
Agents on the Trains or Steamers and you w-lll save 
15 CENTS on the delivery of each Trunk by handing 
them to our Agents, who will meet all Trains and 
Steamers at the Ferrj' Landings or Depots in San 
Francisco ONLY. 

OUR RATES: 

One Trunk 35 Cents 

Three Trunks $1.00 

UORTON SPECIAL DELIVERY, 

lit O'Farrell Street, San Francisco. 



The Orange. — It is said that the orange was 
originally a berry, and that its evolution has 
been going on more than a thousand years. 



IT STANDS AT THE HEAD! 




00 NOT FAIL to SEE THE "DOMESTIC" 

Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 
It is the leader in practical progress. Send for pric* list 
J. W. BVAM8, 39 Foat St., S. F. 



LAND 

WORTH LOOKING AFTER 



-AND- 



Likely to Double 
in Price Soon. 



PINE VINEYARD 
OHOIOE FRUIT 
RARE RAISIN 
AND ALFALFA 



LAI 



EXAMINE THIS RARE CHANCE 



A well-cultivated farm of 160 acres, with 
miles of fencing and cross fencing, good im- 
provements, 7-room, two-story, hard-fin- 
ished house, nearly new, plenty shade 
trees, large barn, blacksmith shop, 
milk house, grain house and other 
outbuildiDgg; 7 acres of bear- 
ing orchard; 20 acres of al- 
falfa; large flowing arte- 
sian well of splendid 
water, and first-class 
surface wells of wa- 
ter; pleasantly lo- 
cated 7 miles 
from Tulare 
City; is of- 
fered for 

sale 
at about 
cost of im- 
provements, 
on easy terms, 
by ihe owner,who 
is engaged in other 
business. Land sold, 
in lots, without improve- 
ments, at $25 per acre. 
The readers of this journal 
are assured that this chance is 
worth looking after. Parties in 
San Francisco who know the property 
can be referred to. Some adjoining land 
can be secured at favorable rates if desired. 

Address E. M. Dewey, Porterville, Tulare 
Co., or A. T. Dewey, 220 Market St., S. F. 




BUY YOUR HARNESS AT WHOLESALE 
PRICES. 

Liebold Harness Co. 

no McAllister St., San Francisco. 

Good Hand Made Buggy Harness. $18 
Good Double Spring Wagon Harness, $30 

Send lor Descriptive Price List. 



ijWSii? 



THE LATEST AND BEST. 



JOLY 11, 1891.] 



pACIFie f^URAlD f RESS. 



35 



yiicational. 



Van Ness YoQDg Ladies' Seminary 

1222 Fine St., San Francisco. 

A FIRST- CLASS PRIVATE SCHOOL UNDER THE 
ownership and direocion of DR. S. H. WILLtty, 
aided by a corps ot 12 experienced teachera. Numbers 
limited; home care; Instruction the choicest; music a 
specialty. Only a few vacancies; apply soon. Term 
begias Aufnist 3d. Send for circulars. 



Bowens Academy, 



CnlTersity Ave., Berkeley. 

BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL 

FOR BOYS AND YOUNG MEN. 
Ppecial university preparation, depending not on time, 
but on progress in studies. 
T. S. BOWENS, M. A., Head Master. 




School of Practical. Civil, Mechanical and 
MINING ENGINEERING, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying, 
723 MARKET ST., SAN PRANOISCO. OAL. 
Open all year. 
A. VAN DER NAILLEN, President. 
Assaying of Ores, >25; Bullion and Chlorination Assay, 
$25; Blowpipe Assay, SIO. Full Course ot Assaying, $50. 
ESTABLISHED 1864. Send for Circular. 




Tbe Only Actnai Business tlollege 

ON THE PACIFIO COAST. 

This popular institution stands upon its merits as the 
live, progressive, practical Commercial Training: School 
of San Francisco. 

Individual Instruction given in the English Branches, 
Commercial Law, Penmanship, Commercial Correspond- 
ence, Shorthand, Typewriting, and Book-keeeping In all 
its forms 

Exper" Accountants of wide experience only, employed 
as teachers of Bnok keeping and Commercial Cus oms. 

First-class board at the College B larding Hall, under 
the management of members of the faculty, at $13 per 
month. 

ENDORSED BY THE FARMERS' ALLIANCE OF 
THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue, and copies of our 
College Journal. Address 

San Francisco Bneiness College, 

Cor.Uarket and Jones St8.,Saa Francisco.Oal. 



IRVING INSTITUTE. 

A Select School for Young Ladies. 

Fifteenth Year. Eighteen Professors and Teachers. 
For Catalogue or Information address the Principal, 

REV. EDWARD B. CHURCH, A. M., 
1036 Valencia Street, San Francisco, Oal 



CHESNUTWOQD'S 
SANTA CRUZ, CAL. 



BEST EQUIPPED ON THE COAST. INDIVIDUAL 
instruction. No Classen. Ladies admitted to all 
departments. Board and room In private families, $16 
per month. Tuition, fix months, $42. 

J. A. CHESNUTWOOD, Box 43. Santa Cruz, Cal. 



THE PIONEER COMMERCIAI. SCHOOL. 




LIFE SCHOLARSHIPS. $7S. 

No Vaoatioms. Dat akd EvKNiNa Srssioms. 

Ladles admitted into all Departments. 
Address: T. A. ROBINSON. U. A., President. 



HEALDS 



BUSINESS OOLLEGE, 

24 POST ST., S. P. 

FOR SEVENTY - FIVK DOLLARS THIS 
College instructs In Shorthand, I ype Writing, Book- 
keeping, Tel graphy. Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
English branches, and everj thing pertalnine to business, 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Indivirual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
its graduates in every part of the State. 
tS" Send for Circular. 

E. P. HEALD, President. 

C. S. HALEY, Secretary. 



D 



EWEY Ol UC, PATENT AGENTS, 220 
Market St, San Franolnco. Klovatnr. IJ Frnnl >-t. 




THE LEADING FEATURE OF THE SCHOOL IS ITS HOME. 



TUITION ONE YF'AR (52 WEEKS) $75 00 

TUITION SIX MONTHS (24 WWEKS) 50 00 

BXCBLL.ENT BOARD PER MONTH (4 WEEKS) 10 CO 

Course Thorough, Rates Lowest. Instru tion ) 
the Best, and Schonl the Mo^t Reliable. ) 



Address W. C. RAMSEY. 




THIS COltlPI.ETK KIT OF TOMLM 

Oxxly 925. 

Send for No 16 Illustrated Catalngde. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., San Francisco 




S. F. Ol«FlOl!J. 29 S'lEUAKT ST. 



APIARIAN SUPPLIES. 

Italian Queens, $2.50 each; Black Queens, $1 each. 
Swarms from $2.50 each; Smoker, $1. Comb Found*. 
'Intl. »1.?R ner nnunrt; V.groove Sectlono $4 per 10'"' 
Comb Honey wholesale and retail; Hives, etc. W. 
8TYAN & SON, The Homestead Apiary, San Mateo, Cal. 



n 



EWEY Si CO., PATENT AGENTS, 220 
Ma»kBt «t.. R«n P'ranclBoo. B'Iei'»t"r. n Front at. 



MINNESOTA THRESHER MFG. CO., 




Minnesota Chief Threshers, 

AGRICULTURAL ENGINES, HORSE POWERS AND SELF-FEEDERS. 



Factory and Salesrooms, 654 WASHINGTON STREET, OAKLAND, CAL 



36 



f ACIFie I^URAlo PRESS. 



[July 11, 1891 



THE 



CALIFORNIA STATE FAIR 




Wi^ occuB AT SACRAM ENTO, 

September 7th to ISth Inclusive 

(TWO WEEKS). 

LOCALITIES that exhibit their capabilities are attracting buyers. PRODUCTS 
speak for themselves if given an oppoitnnity, 

TO LAND OWNERS that desire to establish colonies we say, Make your showing 
at the State Fair, where people congregate to make comparisons, 

INTo FzToc3.vi.otloxis Sliox>«7-xx, 

No 'Visitors Oa,ll. 

No Visitors, 

3Nro SaIgs. 

SXO SSaIgs, 

ISITo Fxrosx-osslon.. 
N'o Z'x-osx'essioxx. 

IXTo XU-otliixLe. 

ANY COUNTY that earns a Premium as a County, at the State Fair attracts 
attention of home-teekers, which means NEW BLOOD, NEW IDEAS, and ADVANCE- 
MENT in all industrial lines, as well as general progression throughout. 

BEGIN YOUR PREPARATIONS WITH HARVEST. It is a year of Agri- 
cultural Prosperity. TAKE ADVANTAGE OF IT. 



The STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 

Devotes Over $5000 This Year to 

PREMIUMS FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS 

(EXCLUSIVE OP LIVE STOCK). 

THE FIRST PREMIUM IN COUNTY EXHIBIT DEPARTMENT IS $750. 

A NEW FEATURE by way of a Special Award for Farm Products grown by 
individuals will be given this year. The first premium is $350; second, $150. 

THE POPULAR EXHIBITIONS OF SPEED. THE UNSURPASSED DISPLAY 
OF LIVE STOCK OF ALL KINDS ATTRACTS THE LARGEST CROWD OF 
SIGHTSEERS THAT GETS TOGETHER DURING THE YEAR. 

THE GRAND EXPOSITION BUILDING is fiUed with the beauties of nature 
and the MECHANICAL DISPLAYS form a most Interesting feature of the exhibition. 

THE GRAND MUSICAL CONCERTS each evening are an attraction worthy 
of notice. 

IT IS HERE THAT EVERYBODY GOES. You meet the Merchant, the Manu- 
&cturer, the Producer and the Consumer. No one cares to miss the State Fair. 

EXCURSION RATES are given on aU railroads. FREE RATES ON FREIGHT 
of all kinds for Exhibition. 

PRE lUM LISTS now ready. Apply to Secretary for information of all kinds. 

FREDERICK COX, President, 
EDWIN F. SMITH, Secretary. 




GRADES ALL KINDS OK KKUIT— oranges, Lemons, Limes, Apples, Pears, Peachra, Plums, Prunes, Apricots 
and Grapes. Also Potatoes, Ooions and Walnuts. 

THESE GRADERS T.fOK THE FIRST PREMIUM AT THE STATE FAIR OF 1890 over all competitors, and 
the Silver Medal at the Mechanics' Fair at San Francuco the last two years. Thry are home manufacture and lower 
priced than any other grader in the market. Send for Illustrated circular Riving prices, capacity and testimonials. 

MOSHER, CHANDLER & CO., Manufacturers, 

2ie FRONT 8TBBBT SAN FBANCISCO, OAL. 




RUPTURE 

PERMANENTLY CURED. 

No Detention from Baginesi. We refer you to 700 

patients In Colorado and Six National Banks in Denver. 

Investigate our method. Written guarantee to absolutelv cure 
all kinds of RUPTURE, of bofi sexes, without the use of KNIFE 
OH SYRINQE, no matter of how long standing. 

EXAMINATION FREE. 

THE 0. E. MILLER COMPANY. 

Rooms 2 and 3, northwest corner Fifth and Washington Streets. 
PORTLAND, OREGON. Entrance, Wa hington S reet. 

Office hour-, 10 to 12 a. M., 2 to 6 and 7 to 8 p. m. Personal cor- 
respondence solicited. 



FABIOLA HOSPITAL 




yUP FARini A Hn^PITAI is healthfully and pleasantiv located nn high ground in the ruburbs of 
• nC rflDIUl.n nUwrllHL OaUland, accessible from every part of the city, the street cars passing 

the door. 

Tljp A PPni NTM F N of the institution are of the best class: the bui'ding thoroughly warmed with 
inC H 1 r III H I m C l» I w Har\ey'ssystemof hot water heating; rooms urge and sunny; neailv fur- 
ni'ihed with all the comforts of a private home for the sick and the ci^nvecjience of a first-class general hosp.tal. 
Sewerage perfect. 

yupi I TRAINFfl NIIR^F^ are in attendance, and patients win receive all nursing and care re- 
"tLL IflHIHtl/ HUnOtO quired for ary ordinarv case without ex ra charge; but patients in 
private rooms, requiring a npecial nurse in constant att"ndance. will be charged extra. 

U A T C p y I T Y PA^F^ are given special carp, and large sunny rooms are set apart exclusively for such 
niHIuniiM i l»Mutw use, with most bkilled phjsiciaoB and careful nurses. 

BOTH HOMEOPATHIC AND ALLOPATHIC PHYSICIANS rciTS"rh^pl2^: 

and patients may choose the school of ine''iciiie they prefer. 

Should par.ientd denire to employ a iJiysiciau other than thoie on the hospital staff, they are allowed to do so 
at th^ir i.wn ex|>enfe 

Address S. J. FENTON, IlesidcDt I'hysician, Fabiola Hospital, Oakland, California. Telephone No. 948 



DEWEY & CO. {'^i»fvtS,?.^^a^/^lu^ } PATENT AGENTS.i 




Whitewashing Machines &Tree Cleansers. 

Complete Outfits at prices from 93 to $50. 

The Pumps are all BRASS, with BRASS ANP RUBBER VALVES. 

For Orchardlsts, Florists, Stockmsn, Poultry Ralsors 

THKIIK IS NOTHING LIKK THKM 

Pump sL-nt loiiipl tf an in rut f"r ?14. Sen I li.r lllii^t iitcd c' .talogiic. 

WAimiGHT SPRAIING APPARATDS CO., 1409 Jac'ison St., S. F. 

Oontraots tskan for Large Joba of Whltawaahlnc. 



July 11, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 



37 



Agricultural Notes. 

{Conlinued from page 30 ) 
Yolo. 

Blackberry Farming. — Woodland Mail: 
A year ago last iprint; Mc Hoaser planted fonr 
aorea of the "Wild Texas" blackberries. They 
have never been irrigated, bat have depended 
upon onltivatlon to insure the best result. At 
a little diatanoe the field looks like a flourishing 
vineyard, but on coming into it the visitor sees 
this year's growth of banes standing up four or 
five feet high, with the top; all lopped oS to in- 
duce the growth of strong lateral branches for 
fruit bearing next year. At the base of the 
vines and to the hlght of about a foot is a per- 
fect mass of berries in all stages of growth from 
green to black. It is three weeks since the 
first berries were shipped, and for the past two 
weeks fifteen men have been employed continu- 
ously in picking. This farm, Mr. Houser says, 
has supplied all the berries for Woodland and 
Sacramento so far this season. The sales from 
the fonr acres up to date have aggregated be- 
tween 1800 and $900. The Texas berry is con- 
sidered by far the superior of any berry hereto- 
fore offered in the Woodland markets, on ac- 
count of its sweetness, large size and early 
maturity. 



Two New Early Peaches. 

Editors Press: — Twenty-five years ago, W. 
W. Smith saw the value of a first-class yellow 
freestone peach that should ripen In advance of 
}the Crawford. With him wish was father to 
thought and thought to action. He patiently 
went at work to produce it, by budding one-half 
a tree to Eirly Crawford and the other to St. 
John, The best and the earliest of freestone 
peaches are parents of this. From the finest 
specimens of fruit thus produced by cross 
fertilization, he planted the pits and continued 
t9 select from the product of these until he had 
fruited 500 varieties. Two rows of his orchard 
were devoted to these seedlings. When the 
peach was discovered the others were budded 
to that kind and now he has quite a quantity 
to ship or to show. His fruit was ripe June 
28th, but it must be remembered that he is in 
Vaca valley proper some 10 or 12 days later 
than the snrroundlng hills and favored spots in 
Pleasants valley. I. H. Thomas of Vlsalia has 
entered into an arrangment to propagate this 
peach largely and instead of selling it at fancy 
prices, these gentlemen have accepted the 
liberal policy of patting it on the market at 
prices within easy reach of the orchardist who 
plants by the thousand. It is called Imperial 
Early. 

Another new peach, MoKevitt's Early, comes 
out at the same time upon a ranch very near, 
and promises very close competition. It was 
originated by Frank McKevitt. His father's 
orchard was of seedlings from the Crawford, 
that matured a little earlier than the parent. 
From that he selected earliest for propagation. 
When he bad secured a variety that suited 
him, he proposed to give it a practical test be- 
fore recommending it to others. He had 
shipped up to July 5th, 300 boxes, and we see 
by reports from Eistern markets that they 
brought fancy prices. 

Both these new peaches are very highly col- 
ored, of good size, growing upon vigorous trees 
very early, and will both go as Orawfords with 
the consuming public. 

We made such arrangements that we expect 
both to be on exhibition in glass at Board of 
Trade very soon. Frank S Thapin, 



Not Glyman's. 

Editors Press: I respectfully call your at- 
tention to the fact that some person or persons 
is perpetrating a most outrageous fraud in 
labelling car-loads of plums going East as 
"Clyman plums." 

I introduced this plum five years ago, but no 
one thought anything of it until Mr. G. W. 
Thissell of Winters and Mr. J. W. Gates of 
VaoaviUe took it up. I sent the former gen- 
tleman some grafts which he put into some old 
trees four years ago, and these are the only 
trees in the State bearing to any extent, and 




they were all marketed over a month ago. 
Still up to date the returns from Eastern ship- 
ments continue to quote "Clyman plums" in 
car-load lots. It is a most abominable fraud, 
and gives the lie to the report of Prof. Van 
Deman, and also that of the California State 
Board of Horticulture. 

Last year was the first time trees were dis- 
tributed to any extent, which of course won't 
bear for eeveral years. Last aammer I sent 
bads to several leading nursery firms, so that 
the trees can be obtained from other sources 
than from the writer. It is the gross fraud 
and willful misrepresentation against which I 
protest. 

Napa, Cal. Leonard Coates. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

Beported by Dewey St Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Ooaet. 

FOR WEEK ENDING JUNE 30, 189I. 

455,148.— ElevatoS Safety Device — W. N. 
Anderson, San Rafael, Cal. 

455,151. — Sprinkler — A. J. Bartlett, Pomona, 
Cal. 

455. 153- — Smoke Consumer — F. L. Bates, 
Sacramento, Cal. 

454,993.— Recoil Operated Magazine Gun — 
R. M. Catlin, Tuscarora, Nev. 

455,169.— Saw Bit-Holder — S. H. Chase, San 
Jose Cal. 

455,172. — Sawing Machine — Coffelt & Vlerech 
Jr., Doe Bay, Wash. 

455,178.— Pipe Coupling— M, Dillenburg. S. F. 

454,940. — Separator— J. H. Driller, Los An- 
geles, Cal. 

455.200. — Casting Machine— J. S. Griffin, 
Roslyn, Wash. 

455.201. — Wind Engine— .S. Griswold, Daven- 
port, Wash. 

455.255 —Equalizing Device for Windmills 
— E. L. Kenoyer, Hanford, Cal. 

455,004 —Hay Rake— D. F. Oliver, S. F. 

454,889.— Valve for Sinks, etc.— A. A. & F. 
B. Stout, Fowler, Cal. 

455.13s- - -Hot Air Bridge Wall — E. W. 
Tucker, S. F. 

455,138. — Electric Signal for Steam Ves- 
sels, D. D. Wass, S. F. 

The following brief list, by telegraph, for July 14 
will appear more complete upon receipt of mall advices: 

California — Solomon D. Brastow, San Francisco, and 
J. E. Riel, Newcastle, balance scale; Isaac K Clever, San 
Francisco, sectional can for stamp mills; Frank A. Fox, 
San Francisco, car coupling; Frank A. Fox, Sao Fran- 
cisco, assignor to C. E. Bishop, Brooklyn, oar coupling; 
Henry S. Q ace, assignor to J. A. Nischer, San Francisco, 
rock drill; Bernhardt E. Henricksen, San Francisco, bosa 
bridge; Orange M. Loveridge Weaverville, derrick; 
Joseph H. Nethercott, San Francisco, brakehead attach- 
ment; Orrin M. Parker, Oakland, douMe acting left 
pump; Clarence M. Symouds, San Francisco, can faucet; 
William A Woods, Santa Cruz, assignor to Pacilio Gold 
Savings Company oi California, gold saver and concen- 
trator; Joseph H. Yeaton, assignor of one-half to J. 
Campbell, Coroaado Beach, crushing mill. 

Oregon— Edward G. Good and J. Thome, Portland, 
assignors of one-third to E. Rast, Saginaw, Mich., ore 
separator. 

Notb.— Copies of D. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by t>ewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by mall 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patentt 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacific Coast 
Inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest oossible time. 



Minnesota Chief Thrashes Beans 
As Well As Grain. 

That this thrashing machine is making its way 
rapidly in favor, and has taken a strong position 
among our farmers, is proven by the increased sales 
each season, as shown by the report of the com- 
pany's agent, Mr. Robert Brand, No. 654 Wash- 
ington street, Oakland. The machine is built on 
correct mechanical principles, and is the result of 
many years' study and effort by experienced men to 
produce a thrasher that should approach as near to 
perfection as the limitations of man's ingenuity 
would permit. As a grain-separator, the Chief has 
no superior, while the ease and facility with which 
it thrashes beans adds largely to its popularity in 
districts where this important food product is exten- 
sively cultivated. For simplicity of construction, 
general capacity, durability and economy in oper- 
ating the Minnesota Chief stands high, and justly 
so. See the advertisement on another page, and 
send to the above address for an illustrated cata- 
logue. 



Grading Fruit. 

The immense increase in fruit production on this 
coast, and the lively competition among growers and 
shippers, that naturally accompanies it, has brought 
about a condition in the trade, whereby each year a 
reliable and cheap method for grading the orchard's 
products becomes more imperative. Among the 
several appliances for accomplishing this purpose, 
the "Cylinder Grader" manufactured by D. D. 
Wass at 141 and 143 First street in this city, stands 
out in prominent relief as a simple, practical ma- 
chine that does the work thoroughly and rapidly, 
two features that will not fail to commend them- 
selves to all who have large quantities of fruit to 
handle. The cost of the Wass grader is also an- 
other point in its favor. Being moderate and within 
the reach of all, the " Cylinder Grader " is adipted 
to all kinds of fruits, nuts, pickles, etc., and has 
given satisfaction wherever used as is attested by 
numerous testimonials. Note the advertisement on 
another page of the Rural Press, and send to the 
above address for further particulars. 



P A D nC SAMPLES SENT FOR 2-CENT STAMP. 
LillnLI^ State kind wanted. Box 285. JUSTIN 
' • T. SMITH, Silt Lake City, Utah. 



HorticQltnral Meeting in Oregon. 

Editors Press: The regular quarterly 
meeting of the Oregon State Horticulture 
Society will be held at Newberg, Tuesday and 
Wednesday, July 14 and 15. A full pro- 
gramme for three sessions has been prepared, 
but as all the titles to papers are not in, the 
annonnoement of the programme has been 
omitted. Newberg promises to entertain 
royally, and there should be a full attendance, 
showing our appreciation of her interest in 
horticulture. Train leaves Portland for New- 
berg at foot of Jefferson street at 9:40 a. m , 
returning at 3:20 f. m. 

Portland. E. R. Lake, Secretary. 



KNABE 
HAINES 

A. L. Banrroft & €0. 

303SutterSt.,S.F. 



Bush <fe GertS I'i.anos 

Parlor Organs 
Installjiifiits Ueiitals 

PIANOS 



Worth's Continuons Pi 
ure Hydraulic Press. 

In many processes which are 
oondncted by means of hydranlio 
presses, it is of great importance 
to secure a constant pressure 
which shall not at any time be 
excessive, but which shall, on 
the other hand, be kept up In 
spite of the material in the 
press gradually yielding to the 
force applied and so relieving 
the pressnre on the ram. In 
many places this object is at- 
tained by the simple means of a 
man pumping the press up, if it 
is required. This, however, be- 
sides being expensive, is a very 
inefficient plan, because the 
pressure is necessarily inter- 
mittent. Worth's hydranlio press has a pump 
worked by steam or other power. The power 
from the driving pulleys is communicated 
through a pinion to a spur-wheel (not shown in 
cut) on the main shaft. This shaft is provided 
with a cam which at every revolution lifts the 
weighted lever attached to the pump. This 
lever falls only by virtue of the weight at its 
end, which weight can be adapted to any 
pressure per square inch required. As long as 
the pressure in the cylinder is less than that 
due to the weighted leTer acting on the pump, 
the lever will fall at each stroke and continue 
pumping in the cylinder and forcing the ram 
up. But when the required pressure is at- 
tained, the lever is balanced by the pressure 
and is nnable to fall, and so remains suspended 
at the top of its stroke, the cam continuing to 
revolve underneath it. As soon as the material 
in the baskets gives way in the least, the lever 
falls again and is raised again by the cam until 
the balance is restored. 

In all other hydraulic presses made by other 
manufacturers, the pressure is regulated by a 
safety valve which, when the pressure attains 
a certain number of pounds per square inch, 
raises the valve, and unless some person is 
there to stop it, it will continue to throw the 
water all over until It Is stopped. With 
Worth's press there Is no safety valve, as the 
weighted lever acts as a safety valve when the 
lever is suspended by the pressure on the ram. 
The cam revolves underneath and stops the 
working of the pump until the pressure is re- 
lieved, when the pump starts working auto- 
matioally. 

It will be seen by referring to the above cut 
used herewith that this press has two baskets 
on trucks, so that while one is being filled, the 
other is nnder the press. The track on whioh 
the trucks run extends over the platform at 
each end where the bottom of the baskets are 
dropped and the pomace discharged in a chute; 
then the truck is run on the platform when the 
baskets are filled ready to run nnder the press 
and vice vena. 

Mr. Worth is now manufacturing these 
presses at his well-koown factory in Petalnma, 
which is a headquarter for wine presses, grape 
stemmers, etc., as well as horse-powers for 
dairy purposes and for raising water. 



FRUIT AND GRAIN RANCH 

FIFTEEN HUNDRED ACRES OF LAND, SITUATED 
ten miles S. W. fronathe town of Williams, Colusa Co., 
Cal.; 460 acres of choice fruit and ^rain land; the balance 
tirst-class grazing land, cai able of keeping 200 head of cat- 
tle the year round; plenty of living watf r; two-story house 
of 11 rooms, hard finiebed; tank-house, hard finished, all 
new; hot and cold water in kitchen and bath room. 
Nice location; tine view of the surrounding country. 
Crops never tail. Price, $3S,000. Terms, one-half down, 
the other secured by mortgage at eight per cent per 
annum. This property will be sold in subdivisions to suit 
purchasers. Apply or write to L. H. BAKER, on premises. 



Should consult 
DEWEY&CO. 

AMEBIOjIN 



California Inventors 

AND Foreign Patent Solicitors, for obtaining Patents 
and Caveats. Established in 1860. Theb- long experience as 
Journalists and large practice as Patent attorneys enables 
them to offer Pacific Coast Inventors far better survlce than 
they can obtain elsewhere. Send for free circulars of Infor- 
mation. Office of the Mining andSoibntifio PRKSS-and 
PAOiriO EliBAL Pbksh No. mo Harknt 8., 8an Frandico. 



SPECIAL POINTER TO FRUIT GROWERS! 

WIRE WORK OF ALL KINDS. ^ 

I 



rriTTt 



Window Gnards^ 
Wruught Iron Fen 
Bank, Store and Office 

Railing, 
Store and Window Fix- 
tures, 

Ornamental Wire Work, 
Roof Cresting; and Fln- 
lals. 

Sieves, Riddles and 

Mcreens, 
Galvanlzed.Dlpping: 

Baskets, 
And Prane Screens. 




FOR GRADING ORANGES, PRUNES, OLIVES, 
WALNUTS, PICKLES, ETC. 

Will Grade Green or Dried FrnU fiqnally Well. 

TusTiN, 8ept. 17, 189[».— Mk. D. D. Wass, San Francisco.— Dear Sir: 
The Grader arrived tha 3d iust., and I had no trouble in puttlog it up 
and operating it. It worked 
like a charm, and I could easily 

frade five tone of fruit a day. 
have tiuished and shipped my 
crop. I wish you would liow 
explain the attachments or 
screens for grading oranges. If 
they grade oranges as ntct ly as 
prunes, I want them. Pieaee de- 
scribe them and state the price. 
Youjra.etc, J. H. CREW. 



PRUNK SOBSJCN. 



Has Proven the most Rapid Working: machine that has ever been Introduced. Its capacity Is practically 
nnlinaited, as It will grade the fralt as fast as It can be fed into the machine. 
SEND FOR CIRCULARS AND PRICES. 

D, D. WASS, 141-143 First Street, San Francisco. 




88 



f ACIFie F^URAlo PRESS. 



[July 11, 1891 



breeder;' birectory. 



Six lines 01 lees In tbls Directory at Mc per line per month. 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



OOTATB BANOH BBBBDINQ FARM, Page's 
Statloo, S. F. & N. P. R R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeder! 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

PUBB-BRED HOi.STBIN FRIB8IAN Cattle 
for Sale. lionnle Brae Cattle Co., BoUister, CaL 

JOHN IjYNOH, Petaluma, oreeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns Voung stock (or sale. 



IMPOKTKD S I'ALLIONS.— EngliBh Shire, Cleve- 
land Bay, Goima ■ Coach. Import direct. Write 
Uolbert & Conger, 129 latu St, Los Angeles, Cal. 

P. H. BU KKE, «01 MontKomery St., 8. F.; Registered 
Holsteius; wiimers i,t more first piizes, sweepstakes 
and ••peci&l prtniiutns than any hero on the Coast 
Pure registcrtd Berkshire Pig* All strains. 

J. B. WHITB, Lakeville, Sonoma Go., CU., breeder 

ot Registered Bolsteln Cattle. 



P. H. M U H PH Y , Peikins, Sac. Co. , CaL , Importer and 
Breeder of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, importer and dealer in 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Bed Polled Cattle, Hoi- 
steins, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 

PBTBR 8AXB & SON, Lick House, San Franoiseo, 
Oal Importers and Breeders, for past '21 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

PERRIN STANTON, Sacramento, Cal., Importer 
and Breeder of Registered A. J. C. C. Jersey Cattle of 
the Best Strains. Stock (or sale. 

J. R. ROSE, Lakevil'e, Sonoma Co., Cal. , breeder of 
Thorouchbred Devons, Roadtters and Draft Horses. 



P. PETERSEN, Sites, ColusaCo., Importer* Breeder 
o registered shorth rn Cattle. Young bul B for aale. 

WILD FLiOWEK 810CK FARM, Fresno Co. 
A. HeilbroD & Bro. Prnps.,SiC. Bretders of thoroueh- 
bred strains an iCruikshank Shorthorns; also Registered 
Herefords; a fine let of young bulla in each herd for sale. 

CHARLES B HUMBERT Cloverdale, Cal., Im- 
porter and Breeder of Recorded Holstein-Friesian 
Cattle. CataloifUes on application. 

PBROHBRON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
mares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, lor sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal. New cata- 
logue now ready. Wm. B. CoUier. 



WILLIAM NILB8, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holstein and Jersey Cattle. None better. 



T. PHILLIPS. Simi, Ventura Co., Cal. Pure Bred 
Percheron Horses for sale. 



POULTRY. 



IP YOU KEEP ANT KIND OP FOWLS, 

Pet Stock, Dogs, Ac., it will pay you to send your ad- 
dress at once to C. R. Harker,Santa Clara, Cal. Youcan- 
not aflord not to do it. It will cost you but one cent 
and you will receive something worth ten times that. 



JOHN McFARLlNQ, Ca istoga, CaL, Importer and 
Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send for Circular. Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Pigs. 

R G HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 



O^LT POULTRY YARDS, Gait, Sac Co., CaL 
Pure bred Fowls, Pekin Ducks, Belgian Hares, etc. 

MADISON H. ORITOBBR, Bonnie Doon, Santa 
Cruz Ca, CaL Thoroughbred Pou try. Settings, »3. 

O. J. ALBEE, Lawrence, Cal. Pure bred poultry. 



SHEEP AND QOATS. 



B H. OBANB, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep from Illinois and England for sale. 



KIBSPATBIOK Si WHITTAKBB, Ktalghff 
Jerry, CaL, breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams (or sale. 

L U SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal., Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys fc Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 



PRANK BULLAhD, Woodland, Cal., Importer and 
breeder of thoroU((hbred Spanish Merino sheep. Pre- 
mium band of the State, choice rams and ewes for sale. 



J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Cross-bred 
Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for eale. 



B W. WOOL8EY a» SON, Fulton, Cel., importers 
k breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewes & rams for gale. 



ANDBBW SMITH, Redwood City, CaL; see adv't 



SWINE. 



JOSEPH MBLVIN, Daviavllle, Cal., Breeder of 
Poland-China Hogs. 



WILLIAM NILBS.Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pies. Circulars free. 



TYLER BEAOH, San Jose, CaL, breeder of 
loorauKhbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 



ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal. ; see adv't 



BEES. 



APIARIAN SUPPLIES or sale by Mrs. J. D. 
Enas, Napa City, Cal. 



BADEN FARM HERD. 
Short Horn Cattle and Draft Horses. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 
BOBBBT ASHBUBNBB. 
Baeien Station, San Mateo Co., Oal. 



IMPORTANT! 

That the public should know that for the past Twenty-one Tears our Sole Bnaineas has been, and now Is 
Importing (Over 100 Carlssda) and breeding improved Live Stock— Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrshires, 
and Jerseys (er Aldepieys) and their grades; also, all the varieties o( breeding Sheep and Hogs. We can sup- 
ply any and all good animals that may be wanted, and at very reaaonable prices and on convenient 
terms. Write or call on ui. PETER SAXE and HOMER P. SAXE. 

San Francisco, Cal., April .1, 1 91. PKTKR SAXE A SON, Ltck Hoase, 8. F. 



Walnut Grove Herd of Poland China Hogs 



JOSEPH MELVIN, 

Proprietor, 

DAVISVILLE, CAL. 




— OF — 

strictly Bred 

POLAND CHINA 
SWINE. 



At the htad of the herd stands PERFECTION KING, No. 7579; KING OF THE \VE.ST, No 8921; 
HOOSIER BOY 2d, No 8923. Breeding Sowb as fine individuals and tt.s strictly bred as any in the land; 
also recordid in the C. P. C. K. record with pedigrees f\ill to standard. Breeders for sale at all times. 
I have tirsl-olass Pigs of both sexes at reasonable prices. Re>ideuce 1>^ miles northeast of Lavisville. Cal. 
Personal inspection solicited. All inquiries promptly answered. Yours truly, JOSEPH MELVIN. 




AMERICAN RIVER BREEDING FARM. 

Importer and Breeder. I .\UKKDEEN ANGU.S C-^TTLE. Proprietor, J E. C A MP, Sacramento, OaL 




THE BEST .FEirCE YET! 

Cheap, Durable, Portable and Safe. 

THE SPALDING HUMANE WIRE PENCE 
is composed of eight No. 12^ galvainz^-d steel wires, 
woven Into four cables of two wires each; iuterwoTen every 
five feet is a corru^at. d iron 8tay or guard, and held In place 
by the cables, thereby holding the cables firmly Id place, pre- 
veuting them >ieing ^prea<l lipiirt and letting stock tbr ugh. 
The stays ur guards are corrugated aud an inch and three- 
QTiarters In width, ruHklng tht* frnce as vinible as a board fi-nce, 
which is a verj ew«nU»l point. Write for circularH and 
prices. Addreas BIKD-TUKNBUL.i^ Sirci. CO^ 

IttS La M«||e Mt^ ChlcsiV*. 




HEADQUARTERS FOR ALL VARIETIES OF FANCY FOWLS, 

Ducks, Turkeys, Oeese, Peacocks, Etc, 

EGGS FOR HATCHING. 



Publisher of " Nllea' Pacific Coast Poultry and Stock Book," 

a new book on subjects connected with successful poultry and stock raisinf( on 
the Pacific Coast Price 60 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp for information. 

BREEDER AND RAISER OF THOROUGHBRED 

Jersey and Holstein Cattle. Also, Poland China and Berkshire Pigs. 

Address, WILLIAM NILES. Los Angeles, Cal. 




MANHAJIS8 



IS AN KXCKLI EST SDBSTITUTK FOR GK.'V.SS. 



Oeniiine only with RED 
BALL ),r:ind. 

Recommended by Gold- 
Emith, Mtrvin, Gamble, 
Wells, J'arjio & Co., etc., etc. 

It keeps Horses and Cattle 
healthy. For milch cows; 
it increases and enriches 
their milk. 

63 3 Howard St., San 
FranclHco, Cal. 



COLTS mm. 

THE SOUTHER FARM, 

One and a half milea northeast of San Leandro, 
Alamedft Oonoty, has every facility for Break- 
ing Colts properly. Rates very reasonable. 
Horses boarded at all times, 

THE SOUTHER FAKM, 

QTliBBRT TOMPKINS, Proprietor, 

p. O. Box 149. Han Leandro. Oal 



STOCK B SCALES 




U.S. STANDARD. FULLY WARRANTED. 



Delivered at yonr R. R. Station and ample time for 
baildiDg and t«etiDj{ allowed before acceptaaoe. 

OSGOOD & THOMPSON, Binghamton.N f. 
PORTABLE! PLATFOiilVI SCALES, 
TRUCKS. ETC. 

Twenty-five per cent cheaper th»n any ottier on the 
market. Send for Catalogue. 

C. H. LINDEMANN, Agent, 

126 KEARNY ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



Gr. XKT. 

BREETIEK OF RKllISTEBED 

■■••rtbara, AberileeB • Abv«i 
mad Jet-Mj Caltle. 

Youui Stock lor Sale. Oorreapond ce__ 

8oUclW)3. «. W. DIBilCK. Habbitrd, Or«r*M. 




$100.00 Reward! 

If Browne's ^'at. Squirrel 

Exterminator l^^i Fails to Kill. 




SEND FOR CIRCULAR 

3I4&3I6 
S. Spring 
Street, 



F. E. Browne 
Los Angeles, 
Cal. 



DR. A. E. BUZARO, 

VETERINARY SURGEON, 

Member ol the Koyal CoUoKe ol Veterinary SurgMns, 
LiOndon, Englud. 
Okaduatid Apeil 22, 1870. 
AdTloe b7 Mall, 93. 

OFFICE AND PHARMACY: 

631 O'Farrell St.. cor. Hyde, San Francisco. 

Open Day and Night. Telephone No. 2094. 




Dana's White Metallic Ear Marking Label, stamped 
to order with name, or n.ime and address and num 
bers. It is reliable, cheap and convenient. Sells at 
bt and gives perfect satiefuction. Illustrated 
t and bamples free. Agents wanted. 
C. B. DANA, West Lebanon, N. B 



DBWBY St GO., PATENT AQENTS, aaO 
Market St., San Francisco. Elevator, 13 Front It. 



PoJLTilYf Etc. 



TBI 

OLD WOMAN 

WHO 

Liyed ii a 

Has made her for 
tune in the 




To find oat how she did it send 8c in .tamp, tor SO-pag. 
colored catalogue ol Incubators, Ihorougbored 
Poultry and Poultry appliances to the 

PACIFIC INCUBATOR CO., 

1817 Castro Stre«t, Oakland, Oal. 



DnniTDVUDM WHOSE HEN'S are beginning 

rUULUlIultin TO STOP LAYING. Fgga have «d- 
TB' ceil from 15 ets to 30 cts. , and will so advance 
during the n xt few months to 60 cts. per dnzen Thofe 
wishing eggs to sell at that price must ■ eiiiii feeding WELL- 
INOTO.N'S IMfROV-D EGG FOOD Iiuinf!dlat.-l7, 
now, at once. Don't get caught again Your neigh- 
bors, who always h»ve plenty i>f Kkss, never allow 
theiutelves to be without this Improved lege Food 
(standard f.<r 13 year.) and will use no other 
kind. Get of any Orncv^r. I>ru£:Kist or Merchant, 
or of Proprietor, 425 Washington St., San Francisco. 

halsted'incurator 

COMPANY, 
IBia Myrtle Mtreet, Wakland, Cal. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 





T H E 
G- n K AT EST 
'FlPti & Chtvken Lire Killer. 

Ask your dealer for it. or netid for Free Circular to 

Petaluma Incubator Co., Petaluma, Cal. 



WHEN YOU BUY, 



BUY 



THE BEST! 



THE 



Horse Liniment 

Is certainly the best preparation of Its 
kind In the market. Ranchers, Stock 
Raisers and Horse Owners of every 
description will tell you that It does 
good work every time. 



Hbssrs. H. H. Moori b Sons, Stockton, Cal.— OilTLi- 
hen: In answer to your iuc|Uiry, would state that I used 
your H. H. H. Liniment on my Holland prize-winning 
cow, " Lena Menlo," for a wrenched shoulder, and it re- 
lieved her very much. She calved the next day, and while 
still suffering from the sprain gave the largest authen- 
ticated quantity of milk ever given on this coast (10) 
gallons per day), showing conclusively the great relief 
received from > our remedy. I consider it a necessity in 
my stables, and when away from home feel perfectly 
safe, as Inexperienced men can do no barm with it, as 
they can with the more powerful blisters. Reapccttully 
yours, FRANK H. BUKKE, 

Breeder of Registered Holstelns and Berkahires. 

Menlo Park, Cel., January 22d, 1889. 



MANUFACTCRED BY 

H. H. MOORE & SONS, 

THE DRUGGISTS, 



248 MAIN STRSm. 



STOCKTON, CAL. 




MAKES THE BEST BREAD. 



Engraving 



Superior Wood and Mt- tal EugraT* 
int, Eleotrotrvlny and Stereotnptni 
'don> at the omw at this vapM. 



July 11, 1891.] 



f ACfFie I^URAlo PRESS. 



39 



INSURANCE AGENCY. 



Bitler k Mil 

413 California St., San Francisco. 



Phoenix Assurance Co. of London. 
AmericanFirelns.Co.ofNewYork. 



Policies Issued on 

GROWING CROPS, 

GRAIN IN WAREHOUSE, 

FARM BUILDINGS AND OTHER 
PROPERTY, 

In these Old and Reliable Companies. 



LOSSES PROMPTLY AND LIBERALLY 
ADJUSTED. 



THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY. 



Special Agent, HERBERT L. LOW. 

WORTH'S PATENT 

ComDlaeil Screw M Toggle Lever 

WINE.GIDER AND OLIVE PRESS. 



Using two baskets bo 
that while one in under 
the press the other can 
be «mptie(l and filled 
ready to move under 
the press as soon bb the 
first basket Is pressed. 
First Premium awarded 
at all fairs wherever 
exhibited. Parties de- 
siring a press combin- 
ing Power, Speed and 
ase to Handle, can 
aee them at the leading 
wineries on the Pacific 
Co»8t. 

The followiug extracts from well known 
wlne-makerg are qaotatlons from letters 
recelTed by ng: 

" The press works like a charm in every respect, it 
strength is equal to all requirements and workea with 
perfect ea«e, and gives the best of satisfaction, and I think 
It about m possible to improve on it in any way. " — B. W. 
HOLLENBECK, Santa niara. 

" The wite press did all *hat you claimed for It, work- 
ing to thi satiataction of mv forfman and of myself." 
THOMAS H. BUCKINGHAM, Buckingham Park, Kelsev- 
vUle, Cal. 

" The press worked easily, rapidly and we presume 
as effectively as any press of its capacity could wi.rk, 
and will doubtle s prove a great cnnven ence to wii e- 
makero, as it can be moved about " ith ve^y little 
trouble."— BRUlKNEB BKOS & REQUA, Santa Rosa. 

" Y ur large wine press proved satisfactory."— C. P. 
HOWES, San Francisco. 

" The press surpss ed expectations and can readily 
commend it." — CUCAMONQA VINEYARD CO., Per 
Marco Ulllman, Los AngeUs. 




Also Worth's Improved Grape Elevators, Improved 
Continuous Pressure Hydrauli>; Presjes, Worth's Patent 
Power Grape Stemmer and Crusher, Woith's Patent 
Ho se Power, .lud all kinds of mai hine y for wine m iktrs. 
The Large Toggle Lever and Screw Press is capable of a 
pressure of 266 tons "r 300 pounds to thesqu.re inch the 
small press h.s 36 tons or .40 pounds to the i-quare inch. 

Petaluma Foundry and Machine Works, 
P. 0. Box 288, 
Petaloma, Sonoma Conntjr, Cal. 



BEST TREE WASH. 

"Greenbank" 98 degrees POWDERED CAUSTIC 
80I>A (te-ts 99 3 10 1 er cent) recommended by the 
highest au'horities in the Stat 1. Also Common Caustic 
Soda and Potath, etc., for sale by 

T. W. JACKSON & CO., 
Manufacturers' Agents, 
104 Market Sc. and 8 California St., S. F. 

ITALIAN SHEEP WASH 

Extract of Tobacco. 

FREE FROM POISON. CURES 
theScabof thoSheep. The 
BtST remedy known Costs LESS 
thin 1 (ent per head for dippii g. 
Piiieredued. Fr>r particulars .ip- 
ply to CHA*. I)U1>K.N BUKG 
& <:«>.. Sole ^geutn. No. 314 Sac- 
ramento St , San Fiancisco. 




PATBSIT OWNERS Of 

NOBELS DYNAMITE, 
NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE, 
NOBEL'S GELATINE-DYNAMITE, 

Best and Strongest Eiplosiyes in tlie Worlil. 

As other makers IMITATE our Qiant Powder, so do they Jndaon, by Mannfaotnrlng 
a second-grade, inferior to Jndson. 
BANDMANN. NIELSEN li CO. General Agents, San Francisco. 



JUDSON POWDER. 

The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stnmp and Bank Blasting, From 5 to 20 
ponnds blows any Stnmp, Tree or Root olear 
oat of groand at less cost than grabbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers ase no other. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

SHIPPINGS COMMISSION HOUSE, 

0P7ICE. 108 DAVIS STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Wareboase and Wharf at Port Costa. 



CONSIGNMENTS OF GRAIN, WOOL, AND ALL KINDS OF PRODUCE SOLICITED. 

Money advanced on Qrain In Store at loweat possible rates of Interest. 
Fall Cargoes of Wbeat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricnltnral Implements, Wagons, Oroceriei 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

E. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 



p. &B. Fruit Papers 

, (PATENTED.) 

ESPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR FRUIT DRYING. 

No need of expensive wooden trays. No need of turning fruit. Costs much less than any other method. 

SAMPLES AND CIRCULARS FREE. 



PARAPPINB PAINT COMPANY, 

116 BATTERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



SAN FRANCISCO TOOL CO, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

IRRIGATING PUMPS 

AND 

Machinery of all Kinds. 

PACIFIC COAST AGENTS 

BABOOOK & WILOOX 

Patent Water Tube Steam Boilers. 

fistlmates FDmlgbed on Application. 




'Send for Catalogues. 



OKNTRIFTTOAI. PUMP. 



FIRST and STEVENSON STS., S. F. 




TRIPLE ACTING 

IRRIGATING POMP. 



It is very easy running and throws more 
water with the same power than any other 
pump— from 3000 to 50.000 gallons per hour, 
according to size of pump. 

It is a HOWKK f-UMP and can be run 
by steam, horce or any other ijower. 

Send '0 descriptive catalogue and price list. 

F. W. KROGH & CO., 

51 BRALE ST, SAN FRANCISCO. 



/ISark's 



IMPROVED 



SEEDING 

ROW 



POSITIVE IN ITS ACTION and 
PERFECT IN ITS SEEDING. 

WilisowallkindsofGRASSSEED&GRAINS 

SEND FOK SPKCIAI. CIRCTir.An. 




HIGGANUM MANUFACTURING CORPORATION S^e^^v^Ybf c^fr's^NWRK 



Coiiii!ii33iop |<lercl)aiit3. 



WETMORE BROTHERS. 

Commission Merchants. 

GREEN AND DRIED FRUIT, NUTS, 
PRODUCE, POULTRY, EGGS, 
HIDES, PELTS, EIC. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. PROMPT RETURNS. 

413 415 & 417 Washington St., 
(P. O. Box 2099.) SAN FRANCISCO. 



MOORE, FERGUSON & CO., 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR 

—Am— 

General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St., S. F. 

Hembere of ih« San Frandsco Prodnce Exchange 
iVPersonal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vanced made on Consignments at low rates of Interest. 



DALTON BROS., 

Commission Merci\ants 

ADD DIALIBS IN 

CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 
308 & 310 Davis St., San Franciioo 

(P. 0. Box 1986.1 
JVConslgnments Solicited. 



ALLISON.GRAY&GO. 

501, 503, 505. 507 & 509 Front St., 

And 300 Washington St., SAN FRANCISCO. 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

GREEN and DRIED FRUITS. 

POVLTRT.E6aS,GAinB,GRAIN,PBODUCB 
AND WOOL. 



DEWEY & CO. {^='^.^4?o1•^W^i,^t'' } PATENT AGENTS. 



[■STABLISHBD 1854.] 

GEORGE MORROW A CO., 

HAT and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 
89 Olay Street and as Commeroial Street 
8ah Fbanwmo, Cal, 
m" SHIPPING ORDERS A SPEOLALTT.m 



E. P. FELLOWS & GO. 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

316 Davis St., San Francisco. 

Consignments Solicited of 
GREEN AND DRIED FRUIT, POULTRY, EOGS, 

POTATOES, BEANS, HONEY, ETC., ETC 

Prompt Returns. 



BnsBNl J. Grbqort. [Established 1852.J Frakk Okisokt. 

GREGORY BROTHERS CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF 

CALIFORNIA FRUIT AND PRODUCE. 

126 and 128 J St., - Sacramento, Cal. 

San Francisco Office, 813 DaTli St. 

EYELETH & NASH, 

OOMMISSION MBROHANTB 

And Dealers in Fruit, Prodnoe, Poultry, Game, Eggi 
Bides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and SSI, MS, 
226 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 

WITTLANB & FREDSICKSOS, 

Commission Merchants. 

All Klndo of Oreen and Dried Frnlta. 

Consignments Solicited., 324 DavlS St., S. F. 



Go to American Excbange Hotel. 




a 

o S 

a ° 
a 
ai 

The above Hotel is situated In the mid't of the Bank- 
ing and Commercia hous' s of the city, »nd is by far the 
most home-like an I desirable Hotel to stop at. 
CHAS. & WM. MONTQ >MBBY, Prop'rs. 



L^NORAVINO - SOPBKIOB WOOD AND 
Vj Metal Engraving, Electrotyplng and StereotypIji( 
don* at lh« oMm of llils paper. 



40 



f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 



[Jolt 11, 1891 



%F(KET Reports. 



Local Markets. 

San Francisco, July 8, 1891 

A change in the weather for the better, has done 
no little in bettering the spirits of all classes. This 
is largely evidenced in more trading. Harvesting 
is fully underway in all sections, and under favor- 
able conditions. The grain yield is exceptionally 
good— much better than many claimed would pos- 
sibly be. The money market is fairly easy. Wheat 
at the East and abroad has been gravitating down- 
ward. The following is to-day's cablegram : 

Liverpool, July 8. — Wheat — Quiet but steady. 
California spot lots, 7s iid; off coast, 41s 6d; just 
shipped, 41s; nearly due, 41s; cargoes off coast, 
quiet; on passage, not much inquiry; Mark Lane 
wheat, steady; F"rench country markets, quiet; 
weather in England, unsettled. 

Liverpool Wbe&t Market. 

The following are the closing prices paid tor wheat 
options per ctl. for the past week: 

July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. 

Thursday 78lOJd Tsllid 7eUJd 880d 

Friday 7BlOid SsOd SsO^d SeOid SsOd 

Saturday 

Monday 7BlO}d SaOid SsO^d SiOJd 

Tuesday 78l03d 78lljd 7ell3d 8elu SaOid 

The lollowing are the prices lor CaUlornia cargoes 
'Or off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
the past week: 

O. C. P. S. N. D. Market. 

Thursday 4l96d 41s6il 41f6d Steadier. 

Friday 4l86d 41s6d 4l8tiJ Steady. 

Saturday 

Monday 4l86d 4l86d 4l66d Steady. 

Tuesday ilxOd 41sud 41i>6d Steady. 

Baatern Grain Markets. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
at New York for the past week, per cental: 

Day. July. Aug Sept. Oct. Dec. 

Thursday 170^ 16si 1654 .... 168J 

Fiiday 

Saturday 

Monday 1683 163i 1«2J 1644 104 

Tuesday 168 163 I6I3 16. j 1645 

lUe closmg prices (or wheat havr been as follows 
4 Chicago for the past week, per cental: 

Day. July Sept. Dec. 

Thursday 166J 148i 152 

Friday 

Saturday .... 

Monday 163 145i 148 ^ 

Tuesday 153 WSJ 160 

Chicago, July 8.— Wheat— gt^c for July, 87}^c 
for September and Sgyic for December. 

Dried Prulta. 

New York, July 5. — Raisins — Fine marks of 
loose raisins are closing out at $i.is@i.2s, with 
layers about as cheap. A sale of new crop to go 
South is reported at $1.60 for October and $1.50 lor 
November. The possible uniform packing for next 
season is much commended in the East. Spot 
prunes, peaches and apricots are too much at buy- 
ers' dictation for plain ijuotations. 

The Hop Market. 

New York, July 3.— Hops are dull. Samples 
were sbown in small lots of medium quality. States as 
low as 22@25c and some fine Pacifies, but buyers 
were not attracted. A fair amount of stock is going 
to the brewers on contract, but fresh purchases are 
moderate and hardly up to the average for the 
season. Crop advices contained nothing dis- 
tinctively new. There is no radical change in the 
situation of the foreign markets. 

Visible Supply of Oraln. 

New York, July 6. — The visible supply of grain 
in store and afloat, as compiled by the New York 
Produce Exchange, is as follows: Wheat, 
12,584,000 bushels, a decrease of 1,016,000 bushels; 
corn, 3,020,000 bushels, an increase of 169,000; oats, 
3,563,000 bushels, a decrease of 103,000; barley, 
96,608 bushels, a decrease of 11,000 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, July 3 — Jiradslree/'s: The condi- 
tion of the markets has not improved during the 
week. It is 10 the interest of bolh manufacturers 
and dealers to have as slow a movement as possible 
in wool at the lime the new clip is coming forward. 
By this means values can be lowered in the Eastern 
markets without loss to the holders and growers 
who are unable to keep their wool are forced to part 
with it on terras favorable to buyers. It is thus that 
Ohio and Michigan wools are now offered in the 
West 2@scc ^ lb under the prices obtained a year 
ago. Stocks of last year's wool in the Eastern mar- 
kets are small, and aside from the tendency to use 
foreign wools. There is no reason why prices 
should be lower than in July, 1890, StJme sales of 
Wyoming, Utah and Idaho wool are re'ported. 
Montana wool is coming forward slowly. California 
and Texas wools are in fair supply, but little is doing 
in other grades. Australian wools remain firm. 

New York, July 5. — Wool was more active, but 
buying was not general. Manufacturers' standard 
goods take fair parcels when prices favor. Texas 
and Territory wools don't exceed the market. 
Cleaned is sold on a basis of 62@63c; fine, 58@6oc; 
medium S5c; fine medium, California is not men- 
tioned. In a wholesale way there is a good market, 
and it is in good shape for dress and flannel stock. 
Boston is very active when the holiday is considered. 
Sales are reported of 3,640,000 foreign, 2,029,300 
domestic. California is wanted, but bids are not 
above ss@6oc for cleaned. 

Local Markets. 



WHBIT. 

•Buyer Buyer 
1891. 1891. 
_. . ( h. 160 

Thursday.... •} , ,59 

„ , , ( h 160} 165 

'''<l»y \y 159} 165 

Saturday 

Monday.. 

Tuesday 

*After AufTUSt 



mil 



155t 
156i 



Buyer Seller 

Seas-D. 1891. 

•163j 15:! 

•163} I5-J4 

165 issi 

I6S 153^ 



152 
lElJ 



B4RLIT. 

Buyer Season. Seller 1891. Buyer 1891. 

H. U H. L. H. L. 

Thursday inSi 102i 109i 109 

Friday tllSJ 11151 lOSJ lOsJ 112 lUJ 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tuesday 107J loej 113 112J 

'After July. tAller August. 



BAGS — The bag market is dull and easy. The 
elevator system up north contracts the demand. 
Quotations for standard size are given to-day at 
6K@7C. 

BARLEY — The market, after easing off, advanced 
toward the close, under a good demand and strong- 
er holding. In futures, trading has been fairly ac- 
tive. The following are to-days reported sales on 
Call: 

Morning Session: Seller 1891—200 tons, $i.o8}i 
per ctl; 900, $1.08; 200, $i.07<'8; 200, $1.07 }i; 400, 
$1.07^. Buyer i8qi, after August tst — 100 tons, 
$1.14; 100, $i.i3Ji. Afternoon Session: Seller 
1891 — 100 tons, $1.07}^; 100, $1.07; too, $i.o6H; 
600, J1.06; 100, $i.o6H; 300, $1.05?^; 700, $i.osJi. 
Buyer 1891, after August ist — 100 tons, $i.i2H; 
100, $1.12; 100, $i.ti?4; 100, $1.11^; 300, $i.iiH; 
#ctl. 

BUTTER — The market is stronger for gilt-edged 
hard-packed suitable for shipping to distant points. 
Poor to fair grades are weak and heavy. Choice 
is steadying. Ttie receipts of Eastern are falling off. 

CHEESE —The market is strong, with a good 
demand ruling. Stocks are gradually receding. 

EGGS— The market is very strong, with an ad- 
vancing tendency for strictly choice fresh laid. Other 
grades are in buyers' favor. 

FLOUR — The market appears to be steadying. 

WHEAT — Buyers are oflish, trying to get prices 
down to a lower basis, but holders are slow in ac- 
cepting anything below $1.50 per cental delivered at 
Port Costa or this city. In futures, trading on Call 
has been moderately fair. The following are to- 
day's reported sales on Call: 

Morning Session: Seller 1891—200 tons, I1.52K 
per ctl. Afternoon Session: Seller 1891 — 100 tons, 
$1.52^; ioo,$i.s2K; 100, $1.52?^; 100, $i.53H; 
900, $1.53 K. Buyer 1891 — after August ist— 400 
tons, $i.59K; 600, $i.S9,H; 100, $i.595i. 

market Inforinatlun. 

Cereals. 

The local wheat market was interrupted the past 
week by the mid-summer holidays, even yet it has 
not assumed its normal conditions. Same strength 
was exhibited under purchases to meet immediate 
and nearby wants, after these were met, buyers re- 
sumed former tactics— holding off and bidding 
lower. The wheat markets of the world appear to 
to be settling under slight fluctuations; this is ac- 
cepted as evidence that farmers in all producing 
countries are marketing their surplus. This course 
is necessitated in many instances by farmer's 
straightened financial condition, which compels sell- 
ing to meet not only current indebtedness, but in far 
too many cases debts incurred in the past, due to low 
prices that obtained for cereals; and then at present 
prices, with an average crop, a fair profit is secured 
which many do not feel disposed to ignore by taking 
chances of getting better prices later on in this sea- 
son by holding. If, as it is claimed, that selling is 
quite general the world over, it is only reasonable 
to conclude that when this relaxes better prices will 
obtain. In our market we are well supplied with 
tonnage, both spot and to arrive, while sellers do not 
appear disposed to crowd the market, to their own 
pecuniary loss. The prevailing idea at present is 
not to sell No, i white shipping at less than $1.50 
per cental Port Costa delivery, and when buyers bid 
less, then withdraw selhng offers. The farmers' or- 
ganizations (Grange and Alliance) are important 
factors in controlling prices, for by them producers 
act more in concert and on the basis of what is one 
farmer's interest is that of the others; heretofore it 
was in the line of "dog eat dog," and of course 
buyers toak advantage of it to beat prices down. 

Harvesting is in full blast. The outturn of both 
barley and wheat averages more to the acre and of 
better quaUly than ever before. 

Accepted authorities at the East place the visi- 
ble and invisible supply of old wheat in the United 
States and Dominion of Canada at only 33,000,000 
bushels (19 800,000 centals) which is a smaller carry- 
over than reported for nine years. 

From Oregon and Washington late advices are 
very favorable. Wheat, barley, oats and rye are 
heading out nicely. The prevailing opinion is that 
the outturn will be above an average, with quality 
good to gilt-edged. 

The total exports of wheat for the crop year of 
1890-91 is 14,844,815 centa's, valued at $19,924,640, 
against 13,702 887 centals at $18,002,778 for the 
crop year of 1889-90. The exports of flour during 
the past crop year were 1,189,546 barrels, against 
1.189,016 barrels during the crop year of 1989-90. 
Reducing the flour to a wheat basis we have total 
wheat exports during the past crop year of 17.463,- 
200 centals, valued at $25,180,600, against 17,274,- 
800 centals, valued at $22,870,000, during the crop 
year of 1889-90. The exports of the past cereal 
year were the heaviest and most profitable for a 
number of years. 

The barley market is strengthening. This is 
natural, for although we have a good crop, yet the 
consumption is simply enormous. Never within 
California's history has there been so large feeding. 
Even from up north there are calls, owing to farm- 
ers up there having sold too freely, and now find 
themselves without any surplus to meet the current 
wants. The receipts continue large, but all goes 
into consumption. Advices from up north report 
good crop prospects in both East Oregon and East- 
ern Washington. 

Oats the market is steady. Crop advices con- 
tinue favorable in this State, Oregon and Washing, 
ton. 

Corn continues to rule firm. Under a steady Cen- 
tral American demand is only moderate. Free re- 
ceipts of Eastern and more to arrive cause a weaker 
tone to prevail. Buyers, of course, only meet urgent 
requirements. Crop advices are generally favorable. 

Rye is barely steady. 

Feedstuff 

Ground and rolled barley are higher and in good 
demand. Bran and middlings are steady. 
Cracked corn and feedmeal are weaker. The de- 
mand for all kinds, particularly that of rolled and 
ground barley, is very large, fully 75 per cent 
greater than at this time in 1890. 

The receipts of hay have fallen off.and prices have 
advanced. The demand is very heavy. Last year 
at this time pastures were good compared to what 
they now are. Many dairies and stockmen are 
feeding quite freely, while for teams both in the 
country and cities demand is, unusually heavy. 
Advices from up north report a good crop. 



Fruits. 

Cherry quotations are withdrawn currants are go- 
ing out. Berries are a shade lower. Apricots are 
steady. Peaches are showing slightly better quality. 
Plums and pears are still scarce. Apples are only 
fair in quality. Some white grapes came in yester 
day, July 7, from Vacaville. 

The following are dryers' and canners' quotations 
to orchardists per ton. Prunes, $^0@S2% ^ ton 
peaches, $35@47H for freestone and $4S@S2.so for 
clings; apricots; $25@4o; Bartlett pears, $35@45 
plums, $25@42.5o. 

Quotations begin to be made on dried fruits. 
Apricots have sold at over loc, how much we are 
unable to learn. It looks as if the crop of dried 
choice apricots will be short, hut poor to fair large, 
peaches over an average, prunes, a fair average, 
as will be that of plums. Ttie very heavy shipments 
fif green fruits to the East have cut very largely into 
the supply available for drying. The hot wave last 
week did considerable damage to fruit crops, . which 
will compel larger drying than would have been 
done. In many localities fruit was not properly 
thinned, and consequently it will be smaller sized. 

Raisin dealers are pursuing their usual tactics, 
viz. , crying very large crop before the season opens 
to get packers to sell at low prices, and after they 
have secured all they can possibly handle, it is quite 
likely they will later on, say the pack will be light so 
as to get Eastern buyers to buy at good prices, and 
at the s.ime time get California packers who did not 
sell to hold while they unload. The pack this year 
will not be as large it was in 1891—100 many grapes 
will be sent to the East, besides, the hot wave in- 
jured many vineyards. It is hardly hkely either 
that we will have as favorable weather this fall as we 
enjoyed in 1890. Buyers are offering from 2ji@3c 
for dried grapes and paying 3@3Kc. Raisins in 
the sweat are selling 45i @s5ic, according to grade 
and locality. 

Oranges are still dragging at low prices. Lemons 
and limes are firm and in moderate receipt. 
Lilve-stock. 

The market for bullocks, mutton sheep and hogs 
is virtually unchanged. Cooler weather encourage 
more consumption and free slaughtering, yet fears 
of hot spells keep butchers from carrying much of a 
supply. 

The market for dressed cattle is quoted as fol- 
lows [to obtain the price on foot, take off from the 
price for stall-fed one-third to one-half, according to 
the nature of the feed and time fed; and for grass- 
fed take off the price from 40 to 60 per cent]: 

HOGS — On foot, light grain fed. 5M®5%c^^Tb 
dressed, — @— c ^ Xb.; heavy, 5'A@sH<: V Ih. ; 
dressed. — @— ci? ft. Stock hogs, 4)f@4Hc ^ ft. 

BEEF— Stall fed, 6%@—c ^ ft.; grass fed, extra, 
6@— c I? ft. ; first quahty, s%@—c ^ ft.: second 
quality s@ — c Iff ft.; third quality, 4® — c ^ 
ft.; bulls and thin cows, 2@3C ^ ft. 

VEAL— Small, (>@7%c ^ft.; large, s%6%c 

MUTTON— Wethers, y%@ic ^ Vb.: ewes. 7® 
y%c \p ft.; spring lamb, 7%®gc ^ ft. 

Vesetabies. 

Garden truck is essentially unchanged. The hot 
weather having given place to cooler weather, makes 
truck growers feel more cheerful. Tomatoes and all 
vine vegetables command better prices, but lower 
ranges are looked for later on. 

Onions are steady, with receipts and demand 
about equal. Shipments overland are continued, 
which assist in keeping values steady. The crop 
is large and of good quality. 

Contrary to general expectations, potatoes are 
strong at a slight advance. The East has drawn 
inmense quantities, and is still taking freely. This 
demand has steadied our market, and kept prices 
from sinking below the cost of production. It 
seems as if this year's potatoes average better than 
did those of i8qo. 

Miscellaneous. 

From reliable advices up to July 8, the following 
summary tonnage movement is compiled: 
On the way to . iSgt. 1890. 

San Francisco 328,093 247.388 

San Diego 25,818 7. 397 

San Pedro 8.527 ii.575 

Oregon 3' 47>J 28,068 

Puget Sound 30.347 37 



Totals 424.23s 331,810 

In port at 

San Francisco, disengaged. 7,216 13.560 

" " engaged for wheat 69,806 32,841 

San Diego 1,763 "j 

San Pedro. l- 14,094 

Colurubia River 7,221 J 

Puget Sound 



Totals 86,003 60.495 

To get the carrying capacity, add 65 per cent to 
the registered tons as given above. 

From July i, 1890, to July i, 1891, the following 
are the exports from this port: 1891. 1890. 

Wheat, ctls I3.735.7S6 «3.49';.859 

Flour, bbis 1,163,610 963.561 

Barley 261,795 1,148,340 

The honey crop is unquestionably short in this 
State, while at the East it is larger than in 1890, yet 
it is not an average. Receipts continue light and 
demand lair. 

In hops there is nothing new to report. Buyers 
and growers are still watching crop advices. The 
Oregon Weather Bureau Bulletin reports : "Hop 
lice are prevalent, damage is being done, yet hop- 
growers hope for an average yield. Corn is doing 
well and promises a good average yield " 

In wool the market is without hfe. The signs 
continue favorable for more activity soon at the East. 
The fashions still call for luster goods, and of course 
the class of wools from which this line of goods is 
manufactured have the call 

In packing onions and potatoes for market, 
particularly to send East, utmost care must be 
exercised in selecting uniform sizes. It pays to do 
so. 

Rope. 

Baling, Duplex, lb 8 

Manilla, lb 12 

mixed 91 

Twine, tor hope, balla, tarred, lb, Manilla 10 

" " grape riue, balls, ib " 12 

" •' ■■ colls, lb " 12 

" spring, lb 15 

•' hinder (650 ft. to lb), lb 13* 

Duplex twine 3o per lb leia. 



Domestic Prodnoe. 



qootatloiiB, while rery 


t>oor 


qnotations. 






BEANS AND PEAS. 




2 50 @ 


3 30 




2 70 1 


3 05 




3 00 @ 


3 30 


Bed 


2 60 @ 


2 90 




2 20 « 


2 45 


SmsU Wbite . 


2 95 I 


3 10 


Ltma.... 


2 20 (d 


3 25 


Fid Pess.blkeye 1 70 @ 


2 00 


do grtfn .... 


1 5a @ 


2 60 


do Eastern do. 


2 50 g 


3 00 




1 55 




SpUt 


m 




BROOM CORN. 



WKDKlgPAT. July 8. 1891. 

NUT8-J0BBIN0. 
Walnut*. OaL ti 

do Oh'oe 

do paper shell 
do OhiTi 



Paper shell.. . 

Brazil, 

Pecans small. . . 

do large 

Peanuts 

FUberts 

Hickory 

Cheetnuts 



7H 


* 9 


» 1 


1 


9 ( 




8 ( 


t 9 


15 ( 




16 ( 




Ud 




12 6 


1 14 


15 1 


i m 


4 i 


i 5 


10 & 


1 UJ 
i 8 


7 « 


12 6 


i 15 


9 (cr 11 



Oh'oe toExtralOO 00 @115 00 
Fairtoaood..70 00 @ 9S 00 IPioe. 

Poor 50 0C@60 00 ONIONB. 

omOORY. Red 35 ® 50 

Oalifomla H@ 6 'Silver Skin lb & 80 

German 6 a 6|l POTATOES. 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC. Early Rote, sks. - (c( 60 
Peerleps 65 (rf 65 

— Garnet Chilies .. 70 (g 80 
Burbaiik. Seedling, 91) IS 1 ^5 

— , New lu boxes are from 10 to 

— 135 eta Ijigher than in sacks. 
19 I POULTRY AHU GAME. 

Hens, doz 6 50 (g 8 50 



9S® 
8 «r 
lOJS 

mm 
13 m 
12 ^ 

21 m 

23 I 



20 



BtTTTER. 

OaL Poortotair.lblS @ 
do good to choice 18 @ 
do Oiltedged... 23 f 
do Creamery rolls 23i@ 
do Eastern 15 

CHEEHK. 

Oal. choice mild 

do fair to good 

do gilt edged. . 
Young America 
N. York Oream. 

Western 

caOB 
Oal. ranch, doz. 

do do sel'cted 

do. store 16 O 

Eastern 17 (aC 

FEED. 

Bran, ton 22 00 1^24 00 

Feedmeal 35 03 (§ - 

Or'd Barley 24 UO & - 

Ulddlings 23 50 1025 50 

Oil Oake Heal. .25 00 (327 00 
ManbattanFood $100 lbs 7 50 

HAV. 
Wheat, per ton. 12 50 

do choice 14 50 @ — 

Wheat and Oatel'i 00 3 - 

Wild Oat* 11 00 @ - 

Cultivated do.. — ffl — 

Barley 10 00 W — 

Alfalfa 1! 00 M ^ 

Clover 11 50 M - 

Straw bale 66 @ 75 

FLOUR. 
Extra, CityMiUs 6 00 @ 5 25 
do Oo'try Uilhi 5 (0 S 5 25 

Snpertine 3 50 g 4 10 

GRAIN ETC 
Barley, feed, ctl 1 05 a 1 10 

do Choice 1 12i@ — 

do Brcwtng.old 1 60 @ - 
do do Ob'oe.old 1 65 @ — 
do doGiltedg," 1 70 @ - 
Buckwheat. 1 25 
Oom, White.... 2 90 
Yellow, large... 1 85 „ 

do, sniiJl 1 874@ — 

Date, milUug.... 1 85 @ - 

Surprise 1 Si) @ — 

Feed, Choice.... 1 65 @ — 

do good. 1 60 S — 

do fair 1 .'>6 @ - 

do Gray 1 6D « - 

Rye 1 25 1 321 

'Wheat, mining. 

Olltedsed ... I 05 

doOboToe 1 60 

dofalrtogood 1 55 
Shipping, obo'ce 1 S3: 

do good. I 51: 

do fair 1 4: 



00 



2 50 



II 



I 1 50 
2 20 



Rooetera.old.... 6 00 7 CO 

do young 8 00 @13 00 

- - - ^ 3 



Broilen, small 2 50 

do large 4 00 

Fryera 6 50 @ 

Ducks 3 00 @ 

OeeK, pair 1 00 @ 1 25 

Turkeys, Oobl'r. 18 ^ - 
Turkeys, Hem.. 15 

Pigeons 1 75 

Rabbits, doz.... @ 

Hare @ 

EOO FOOD. 
Manhattan, ¥ lb 12 ^ 

PROVI8ION8 
O^.Baoon.hc'Ty.t) 9)a 

Medium 10 M 

Light 13 m 

Lard 9 <a 

Oal. Sm'k'd Beet 11 & 
BamSjOal salt'd 11 » 

do Eastero... 13 (g 
SEEDS. 
AUalta b 

Oanux ^ 

Clover, Bed 

White 17] 

Cotton 10 

Flaxseed 1 50 

Hemp 

ItalianRyeOrai 
Perennial 7 

Millet, Oermao. 5 
do Common.. 6 

Mustard, yellow 2 40 
do Brown .... 2 50 

Rape 2 (g 

l£y. Bine Onus. 26 & 

Sweet V. Oraia. 75 & 

Orchard 14 @ 

Hungarian.. . 7i» 

Lawn 17(@ 

Mesquit 7 1 

Timothy ii^ 

TALLOW. 

Rendered, B>. . . . S IB 

Befined 4i3 

WOOL. -BPEtNO, 1890. 

Hnmb't &Men'cino 20 



2 75 
2 75 



Sac'to Taller.. . 
1 75 Free Monntain. 
1 70 8 Joaquin valley 
1 6s do mountain . 
1 57i Cala'v * F-thll. 
1 52i Or^on Eastern, 
do valley. . . 



Sonora I 45 (<« 1 .^2^ Bo'n Coast, det.. 



HIDES 
Drylght to h'vy loja 

Salted 6 l( 

HOPb 

Oregon, 1890 30 & 

Cal 1890 Choice 30 & 
do Fah: to O'd 25 @ 



Bo'n Coast, free. 1 

HONEY. 

White Comb, lb 11 (ft 

do do lb frame 14 «* 

White extract'd 6 @ 

Amhir do 5 Uf 

Beeswax, lb.... 25 



Inside iiuotations are for new, and outside qnptations 
are for old. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Choice selected, In good packages, fetch an advance ou the 
quotations, while very poor grades sell lees than the lower 



quotations 

Bananas, bunch I 60 @ 
Limes, Mex ....10 00 @ 
Lemons, box. 
do Riverside.. 4 00 @ 
do LosAngeles 2 OO @ 
do Sicily, bx.. 7 00 @ 
Seedling Oranges* 
do Riverside.. 1 25 m 
do Los Anicelos 75 & 

Pineapples, doz 4 00 (d 5 00 Cabbage, 100 lbs 

Htrawbtrries, Chest, _ Carrots, sk 

Choice tu extra 8 00 (oe - Garlic, lb 

do fair to good 3 00 (.<« — Mushrooms, lb.. 

R spherriis.cbst B 00 (ctlO 00 do Choice 

Currants, chest 3 00 ^r 6 00 CauUflower,¥dz 



Wehnehuay, July 8, lanl. 
2 50 Watvruielons,dz. 75 @ 1 25 

— Grapes, box.... 1 50 (g 2 00 
YEGETABLE8. 

— Okra. dry, lb 

- Parsnips, ctl. .., 

— Peppers, dry, lb 
do green 



Beets, sk. 



Apples, box. 

do Astrachan. 

do do choice. . 
Peaches, box . . 

do basket 

Apricots, Royal, bx. 35 (3 
Plums, box 40 C4 



25 (SS 
75 «» 
1 00 & 

15 a 

IS m 



35 ( 

60 Tomatoes, box. 60 (_ 

- do Bay 1 00 (g 

— S'm'rSquash bx. 15 1 

60 do Bay 30 I 

40 Cucumbers, box SO (« 1 25 

60 do Bay 1 00 <" - 

6a Peasgr ncomsk 75 (0 1 00 

I<lackber's,chest 4 00 5 00 do do sweet. 1 00 @ 1 25 

do Ohuice 6 00 I'' 8 00 String Beans, lb 2t^ — 

Pears, Com. box 30(0! 50 dodo wax... 2 — 
Figs, black, box 60 (a 1 00 Egg Plant, box. 1 25 (u 1 75 
do H'hite do 95 (t* 50 Green Corn, doz 7iw 15 

Oantaloupis, cr. 3 00 (n 4 SO do Sweet li tg 25 

*Iri quoting oranges, regular sizes are given, viz , from 119 
to 176 for Navels, and 126 to 225 (or seedlings; odd alzee SO 
cents to $1 ^ boi less. 



Auction Sales of Calltornia Fruit. 

Chicago, July 2. — Sold one car of cherries from 
San Jose; Royal Annes,$i.o5@i.90 ^bx; black Big- 
gereau cherries, $i.i5@i.9o; Royal apricots, crates, 
8oc@$i.25; Alexander peaches, 9sc@$i.30 ^ bx;St. 
lohn yellow freestone peaches, $2; Clyman plums, 
crates; $2,so;Royal Hative plums, $1 40@2.4o; Koe- 
nig Claude plums, crates $3.05; Peach plums, $2@ 
2.7s; Tragedy prunes, $2.80(0)3.45; figs, crates, 
$1.25; Bartlett pears, half-bozes, $1.70; boxes, $3.50 
(§3,75; Beurre Gilford pears, crates, $i@i.05. 

New York, July 2.— Sold four cars as follows: 
Hale's early peaches, $i.io@i.40; St. Johns yellow 
freestone peaches, $2.io@3. 15; Clyman plums, 
$2.10; Peach plums, $2.25@s.2s; Tragedy prunes, 
$2.85@3.65; apricots, boxes, $i.'2o; crates, $1.30^/ 
1.50; hgs in crates, $2.05: Koenig Claude plums, 
$1.50; Royal Hative plums, $2@2.30. 

Chicago, July 3.— Sold five cars as follows: Cly- 
man plums, crates, $1.75; Alexander peaches. goc@ 
$1.40 per box; Hale's early peaches, $i.i5@i.4o; 
Koenig Claude plums, $i@2.5o; Royal Hative 
plums, $i.6o@3.5o; St. John yellow freestone peach- 
es, crates, $t.iS@3; St. John peaches, boxes, $1.75 
@2; figs in crates, 8oc; Royal Anne cherries, $1.10 
@i.5o; Black Republican cherries, $t.4o; apricots, 
crates, 7oc@$i.4o; Tragedy prunes, $2.95@3. Nine 
cars of California fruit sold in Chicago to-day. 

New York, July 3. — Sold five cars as follows: 
Cherries, 63c@$i.5o; apricots, $i@i.25; peaches, 



Jdly 11, 1891.] 



f AC! Fie I^URAU> f RESS, 



41 



PAOIPIO COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[Furnished for publicatiOD Id this paper by officer Id charge of branch Signal o£Qce, Division of the Pacific. 



July 1 7. 


Olympla. 


Portland. 


Enreka. 


Red BlQfl. 


Sacramento. 


S.Francisco. 


Fresno. 


Eeeler. 


Los Angeles. 


San Dieeo. 


P 


Temp 




1 Weather.. 




H 

Oi 

B 
V 


1 Wind 


Weather. 









Weather. 


50 

e. 

a 




a 
o- 


to 

? 


w 
B 


Temp 


B' 
a- 


1 Weather.. 




Temp. . , 




$ 
? 


Eain 


Temp 


Wind .... 


1 Weather.. 




Temp 


B* 
c 


Weather.. 


» 
B 


Temp 


Wind 


Weather... 


Bain 




P< 


& 


W. 


.00 


78 


Nw 


01. 


.00 


82 


N 


01. 


.00 


62 


Nw 


01. 


.00 


no 





01. 


M 


104 


SW 


01. 


.03 


68 


W 


01. 


.00 


112 


S 


01. 


.00 


94 


S 


PC 


.00 


78 


W 


01. 


.00 


72 


W 


Cl. 


T... 


.00 


80 


NE 


01. 


.00 


86 


Nw 


01. 


.00 


60 


Nw 


01. 


.00 


104 


S E 


P c 


.00 


94 


SW 


01. 


.00 


62 


8W 


01. 


.00 


110 


S E 


01. 


.74 


98 


SW 


Cl. 


.00 


84 


S 


01, 


.00 


68 


SW 


Cl. 


F.,. 


.CO 


74 


W 


01. 


.00 


78 


N 


Cy. 


.00 


56 


Nw 


Fy. 


.00 


98 


S 


01. 


.00 


90 


8 


01. 


.00 


58 


W 


01. 


.00 


100 


Nw 


P 


.00 


90 Nw 


P 


.00 


74 


w 


Cl. 


00 


70 


SW 


01. 


N. .. 


.08 


62 


sw 


Oy. 
01. 


.00 


66 


E 


PO 










.00 


93 


W 


01. 


.00 


98 


W 


01. 


.00 

.00 


76 
62 


SW 


P c 


.00 


102 


Nw 


CI. 


.00 


84 


s 


Oy. 
CL 


.00 


68 


w 


Cy. 
Cl. 


00 


68 


SW 


PO 


*« .. 


.14 


64 


w 


.00 


66 


Nw 


01. 


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58 


N 


01. 


.00 


92 


N 


01. 


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92 


SW 


Cl. 


SW 


Cl. 


.00 


100 


Nw 


Cl. 


.00 


90 


Nw 


00 


70 


w 


.00 


70 


w 


01. 


n.. 


.00 


68 


NE 


CI. 


.00 


74 


N 


PO 


.00 


58 


Nw 


01. 


.00 


90 


S E 


Cl. 


.00 


76 


SW 


01. 


.00 


56 


w 


PO 


.00 


94 


Nw 


01 


.00 


88 


S 


Oh 


00 


70 


w 


CI. 


00 


72 


w 


01. 


T . 


;oc 

.22 


72 


W 


01. 


.00 
.00 


68 


S 


Cy. 


.T 
.T 


60 


Nw 


OL 


.00 
.00 


76 




P 


.00 

00 


70 


s 


01. 


.00 
.00 


58 


w 


P 


.00 

.00 


82 


Nw 


01. 


.00 
.74 


84 


S 


Cl. 


.00 
00 


72 


w 


Cl. 


.00 
.00 


72 


w 


01. 



Explanation. 01. for clear; Oy , cloudy; Fr., fair; Cm., calm; — indicates too small to measure. Temperature wind and weather at 5 P. M. (Paci&c Standard time) with amount 
uf rainfall In the preceding 24 hours. T indicates trace of rainfalL P 0, partly cloudy. En., rain. X, missing. 



70c@$i.4o; Royal Hative plums, $2. 15@2.2S; Koe- 
nig Claude plums, $1.25. Weather bad, raining. | 

Chicago, July 3. — Sold three carloads as follows: 
Alexander peaches, $i@i. 50; Hale's early peaches,! 
90c@$i.9o; Royal apricots, over-ripe, 8.3@90C, and 
good order, $i@i.i5; Royal Haliye plums, $1.75® j 
2; Peach plums, $2.15; Cherry plums, $1.40; -St. 
Catherine plums, over-ripe, 950, and good order, 
$2@2.2S; Triumphant apricots,$i.23; Simoni prunes, 
extra choice, $11 per crate. 

Boston, July 3.— Sold at following prices: Royal 
apricots, $i.35@i.S5; Moorpark apricots, $1.13® 
1.25; Alexander peaches, $i.i2@i.30. 

New York, July 3. — One carload of San Jose 
cherries and six mixed cars of Winters and Vaca- 
ville fruit sold as follows: Royal Anne cherries $1 
®i.40, in good condition, some at from 65@95c, 
over-ripe; Black Republican, $i@i.7S; Early May 
peaches, 95c® $1.15; Royal Cots, 90®$ 1.25; Moor- 
park, 7Sc@$i.os; St. Catherine plums, $1.85; Alex- 
ander peaches, 85c@$i. 30; Cherry plums, $1.20® 
2.05; R. H. plums, $i.55@2; Clyman plums, $1.85 
@2.2o: Madeline pears, $1; Tragedy prunes, $3. 

Chicago, July 6.— Sold to-day: Cherries, $1.25 
@i.S5; Bartlett pears, $2.7a@3; plums, $i.4S@4 50i 
peaches, $i®i.2S; apricnts, $i@i.is; and sold as 
follows four carloads: Royal Anne cherries, $i@ 
1.55; black cherries, $1,90®!. 95; Tragedy prunes, 
$2.5o®2.75; Peach plums, $1.7001.75: Royal Ha- 
tive plums, $1.35®!. 50; peaches, 85c@$i.so; Bart- 
lett pears, small and green, $i.90@2 55; apricots, 
90C@$i.35;figs, $1.15. 

Chicago, July 7. — Sold at the following prices: 
Apricots, 9oc@$t.2s; peaches, $1.05®!. 45; Royal 
Haytive plums, $i.2o@i.35; St. Catherme, $1.60; 
peach, $i.65@2. 15; Tragedy prunes, $2.60; Bartlett 
pears, $2.05@2.i5, and six carloads sold as follows: 
Apricots brought 9oc@$i.3o; peaches, 9JC®$i. 50; 
Royal Haytive plums, $1.25®!. 90; Peach plums, 
$i.40®2.7S; Tragedy prunes, $2.50®2.6o; Bartlett 
pears, small and in poor order, $2.60. 

New York, July 7. — Sold five carloads as 
follows: Apricots, 85c®$2.05 ^ crate; peaches, 
$i.05@2.8s box; Royal Haytive plums, $1.60® 
1.90 ^ crate; Tragedy prunes, $2.6o@3.3o; 
German, $2.75; Bartlett pears, $3.i5@3 SS' Peach 
plums, $2.io@4.70. 

New York, July 7. — The transactions in hops 
are light. The prices are practically the same as 
last week. 




MlLLCRiS LICHTIIUC 



Headquarters for all kinds of Baling Preases 
and Haying TooU. 

SEND FOR NO. 16 CATALOGUE. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., 

8AN FRANCISCO. 



Otslrars-EST 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & OO. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 




YOUR DWELLING, BARNS and GRAIN 



"Wia?ia: I the 




INSURANCE f COMPANY 

OF SAN FBANOISOO. CAL. 



CARBOLINEUM AVENARIUS. 

Preservative Against Rotting, Decay, Fungus, Etc., of Wood and Stone. 
REMEDY AGAINST DAMP WALLS. PROOF AGAINST TEREDOES. 

WHAT WE GUARANTEE CARBOLINEUM AVENAKIUS TO DO: 

1. To preserve any kind of Wood above or under ground of water, and prolong its life at 
least one hundred per cent. 

2. To prevent moisture from penetrating into briok or stone walls and preserve them same 
as wood, 

3. To keep off all sorts of Insects, Vermin, or ottier enemies or wood or objectionable and 
destructive agencies. 

4. To prevent Rits and Mice gnawing wood coated with Carbolinenm Avenarlas. 

5. To disinfect barns, stables or residences and destroy Microbes. 

6. To force all moiatare out of the wood without cloBing the pores. 

7. To prevent shingles coated with Oarbolineum from rotting, warping ot cracking. 

8. To prevent Rope treated with Oarbolineum from rotting, causing it to remain pliable 
and excelling Tar Coating. 

9. IMPORTANT 1— Teredoes will not attack Timber coated with Carbolinenm Avenarius. 

10. It does not contain any acids nr other poisonous ingredients injurious to fibers of wood, 

11. It is the cheapest and best Wood Preserver in the World. 

All the above statements are faots, and all our testimonials to that effect are genuine and 
indispatable. 

OARBOLINEUM WOOD-PRESBRVINQ CO., 

WUECKE & CO., Pacific Coast Agents, 319 California St., San Francisco, Cat. 



Ditching Machine for Sale. 

If any farmer in Ruseian river or Santa Rosa valley de- 
sires a DITCHING MAOMNE at a very low price let him 
address S. E. O., V. 0. boK 2517, Sao Francisco. 



[STEEL presses] 




^ — fe. .. 'i-SLF FEEDER — 
40 DEDERICK'S WORKS, ALBANY. N.Y. 



The German Savings and Loan Society, 

Sae California street. 



IDI'VTIDEJSriD ISrOTICE. 



For the half-year ending June 30, 1891, a dividend has 
been declared at the rate of five and four-tenths (6 4-10) 
per cent per annum on term deposits, and four and one- 
half (4J) per cent per annum on ordinary deposits, pay- 
able on and after Wednesday, July 1, 1891. 

GEO. TOURNEY, Secretary. 



EISEN'S "RAISIN INDUSTRY " 

Is for sale by Agents at bookstores in San Diego, River- 
side, Los Angeles, Bakerefleld, Visalla, Hanford, Fresno, 
Merced, Sacramento and Marysville; also, by Dewey & 
Co., 220 Market St., and the H. S. Crocker Company, 215 
Bush St. , San Francisco. Price, Three Dollars. Send 
postal for circulars. 




No story need bo told of the Cyclone or of the number that have been sold. They can be seen working in 
every inhabited part of the Pacific Slope whilst hundreds are exported every year. 

The Cyclone mill is not an experiment, but acknowledged by all who have used it to be the most powerful and 
durable mill on the market. 

It is simple In construction, has no cogs or complicated gearing to get out of order. Has only three principal 
bearings, heavily babbited boxes and self oiling apartments. 

The wheel and vane of the Cyclone (which are the most durable parts of any solid wheel mill) are made strong 
and of well seasoned wood finished with the best lead and oil which neither blister in the sun nor is consumed by rust 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue to 

Pacific Manufacturing Company, 

575 MISSION ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Manufacturers and Jobbers of Windmills, Pumps, Tanks, TUBULAR 
WELL TOOLS, Pipe, Fittings, Etc., Etc 

WASHING FREE! 



The best bargain ever offered in Washing Machines for Hotel use is the celebrated 
Which always sold for $10 and $12, but is now offered at 

$0.00 o^szz. 

It is a Western machine, controlled by a live man, who is not ready to admit that California must take a back 
seat in manufacturing. It is worth any three $5 Eastern machines. 

Bargains in every line for everybody. Shoes, 40 per cent reduction on regular prices. Dress Fabrics at 5c, 8c, 
10c, 12Jc, and upward, that are worth almost, or quite, double. Send for samples and find this true. 

Canned fruit from $1 per dozen up. Kaisins from 4 cents per pound to 7 cents. Our Home Circle mailed free, 
ask for it. 

SMITH'S CASH STORE, 

416-418 FRONT STREET. 



WRITE FOR 

CATALOGUE 

AND 
PRICES. 

TELEPHONE 314. 




IMPROVED 
DAVIS 



-AND- 



SAN JOAaUIN 

WINDMILLS. 



Be sure to write for Catalogue and 
Prices before you buy. 



WORKS, COR. MAIN AND OTTER STS , 
OFFICE, 347 COMMERCE ST., 

R.F.WILSON 

STOCKTON, CAL. 



42 



f AciFie i^uraid press. 



[Jolt 11, 1891 



June Crop Reports. 

From an advanced sheet of the Department 
of Agrionlture R >port fer Jane, fnmiehed 
by J. B. Dodge, Statistician, we excerpt the 
following: 

The area in winter wheat, aa comoared with 
the breadth harvested last year, is 111 5; spring 
wheat, 103.04; barley, 107. 1; rye, 101 5; oats, 
97.9. n-iition: — winter wbea^ 96.6; sprint; 
wheat, 92 6; barley, 90.3; rve, 95.4; oats, 85.1. 

la comparison with 1889, the increase in 
wheat acreage is qaite moderate. The reduc- 
tion last year of more than two million acres 
saggesta the reason for most of the present in- 
crease This advance is therefore both replace- 
ment and development, the former, notal'ly io 
Illinois, MiBsonri, Kvnsas. and CilifornU; the 
latter in less degree in Washiogt'in, Orpgon, 
the Dikotas, and in several Territories. Ttiese 
violent flaotuations make the investigation 
difiSsult, and in some distticts will render 
ntcassary supplementary work. To this extent 
present estimates may be considered prelimin- 
ary. The extension of acreage, according ti 
oar oorreepondents, depends on price of wheat, 
and not on available land. A larg« increment 
of wheat breadth is reported in Washington, 
"a large amount of new Und is being broken 
for next year's crop," and the local opinion is 
expressed that not more than one fifth of the 
Wheatland of that new State is under cultiva- 
tion. 

The winter-wheat crop is enroaohins upon 
the sonthern and eastern borders of the spring- 
wheat district, notably in Iowa and Wisconsin, 
nnder the protection of crop diverslfioation and 
new methods of cultivation, while spricg-wheat 
extension responds moderately to the stimulus 
of higher prices. 

The first return of fruit shows remarkably 
high condition and brilliant prospect for apples 
in many sections. A gratifying feature rf the 
return is the fact that, as a rule, the figures 
are highest for those States which by geogra- 
picai location are farthest advaocid in their 
seasons, inHioatiog that there is but small like- 
lihood of.mi jadgm nc on the part of correspond- 
ents, la Nciw £ iglsnd, and la the northern 
belt of Staten, the date of the return is too 
early to give opportunity for careful judgmtn , 
and later returns may vary materially. 

The prospect for peaches is very good in the 
States of largest production, the damage from 
late spring frosts being apparently Ipss than 
was feared, and largely confined to O^io and 
Michigan, with less destraotion in some locali- 
ties on the Atlantic coast. 



Newspaper Agents Wanted. 



Extra inducements will be offered for a 
few active canvassers who will give their 
whole attention (for a while at least) to so- 
liciting subscriptions and advertisements 
for this journal and other first-class popu- 
lar newspapers. Apply soon, or address 
this office, giving address, age, experience 
and reference. Special inducements to old 
agents. 

Dewey & Co., Publishers, 

No. 220 Market St.. S F 



Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms of snb- 
■oription, and give It their own patronage, and 
as far aa practicable aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription, 
paid in advance, 5 mos, $1; 10 mos., $2; 15 
mos., S3. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents, 
if ordered soon enough. If already a sub- 



100,000 EXTRA PIjnE 

BARTLETT^AR TREES. 

Apple, Pear, Pium, Cherry, Peach, Apricot, 
Nectarine. Quince. Grape Vines 
and Smail Fruits. 



600,000 FRUIT TREES. 

Orangre, Lemon, Lime. Olive, Japan Perslm- 
moa. aod au K nda of Nut-Be..rlnK 
Treee. Shade nnd Ornamental 
Trees, Shrubs, Ktc. 

IMPORTED FRUIT TREE SEEDLINGS. 

Ask for PrICfcB. 

James T. Bogue, Marysville, Cal. 

FRENCH PRUNES 



Two THOUSAND OR THREE THOUSAND FRENCH 
Prunei on Myrobolin .Stock. Also French Pruuc 
and Apricot trees on Pe»ch Stock. One year trees silc 
season. Will be sold at reasnpablc rates. Apiily to 
ISAAC COLLINS, Haywards, Cal. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES, 

Established In in 185S. 
For sale at reas mable rates, a general asscrlment of 
harily Fruit Trees, gr .»n si'hout irrlijatijn and free 
from scale bui;s aoi other pests. 

BARTL-JTT PEARS A SPECIALTY. 
Prices furnished on application. Address 

W. H. PEPPER, • . Pstaluma, Cal. 



When The Hair 

Shows sigus ot falling, begin at ouce the use 
o£ Ayer's Hair Vigor. This preparation 
strengthens the scalp, promotes the growth 
of new hair, restores the natural color to 
gray and faded hair, and renders it soft, 
pliant, and glossy. 

"We !i;ive no hesitation in pronouncing 
Ayer's Hair Vigor uuequaled for dressing 
the hair, aud we do this after long experi- 
ence in its use. This preparation preserves 
the iiair, ciu-es dauUruil and all diseases of 
the scalp, makes rough and brittle hair soft 
and pliant, and prevents baldness. While it 
is not a dye, those who have used the Vigor 
say it will stunulate the roots aud color- 
Clands of laded, gray, light, and red hau: 
changing the color to 

A Rich Brown 

or even black, it will not soil the pillow- 
case nor a pocket-handkerchief, and Is al- 
ways agreeable. All the rlirty, gummy hair 
irreparations slionld be displaced at once l.y 
Ayer's Hair Vigor, and thousands who ro 
around with heads looking like 'the fretful 
porcupine' should hurry to the nearest dni;,' 
store and purchase a bottle of the Vigor."— 
TAe Sunny Sotith, Atlanta, Ga. 

'■Ayer's Hair Vigor is excellent for the 
hair. It stimulates the prowth, cures bald- 
ness, restores the natural color, cleanses the 
scalp, prevents dandruff, and is a good dress- 
ing. We know that Ayer's Hair Vigor differs 
from most hair tonics anrl similar preparar 
tlons, it being perfectly harmless." — From 
Economical Ilounekeeping, by Eliza R. Parker. 

Ayer's Hair Vigor 

rr;Kr.\iiKi> itr • 
DB. J. C. AYEE & CO., Lowell, Mass. 
Sold by Druggists and Perfumers. 




The GRaiTiEsnH DRINK. 

Pa.-k.ipo maues 6 galluiiH. 
Uelu-iona. hparkling, and 
npiwtizing. Sold by »11 
denlers. A AV/; a beautiful 
I'lcture Book and c«n.L 
> L-nt ro any one .nddresBinc- 
C. E. HIRES & ro.. 

Philadelptiia. 



MATTHIAS GRAY CO., 

206 POST STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 



TEINWAV. 

G«fLEl^'ptA?t 

Importer of American and Foreign 
Band Instruments, Accordions, Violins, 
Quitara, Uheet Music, Boolca, Btc. 




ASK YOUR QROOER FOR IT. 



The Armstrong Automatic 

PORTABLE 

ENQIHE and BOILEB. 

The Beet, Lightest, Cheapest 
Engine In the worbl Can bi 
If arranired to Burn Wood, Coal, 
straw or Petroleum. SorSH.P 
Mounted on skids or on wheels 
TRITMAN. BOOKKR * CO.. 8>n rranelaro. 




FRUIT 

AND 

QKAIN 



BAGS 



All Sizes and Kinds. 



CAL. BAG, TENT & AWNING CO., 

Ill Clay Street, San Francisco. 



JAMES H. BAVKN. THOMAS E HAVEN, 

Notary Public. 

HAVEN & HAVEN, 

ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELORS AT LAW, 

No. SSO California Street, 

Teleptaore No. 17*6 SAN rRANCISCO, CAL. 



California Ventilated Barre 



IT IS LIGHTER, STRONGER, MORE DURABLE AND BETTER 
VENTILATED THAN ANY OTHER BARREL. 



This engraving of the CALIFOR- 
NIA VENTILATED BARREL makes 
plain to the practical shipper its 
points of Bupcriorit; over the com- 
mon barrel, which may be enumer- 
ated as follows: 

It weighs from fire to seTen 
pounds less than the ordi- 
narj barrel, making a ma- 
terial saving In freight 
charges. 



BUSINESS OBANCE, FOR »IAlf OR WOMAN. 
Address, O. B. UBCUTT, Orcutt, Oallfomlt, 




It Is the onljr thoroaghlj 
Tentllated barrel made, a 
Ter7 Important point. 

The heads are warranted 
not to come ont In tranilt, 
and no liners are required. 

It Is stronger and more 
durable than any other bar- 
rel. 

Never varies in sice, even 
to the extent of a quart. 

— ALTOOSTnilB MAKIXO IT — 



It costs I<'ss than one-half 
for trimming, and does not 
require an experienced hand 
to cooper it. 

It is Hade of the Best Quality of Spmce, Woven Together with Copper Wire, 

And can be furnished in any size desired. 



The Cheapest and Best 
Barrel on the 
Market. 



THE CALIFORNIA BARREL IS ADAPTED TO SHIPPING THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES: 



Apples, 
Oranges, 
Onions, 
Potatoes. 



Sweet Potatoes, 
Dried Meats, 
Bottled Goods, 



Glassware, 
Canvased Meats, 
Crockery, 



And Vegetables of All Descriptions. 



Eggs. 

Poultry, 
Walnuts, 
Almonds, 



A factory making these barrels is now in operation In San Francisco, with a capacity of 4000 barrels a day. 
The success of the barrel is almost unprecedented, and it is bound to becnme the package in a very short time. 
EVERY ONE USING IT IS ENTHUSIASTIC IS IT^ PRAISE. IT HASN'T A FAULT. When sbipied In knock- 
down form, about 2500 barrels can be placed in a sinele car. 1^ Special rates (iveu on car lots.' WRITE FOR 
PRICES AND PARTICULARS. 



California Ventilated Barrel Co. 



OFFICE AND FACTORY: N. W. COR, POWELL AND NORTH POINT STS., 
PAN FRANCISCO, OAL. 



MERY S IMPROVED PIONEER gflULfY CBUSHER 



USING 

The Benoit Corrugated Rollers. 



STILL AT THE FRONT. 




This Mill has been in use on this Coast for 10 years, 

TAKEN THE PREMIUM AT THE STATE FAIR 

Four years d succession, and ha.s met with general favor, 
there now bei: g 

Orer 250 of them in use in California. Nevada and Oregon. 

It Is the m >9t economical and durable Feed Mill in use. 
I am sole manufacturer of the Corrugated Roller Mill. The Mills are all 
ready to mount on wagons. 



Grainland, Butts Co., Cal., June 9, 1887 
Mr. M L. Msrv— Dear Sir: We have used one No. 2 
Roller Barley Crusher now for eight years and have used 
it steady durinsr that time; have crushed 45 tons a day 
and the Crusher is asuood to-day as when it came out of 
your ^hop. I am satisfied that it is ti>e best mill made. 
You may reconstruct this testimonial to the best a'lv*n- 
tsge for you and sign our names, for you cannot over- 
rate the merits of j our mill. F. E. REAM, 

JNO. P. SUTTON. 



Durham, Hay 21, 1387. 
Mr. M. L. Mbry— Dear Sir: In reply to yours of the 
19th, would say that I crushed from two to two and a 
half tons per hour, but could crush three and a half tons 
if ray t-Ievators were large enoutb to carrj' the barley 
fr' m the machine. The No. 1 machine I used at Gridloy 
was run on a »<ack a mim.te, but if we got behind we 
could run thronuh five tons an hour and do good work. 
The macbioe I use here Is a No. 2. Yours, 

\VM. M. TAYLOR. 



I thank the public for their kind patronage received thus far, and hope tor a continuance of the same. 

M. L. MERY. Chico Iron Works, Chico, Cal. 



X3 3\r ID 33 » s 



GANDY THRESHER BELTS. 

FRENCH «& LINFORTH, 35 Beale St., San Francisco, 

80LR AGKNTS PACIFIC COAST. 



DEWEY & CO. { 



220 MAHKET ST 

BleTator. 13 Front. 



PATENT AGENTS, 



Jolt 11 1891.] 



f ACine I^URAb PRESS. 



43 



GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA, 
SAN FBANOISOO, OAL. 

IncorporateH April, 1874. 




Anthorlzed Capital $1,000 000 

Capital paid ap and Reserve Fnnd 800 000 
Dividends paid to Stockholders. . . . 676,000 

OFFICERS. 

A. D. LOGAN PreFident 

I. C. STEELE Vice-Pre-iilent 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK Mcmullen Secretary 

Geaeral Baokitig Deposits received, Qnld and Silver. 
Bills of ExcbaDg' bonght and sold. Loans on wheat and 
country produc e a specialty. 

January 1, 1891. A. MONTPRLLIER, Manager. 




DAISY WAGON 

Write us for prices and full particulars. Address 
TRDMAN, HOOKKR £ CO., 

SAN FRANCISCO.... and FRESNO 



"Neponset" Waterproof Paper. 

NKPONSET MILLS. 

THESE PA 
1 




"NEPONSET" SHEATHING (color black). 

NO. 1 "NEPONSET" ROPE ROOFING col terracotta). 

NO. 2 "NEPONSET" ROPE ROOFING (color terracotta). 



These papers are in rolls 36 Inches wide, and they con- 
tain either 250 or 600 square feet per roll, and weigh 
about 30 or 40 pounds per roll, respectively, 

DIMMICK & LOW, Agents, 

221 Front Street, - - San Francisco, Oal. 



PROTECT YOU TREES 

FROM SUNBURN, BORERS 
RABBITS, ETC., 

By Using the 

PaciBc Tree Protector. 

Waterproof, Adjustable & Convenient. 

Saves Time, Trouble & Expense. 
No. 1 Tarred Felt, Vermin and Water- 
proof, good lor 3 yrs, 7x16, $2 ^ 100. 
No. 2 Patent Insect-proof, Heavy, 
7x16, 81.60 per 100. 
No. 8 Patent Insect-proof, Light, 7x16. $1 per 100. 
Special Sizes made to order. Orders promptly filled by 

THE PACIFIC ROLL PAPER CO., 

80 and 32 First Street, San Francisco, 

Also headquarters for Fay's Patent Manlllo-Leather 
Roofing and Building Papers; Cheapest and Best In the 
Market. Send for Samples. 





"DEAD LOCK " GOPHER 

or 93iper doi. delivered. I. F. WHIT£ & SON, Pomona, 0*1 



OrientaKjasEngine 

Patented January 20, 1891. 
AK. A. OXl^ZZ^lVC, ------ T»roT:>x-±©tor. 

OFFICE AND FACTORY: 105 BEALE STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 





I ■ 
1 

■ 
















THE NEATEST IN DESIGN 

The Simplest, Best and 
Cheapest Motor in 
Existence. 

ALWAYS READY FOR 
USE. 

NO BOILER AND NO DANGER 
FROM EXPLOSION. 

USES EITHER CITY GAS 
OR GASOL.1NE, 

At a cost of 25 to 30 cents per day per horse 
power. 

UNEXCELLED FOR FARM USE for 

Pumping, Sawing, Dairying. Etc. 

Or lor Hunting or Pleasure Boats, Printing, 
Elevators, &c. 

The Best Material and Workmanship. 
Every Engine Guaranteed as Represented. 

Engines from 1 to 50 H. P. 

BEST OP REFERENCES. 



STOCKTON NURSERIES. 

500,000 ROOTED MUSCAT VINES 

Oaxx loo IDoXl-^orcsd fxroxxx Fxresxio or Stoolx-toxx, 

Special Prices on Lots of 50,000 or more. 

Whito Adriatic and San Pedro Pigs 

A Full Line o Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Palms, Boses & Small Fruits, 

ESTABLISHED 1858. WRITE FOR CATALOGUE AND PRICE LIST. 

Stools. -toxr. — - — — — OaIICox-xxIa. 



W.H.WOOD&CO, 



COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

OALIFORNIA FRUITS' AND PRODUOE. 

ALFALFA SEEDIH'^ to 125 j street, 

A SPECIALTY. I SAORAMENTO. OAL. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

Free Ooaob to Bnd from the Hoaae. J. W. B'RO'K"RR. Proorietor. 



Codlin Moth Destroyed. 

XHISSELL'S 

NEW CODLIN MOTH TRAP 

Will entirely clean an orchard In two years. 
OKCHARD RIOHTS SOLD. Satisfaction 
guaranteed. Write to 

G. W. THISSELL, Winters, 

YOLO COUNTY OALIFOENU. 




THE KRIEBEL ENGINE 

And Plain Vertical Boiler. 
Monnted on a Cooiblned Base. 
A very Cheap and Economical 
Engine. 

Made of the very best material, 
a & 8 HOR8FPOWEE. 
Write for Prices. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., 




-ESPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR- 



DAIRY AND FARM USE 




PERFECT SAFETY ASSURED. 

StroDB and Reliable Steam-Drlvlng Power 
Furnished ■with the Most Kconoml- 
cai Consumpiion of Fuel. 



Most Improved Patterns, 

Both Upright & Horizontal. 



Send for Illustrated Catalogue and Prices. 

G. G. WICKSON & CO., 

Dairy and Farm Machinery, 

3 & 5 Front St., San Francisco, Cal., 



848 N. Main St., L03 Angeles,- 



141 Front St., Poniacd, Oregron. 



isiBIRDSELL 

ALFALFA 




HULLER 



Thrashes, Hulls and Cieans ALFALFA 
8eed, and delivers it In the sack 
ready for market. 

It gets ALL THE SEED OUT 
of the Straw, and SAVES IT. 

and is the only Machine on earth that does. 
8end for lull description and price to 

BIRDSELL MFC. CO. 

SOUTH BEND, IND. 




"Fl AKTXJ OOTJFXjXIO'G-. 

Malleable Iron. All Sizes. 

These Couplings are the best In the world, most pow- 
erful and cheapest. They have a ball and socket joint, 
right and left screw and work fre<ilv. Wo use them ex- 
tensively in our Tank Building Department. 

WELLS, RUSSELL & CO , 

MecliaDics' Mills, Cor. Mission k Fremont Sts., S, F. 



PRICE'S HAY PRESSES 



IF" on 

Genuine Price Petaluma Press. 
Junior Monarch Hay Press. 

Hurricane (Size A) Hay Press. 
Wide West Hay Press. 

ADDRESS 

L C. MOREHOUSE, San Leandro. 



44 



f ACIFie I^URAlo PRESS. 



[Jolt 11, 1891 



READ, AND YOUR ORDER IS OURS 




Number 

Order by Nnmber. 



II PRICE $13.98 



Number 

Order by Number 



£ PRICE $19.98 







1 


i 














Sarven Wheel, l-inch Steel Tire, Screwed Rims, Steel Axles, Oil 
Tempered Springa; Body, Select Poplar; Well Made; 
a Beaaty and an Easy Rider. 

M PRICE $50.98 





Has Ik Steel Tire and Axles; Body 57ix30i inches; Leather Quarter Top and Back Stays; 
Rubber Curtains; Trimming Very Best No. 1 Grained Leather; Finely Upholstered; 
Just the Job for Utility and Pleasure; Finely Finished. 



Number 

Order by Number 



f PRICE $124.98 




Has 1-in. Steel Tire and Axles; Top Leather Quarter and Back Stays; Trimming will I Has Round Edge Steel Tire and 1-in. Axles, and Long, Easy Riding, Oil-Tempered 
compare with any work; Well Finished and Thoroughly Well Made. Spring; Dust and Mud-Proof Fifth Wheel; just the thing for a run about. 

Number 

Order by Number. 



£ PRICE $73.98?ltl£: PRICE $42.98 



We sell ROAD CARTS at $13.08 and $17.98; BODY CARTS at $19 98 and $22.08; RUN ABOUT WAGONS at $39 98. $50.98. 
$57.98 and $58.98; OPEN BUGGIES at $48.98 and $72 98; TOP BUGGIES at $60.98, $69.98, $73.98 and $77.98; SPRING WAGONS at 
$42 98, $49.98, $63 98 and $82 98, PHAETONS, $93.98; SURRIES, $126.98; CARRIAGES, $124 98; JVIOUNTAIN WAGONS, 4-8prinfir, 
$121.98; HARNESS, $6.98. $9.98, $12.98, $16,98. You observe these prices are extraordinary and unprecedented low figures. 

WE GUARANTEE THESE GOODS absolutely superior in every respect to goods heretofore and now being sold at double our prices. 
You get them without any middle profit added to price , and we have no expensive traveling men whose expenses and salary are added to price. 
The figures quoted are actually lower than wholesale rates. We buy for cash and sell for coin. Good goods at low prices make us friends. 

Yours for Success, 

CALIFORNIA WAGON & CARRIAGE CO., 

220 & 222 Mission Street, San Francisco. 



Vol. XLII.-No. 3. 



SAN PRANOISOO, SATURDAY, JULY 18. 1891. 



/ DEWEY ft CO., Publiahen. 
{ Office, 220 Market St. 




AN IRRIGATED GARDEN UPON RECLAIMED OVERFLOW LAND IN KERN COUNTY. 



Irrigation and Drainage. 

To draw away water where It eziata in ezoeea 
and to ponr it forth where it is needed is the 
great agrioaltaral problem in an arid region. 
A« a broad question, it involvres statesmanship, 
engineering, finanoiering, and the like, and is 
properly a direction for governmental action. 
In some of its applications it is simple and 
capable of Bolution by corporate or individual 
enterprise. The engraving npon this page, 
aside from being a pretty Kern connty land- 
scape, is illustrative of the excellent joint work 
of irrigation and drainage. Kern river, when 
allowed to follow its natural course in pouring 
its waters into Tulare lake, adopted several 
courses and inclosed between its branches a 
large area of land which was known as 
Kern delta or Kern island. This area was 
in good part overflowed land more or 
less nnder water, and comprising large 



ponds and marshes. Taking out the water 
of Kern river above, reduced the flow 
upon the lower lands, reduced the stream to 
proper channels and transformed large areas of 
tnle swamps into fertile, arable fields. The 
cultivation of these reclaimed lands is now 
carried on by the distribution of water, which 
is pumped from the reduced streams which flow 
by. The engraving then shows the practical 
result of relieving the land of snrpins water 
and ponring npon it water according to the 
needs of the growths desired. 

The engraving shows particularly a spot of a 
few acres known as the garden of Buena Vista 
farm, and it is npon the land shown that veg- 
etables have been grown which have made the 
district famous by their great slza and pro- 
fusion. The land shown was once a tule bed, 
and the rich surface mold, mixed with alluvial 
deposit, is several inches deep, and beneath it 
an adobe which is said to be in some places 40 



feet in depth. In the center of the picture is 
seen Buena Vista slough, reduced to the pro- 
portions of a well-behaved stream, From this 
stream water is raised about six feet by the 
horse-power pnmp shown in the foreground, 
so that it will flow and irrigate the garden as de- 
sired. The casual observer may wonder how the 
horses will work the pump going toward each 
other as they stand, but we imagine that the 
artist took his shot before the near horse was 
slewed around in place, and that the animal is 
merely enjoying the contemplation of some of 
the products of irrigation before him. 

The largest tree along the banks of the 
slough are willows. On the nearer side of the 
water is a Carolina poplar which is said to have 
grown 14 feet the first season. The garden is 
planted with a large assortment of fruits and 
vegetables. Beyond the garden are stretches 
of alfalfa fields. The whole scene is one of 
■harp transformation from the waste of water 



and rushes to a wealth of useful growths — the 
result of removing useless and applying useful 
water. 

The Coyote Bounty. — There is much oppo- 
sition arising to the Coyote Bounty Act which 
is now in force because of the large amounts of 
money which the counties will have to dispense 
to coyote killers, because it is believed that 
scalps are being sent in from the world outside 
of California, and because the coyote Is claimed 
to be a pretty good sort of a beast anyhow, and 
if he is exterminated the jack-rabbits which he 
holds in check will multiply so that they will 
eat every tree and vine from the face of the 
State, Probably none of these oonsiderations 
will be considered of great weight with the 
flook-master, who would like all bordering 
coyotes killed, as well as the home product. 
Eren if the opposition to the bill shonld de- 
velop strongly, there is still a year aod a half 
before the bill can be repealed. 



46 



f AciFie i^uraid press, 



[July 18, 1891 



^^mRBORieUbTUI^E. 



Culture of the Soft-Shell Pecan. 

Editors Pkkss: — The large Tmae Boft-ahell 
peoD has only of lata yearn been seen for sale 
in the markets, aad such bae been the demand 
for planting orchards that the large-iizad nuts 
are now sold only for planting. The snperior- 
ity of the pecan over other nuts has created 
great intereit in them, and these facts have 
oome to light from recent investigations: 

First. Being of the hickory family (car^a). 
they are very hardy, have few enemies, are 
rapid growers under cultivation, making a 
handsome tree in orchards, lawns, avenaes or 
scattered about over the farm for shade trees, 
the wood being equally as valuable for com- 
mercial uses as the hickory, and a strong 
bearer, the nut being valuable for oil. The 
demand for the soft-shell nnt increases annu- 
ally, BO that with the wanton destraction of 
the forest trees, the supply does not equal the 
demand, and the planting of extensive orchards 
is now demanded to meet the wants of the 
market. The more it is used for consumption, 
the better is it appreciated by consumers, espe- 
cially the Texas pecan — Id fact, as long as any 
V n' cms are to be had, all others take a 
back aeat. 

The nut is so delicious, sweet and healthful 
that a person hardly knows when to scop eat- 
ing, as they produce no ill effects ai do some 
other kinds of nut,>. The plentifulnees of the 
wild pecan in West Texas has heretofore 
caused little interest in improvement nf them, 
and even at this day some of the old-'ashioned 
Texans will look upon it as foolish to attempt 
imprnvement; but little as Is now thought of 
it, Nature's fine old pecan trees are rapidly 
following In the track of " Lo, the poor In- 
dian" — their former owner. The way they 
are being destroyed leads us to think that 
perhaps at the close of the next half century 
but few natural pecan trees will be standing in 
Texas. This being the case, it is an opportune 
time to plant orchards of the soft-shell pecans, 
the best of which are grown in Wett Texts, 
and on no other continent but America. Un- 
like most orchard trees which are short-lived, 
we have in the pecan a tree which, in Texap, 
commences bearing at six years, at eight years 
begins to pay a profit, at ten years a handsome 
income, bearing at that age four to five bushels 
par tree, at fifteen yearp, tea to twelve bushels, 
and going on bearing, bringing in an annual 
income for generations. 

Two years ago a tree growing near here was 
struck by lightning, killed, and was out down. 
At the stump it measured six feet diameter, 
and showed by its rings to be fully six hundred 
years old, and the year it was destroyed it bore 
a large quantity of nuts. 

The cost of planting a pecan orchard is so 
small as ta hardly deserve the name of oost 
when you consider the immense profits when 
the trees begin to bear. Possessing a long tap- 
root, they will go deep for moietare, in fact it 
is said that no one ever found the end of the 
tap-root of a mature pecan. No irrigation la 
necessary. The most favorable place for their 
growth is In the rich allavlal bottom lands 
along the creek and river bottoms, which are 
rendered almost useless by occasional ovutflow, 
preventing the cultivation of hoed crops. 

An occasional overflow is no detriment to the 
pecan, but, on the other hand, beneficial, as 
these lands are cool, moist and well adapted to 
the growth of the tap-root of the pecan. The 
peoan does well in any soil where other trees 
will grow, provided there is nothing to obstract 
the tap root going down to its heart's content. 
OulttvatloD Increases the size of nut and thin- 
nefs of shell, as well as rapid growth. 

A botanist and hoit culturist of 20 years' 
experience says that " The pecan, unlike most 
ornhard treef, ix true to nature." He tays : 
"You plant the Texas soft-sheel pecan, and in 
no instance has he ever known a variation of 
over tan per cent. In ether words, 90 per o6nt 
at least of product will be- like the nut 
planted." 

Planting 35x35 feet apart gives 36 trees to 
the acre. This gives plenty of room for hoed 
crops or other trees of short life, which would 
bring income annually, so that the only ex- 
pense in the starting of an orchard is the first 
cost of the nuts to plant. Using the same 
ground for other purposes until the paean 
comes into bearing, makes your earnings from 
the nuts almost clear profit 

Connting cost of planting, little or no care 
while growing, free from disease of any kind, 
the pecan, basing estimates on the product of 
the wild trees here, pays larger net profits than 
even the olive will pay. 

The planting of the soft-shell peoan is new, 
but enough has been developed to show the im- 
mense profits of pecan culture. They begin to 
bear at six years; at eight yeari they begin to 
pay profit; at ten years they bear from foar to 
t\ve bushels to the tree; at 15 years, from 10 to 
12 bushels to the tree, and go on for K^ner- 
atiooB yielding a handsome income. Now take 
your pencil and figure out the earnings at only 
five oeota per pound. The hard-shell retail at 
20 to 25 cents per pound in most markets, and 
the so't-shell ara worth twice as much. 

At 10 year* nld, courting four bushels yield 
per tre^ (or 168 pounds), "t 5 cents per pound, 
brings $8 40 per tree, or 5302.40 per acre. At 
15 years, counting but 10 bushels, or 420 



pounds to the tree, earns $21 per tree, or $756 
per acre. 

Another valuable consideration is that In 
this crop you are not compelled t} hurry it into 
market, for the nuta keep many months. 

The late California Agricultural Report for 
1S90 mentions a sample California fruit crtp 
of 68 acres as earning $43,000, but the oost of 
labrr and irrigation was $29,000, leaving a 
profit of only $14,000. The skme number of 
acre" (58) io Texas soft-shell pnoar", with trees 
at 15 years old, would earn $43,848, with no 
coct but gathering the product — judging by 
Tex^B experience. 

Your readers well know the value of orchard 
product] and can eaeily see that they can, with 
great profit, add pecan culture to their in- 
dustry. Transplanting, or grafting and bud- 
ding the pecan, has proven a failure, for the 
ttp root once severed never grows another. An 
orchard planted from the nut is worth more at 
three years than the transplanted tree is at 
eight years — in fact it never reaches tbn value 
of the DP* planted. UKBBiiRT PoST. 

Fort Worth, Texas. 

[Of course it Is not safe to figure for Califor- 
nia upon Texas experience with the pecan. We 
have, however, old bearing trees in some parts 
of thia State which satisfy their ownerr: and 
lead them to commend the crop. Others have 
complained of the blasting of the nut, eto. The 
subject is one well worth discussing, ard the 
growth of the nut should be much more wide- 
ly experimented with in this State. — Ed:^, 
Pbbss ] 



JIIhe Irrigator. 

An Arid Field in Irrigation. 

EoiTOKS Pkess. — We have read with interest 
the Chronielt's bird's-eye view of the world's 
irrigation, especially the laws relating to its 
use in California, the extent of projected and 
poaalble enterpriaes, the indnoementa to capital, 
eto. 

Prof. Van Daman kindly sent us reports 
from Washington of Government snrveys, out- 
lining immense possibilities. From Prof. Hil- 
gard we have an outline of experience in India 
with alkali (the irrigator's foe) and analyses of 
soils and waters in California. All this is valu- 
able, aa preparing one to become a well-in- 
formed oitlzen of the United States, and fa- 
miliar with its boundless Dossibilities. The 
present need i« for knowledge thai can be turned 
to coin on this 20 acre ranch. We have land, 
water and olimate. How shall we apply it ? 
On this point all these data bear very lightly. 
Down here in the ABC's is where our need 
for knowledge begins. As the man is the nnit 
of the nation, the success of the individual in 
applying water must form the base of market 
for land and water security for these bonds, for 
the subdivision of lands and increase of popu- 
lation which we hope it may occasion. To 
execute the plans growing out of the Wright 
law needs a great amount of capital and at 
least a proportionate increase of amell land- 
holdera, Theae are of value to the State 
aa they poeaena the skill to turn ita advantagea 
to account. To secure immigrants is one thing, 
and to gain snbstantial citizens whose home 
here may be a blessing to themselves and to 
the public is quite another. 

Activity In Irriffttlon Demands Activity In 
Immlsratton. 

To make this sucoessful involves a campaign 
of education along this elementary line. There 
is no better place for it than our paper, and no 
belter way for it than to grow up, as " California 
Fruits " has grown, by correspondence and in- 
terviews with sucoessful practical irrigators, 
diacuasions in Farmera' Institute, Grange and 
Alliance, and the scientific arrangement and 
condensation of these points into a handbook 
of ready reference. 

We need to understand more olearly the 
philosophy of plant life. By what signs 
may we recognize the need of water in the 
plant ? In what way should we arrange our 
methods of irrigation to encourage penetration 
rather than surface growth of roots? 

Is there a practical way to sabirrlgate aver- 
age laud? Coat of pipea and danger of filling 
with roots are the points we have in doubt. 
It seems settled that with less water, better 
cultivation would give large relief from alkali. 

Methods of leveling and grading for irriga- 
tion, with descriptions of surveys, eatimates of 
ooBt etc, would be very valuable. In seeking 
auoh information from bis neighbors, one takes 
much time and geta exactly opposite viewa 
which he muat harmonize by much guess work 
and experiments of bia own. It is astonishing 
how much of our farm work is done by guess, 
and how little we reoogniza the need of system. 
Thia is shown in our public gatherings and in 
the kind of reading that meeta largest circula 
tion among our farmers. 

Juat count up among yoaracquaintances how 
many won id read first about the pronpective 
Sullivan it, Slavin contest, or the question 
whether the vegetable wealth brought down 
from the mountalna in our irrigating ditches 
was likely to make our homes gardens for re- 
mote posterity, or the mineral aalta brought in 
solution are to depopulate them. 

A very wiae friend once said, " In mental as 



well aa in phyaical life we require appetite, di- 
gestion and assimilation." 

One cares nothing to read, thinks be knows 
all worth' knowing — a case of no appetite. 
Another reads but never thinks; water run- 
ning through a aieve — a caae of no digeation. 
A third reads, thinks, plans and atops; puta 
nothing in practice — a caae of no assimilation. 

In presoribing for these public ills, the doc- 
tors must first locate the disease by correct 
diagnosis If we find it in a lack of appetite, 
we must dress the food to suit the taste. As A. 
T. Hatch said in discussing bleaching of fruit 
and coloring of prunes, we must suit those 
who buy. If they want them bleached — bleach. 
If they want them colored — color. If they want 
them painted, I'll paint them. 

The success of the great Waihingtonian tem- 
perance movement, somewhat resembling that 
of the Salvation Army was built up on the ex- 
periencea of its converts. Can't we draw a 
hint from thia for our irrigation teaching, and 
for our Farmers' Institutes ? 

In oanvaaaing we now and then meet a man 
who had made a scientific atudy of the founda- 
tion prinoiplea of his busineaa and put aome of 
those principles in practice. Few of these men 
write. Once in a while they can be inveigled 
into making a speech. Lst it be a work of 
Grange, Alliance and Institute to hunt them 
out, get them on the stand and then resolve 
the whole house into a sort of pumping com- 
mittee to draw out from them by questions, re- 
plies which should contain wisdom to irrigate 
the assembled minds, 

We have aa muoh to learn from failures aa 
from success. Only rarely will one own up to 
his own failures. In a little talk at Rid Bluff, 
Gen. Chipman told us some of his dear-bought 
exoerieuce in the fruit business. 

His first idea of pruning was to have limbs 
out of the way of cultivation. A friend who 
was riding through the orchard saw them look- 
ing like a lot of brooms wrong end up, and 
asked : " Why, General, do those bear fruit?" 
He said : "I hung my head and answered in 
a minor tone, ' Oh, yes, they have borne fruit, 
too.' '' He did not need to add that their frnit 
was experience. 

Oness most successful Institute meetings in 
the East are largely made attractive in this way: 
Draw out the thinkers and get confesiioni of 
failure as well as of success. The aimpjeat 
Christian experience oft>n outweighs the 
deepeat theological oration. If the grand 
man of aoienoe ahoots hla ideas away up over 
our heads, it's a dull meeting. If the simple 
man appeals directly to our hearts (very near 
our pocketO, our meeting is a snocesa. 

Officera used to say " ahoot low." We aay : 
Put the fodder low down in the rack the 
little ones can get a bite. It's not the United 
States, but this little 20-acre ranch, we're run- 
ning, and we apeak for a great b)g class that 
seems no wiser than we. Fbank S. Cuafin, 



^ORTICULTURt 



The Olive-Growers' Convention. 

We gave in last week's Rural an outline of 
the proceedings of the convention of olive- 
growera held in thia city July 8th. 'Some ape- 
cial featarea of the meeting will now be pre- 
aented. 

Secretary Lelong read the minutea of the 
preceding meeting and of the meetings of the 
Committee on Permanent Organization. From 
these it appeared that the following are the 
Board of Directors: Bllwood C'>oper, Santa 
Barbara (president); Frank A. Kimball, Na- 
tional City; 0. A. Wetmore, Livermore; John 
Bidwell (vico'president), Chioo; E. E. Good- 
rich, Santa Clara; Justinian Calre, treasurer; 
B. M. Lelong, secretary. 

The follo«'lng were the active members en- 
rolled: J. R. Wolfskin, Winters; George F. 
Hooper, Sonoma; Mrs. Emily Rob'nsoo, Au- 
burn; Juan Gallego° Mission Ssn Jose; J. P. 
Smi^h, Llvermort ; V. C. Smith, Napa; Bowen 
A Gondge, Pomona; John C. Gr»y, Orovillr; 
Peveril Meiga, Santa Barbara; Sherwood &; 
Woodford, Ontario. 

The following are at present the honorary 
membera: Prof. E. W. Hilgard, W. A. H»vne, 
Jr., Los Angeles; Justinian Ctire, San Fran- 
cisco; B. H>vne, Los OlivoF; Alden Bovd, Los 
Olivos; A. Niel, Livermor' ; P. Cor, Auburn; 
W. 0. Kimball, National City; W. H. Flovd, 
National City; H. P. McCaon, El O'jon; Mrf. 
J. B. S»ntec. E' Cajjn; C. T. Hopkins, Pasa- 
dena; Guy E. Grosee. Santa Ros^; 0. M. Aley, 
Fillbrook; W. W. Wbitn-v, National City; 
William Veal, Pals; C. M. Everett, San Fran- 
rtUoo; J. P. M. Riinbo"-, Tem»cnla; E. R. 
Rinaldt, San Franoisco; N. W. Grlawold, Los 
Gnillico". 

President Cooper's Address. 

In opening the convention. President El wood 
Cooper delivered an addreaa, of which we ahall 
present the chief portions : 

We are met to discuss these two proposi- 
tions : 

1. To discuss the enforcement of the Olive 
Oil Act and present facts concerning the value 
of olive oil as a food product and as a medi- 
cine, the best method of distrlbutiog or dis- 
seminating such facts, that the general public 
mi>y be informed. 

2. The plan which we are to adopt to enforce 
the law, that Is, a unity of kotlon, a common 



understanding which will bring the greatest 
power to thia end. 

I will refer to theae subjects very briefly, 
claiming your indulgence only for afew momenta. 
The enforcement of the law doea nnt present so 
many diffioulties as you might at first suspect. 
A very large majority of the dealers will join 
hands with us to eaforce the law. They are in 
sympathy and most anxious to put a atop to 
every form of adulteration. They have, in a 
measure, been by a clow process of constant 
and increasing rascality forced into this busi- 
ness. A dishonorable ambition in the struggle 
for gain Impelled a few to go into It to enable 
them to decrease prices and induce the in- 
credulous oonsumera to become the victims. 
Competition forced other dealers to do the same 
thing. Once began. It multiplied, and ia multi- 
plying to that extent that it has become a very 
aerioua question. If we can unite and enlist 
the assistance of the public in the movement, 
all the dealers who have any honor or oon- 
acienoe left will join us and be most active in 
the conviction of every violator of the law. 

A'ter our meeting of April 16th, I wrote to 
an EagUah gentleman, a friend qf mine, to aend 
me a copy of the English law governing trade- 
marks and trade desoriptions. I have the law 
and will read such portions as are pertinent to 
the questions we are to discnss. 

This law is full, explicit, and not susceptible 
of misconstruction, la now active and inforced, 
and it seema to me that a similar law cnuld be 
enforced in this country. Any statement to 
the contrary would be a tacit admiesioo of our 
inferiority aa compared with our English 
brethren. 

Oar Olive Oil Aot can work no Injury to any- 
body. It Is nececsary to protect the consum- 
anmera from the vicious and dangerous mixtures 
that are falsely presented to them. No honest 
or honorable dealer can take an exception to a 
single condition of the Act. The last Legis- 
lature also passed a bill to regulate the practice 
of pharmacy. Section 9 says : 

AN ACT TO KEGULATE THE PRACTrCE Ol- PHAR- 
MACY I.N THE STATE OK CALIFORNIA. 

[Approved March ii, i8qi.] 
Sec. 9. No person shall add to or remove from, 
or cause to be added to or removed from, any drug, 
chemical or medicinal preparation, any ingredient 
or material for the purpose [of adulteration or sub- 
siituiion. or which shall dete'iorate the quality, com- 
mercial value or medicinal efffct, or alter the nature 
or composition of such article, and no person shall 
knowingly sell, or offer for sale, any such adulter- 
ated, alcered or substituted drug, chemical or med- 
icinal preparation, without informing the purchaser 
of the adulteration or sophistication of the article 
sold or offered for sale. • * • Any person who 
shall willfully violate any of the provisions of this 
Section shall be guiliy of a misdemeanor, and upon 
conviction thereof shall be liable to all costs of the 
action; and for the first offense be liable to a fine 
not exceeding fifty dollars, and for each subsequent 
offense a fine nf not less than fifty nor more than 
one hundred dollars, said fines to be paid over to the 
Board of Pharmacy. • • * 

We find that the condition of this section con- 
forms to Sec. 17 in the English law so far as It 
requires the dealer to inform the purchaser 
when he offers for sale an adulterat°d article. 
Under the Act to regulate the Practice of 
Pharmacy, the Governor appointed commis- 
sioners with full power to enforce its provisions. 
I have had several interviews with one of 
these commissioners, who assured me that the 
law would be enforced to the fullest extent. 
They are io sympathy and in harmony with 
our effort. 

' Much was said at our April meeting about 
cheapnesa and that our California olive oil waa 
too high In price — by intimation conveying the 
idea that we were making the effort to aecnre 
extravagant prioea for oar productions. We 
have no issue with pure olive oil whether im- 
ported from foreign countries or produced in 
this country. We have issue with the vicious 
admixture of cotton-aeed oils, mustard seed, 
pea nut- and other nut oils that are imported, 
aa well aa put up in San Francisco under false 
labela, and sold by false representations. 

If the adulteration is stopped, it will cheapen 
the cost of pure olive oil. It will atlmolate the 
planting of orcharda, it will secure a market 
and fix the value of pure products. 

A letter was published In the Argonaut, 
about the middle of May, written by Arthni 
Perry Hayne, who graduated from our Univer- 
sity at Berkeley, and ia now attending an Ag- 
ricultural College In Montpellier, France. 
Thia letter waa apeoially strong on the qnea- 
tion of adulterating olive oil in Europe. 

Before this young gentleman's departure for 
Europe, he visited my olive oil works i>nd ob- 
tained from me all the info'mation that I conld 
give him on the subject. Daring the past oil- 
making season, he traveled through the dis- 
tricts of Southern France and Nnrlhern Italy 
on a tour of Inspection. On the 25th of April 
he wrote me as follows from Montpellier, 
France. 

Extracts From Letter of A. P. Hayne Jr. 

It is needless for me to describe the onrse we 
poor oil makers are troubled with; i. e., that 
nf adulterations. Suffice it to say that in 
Europe pure oil can seldom be bought unless 
one buys it directly from the mill. But even 
then he risks a great deal. Having 4een huge 
iron steamers land thousands of pea nuts and 
grains of all sorts on the docks of Marseilles 
and elsewhere; having followed this through 
all subsequent movements, till It came oat as 
pure olive oil — sometimes not assuming its last 
name till it reached an olive-oil mill far in the 
oonntry. I readily believe the statement pab- 



July ]8, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 



4, 



liBhed the other day at Nioe, "that in the Da- 
partment of Alps Maritlmei not more than 
three oil merobaats sell strictly pare olive oil." 
The e£fect of this wholesale cheating is two- 
fold. It drives out of bnainess all honest mer- 
chants and rednces the price of the real prod- 
not of the olive to snch an extent that 
the onlture has to be abandoned. I have 
seen bandreds of acres of fine large 
olive trees cut down and burnt — sim- 
ply because the rascally merchants are sucoess- 
fal in deceiTing the people and inducing them 
to buy cottonseed oil, whose only merit is a 
beautiful label bearing the lie — *'Pare olive 
oil." 

This state of affikirs has become so bad that 
the prodaoers have become at last aware of 
their desperate condition. A bitter war has 
been declared between the producers and 
merchants. Till lately the merchants have had 
the best of it, having money and political in- 
fluence to aid them in muzzling the press or 
baying up refractory enemies. 

Thus far the strong hand of the rich oil 
merohanti has. proved too powerful for the 
producers, especially as the methods for detect- 
ing falsification in oils have been uncertain and 
very expensive. 

Recently, however, a new test has been die- 
covered which reduces the process of detecting 
frand to a thumb-and-screw rule that any one 
can apply. The ItaliAns claim that it was dis- 
covered by Prof. E. Bachi of Florence. The 
French say all the credit is due to Mon8.R\oul 
Brule, Director of the " Station Agronomique 
de Nice." The two tests are based on the 
same principle and differ but slightly. Both 
have been accepted by the scientific bodies of 
Earope, and both gentlemen deserve the praise 
of every honest man in the world. 

Mens. Brule has given up golden opportuni- 
ties to devote himself to a somewhat thankless 
crusade against the falsification of oil, buttar, 
etc. While at Nioe, I had occasion to pass 
several days in the Governmeot laboratory, 
and mad«, myself, the tests and can bear wit- 
ness to the marvelous precision and simplicity 
of the whole thing. 

I, myself, did eight tests at the same time, 
the whole operation occupying scarcely 25 
minutes. I was able to distinguish less than 
five per cent of cottonseed oil in pure olive 
oil. The same reactive will detect the pres- 
ence of margarin in batter. I made a mixture 
of less than five per cent of oleomargarine and 
pure batter and was astonished at the nnmie- 
taknble results. After visiting Italy, I re- 
turned to Nioe with samples of oil I brought 
from the oil mills of various region", and was 
able to obierve the uniformity' of results given 
in every case. 

So much for the process itself. The indefati- 
gable Mr. Brule has, thanks to the English 
press, been able to force the authorities to take 
note of this sure and simple test for fraud, and 
now the commotion in the enemy's camp is 
great. Now that people find that it is possible 
to find out the truth, they show an eagerness 
that strikes terror Into the breasts of the 
falsifiers. English merchants are now demand- 
ing an analysis from Brule's Governmental 
establishment before they will take oil. One 
merchant has profited by this circumstance, and 
offers, as a rpecial inducement, that he fur- 
nishes /ref. Brule's analysis sworn to before the 
consul. Needless to say he is doing well, and 
I have no doubt that in the end the mert^hants 
will find "Honesty to be the best policy." 

If this movement, this protest against frand, 
oontinaes to grow as it has done thus far, the 
peasant and oil-producer will soon be able to 
eat full rations; but I fear that we Americans 
will be deluged with even more cotton seed 
than we have at present. 

Can we not make the oleomargarice laws 
apply to people selling cotton seed oil as " Pure 
olive oil?" In any case, it would be well worth 
the while of the olive growers to take 8t''ps to 
facilitate the analysis of oils for those who 
desire to know what they are using. Once yon 
have seen the behavior of the pure oil and the 
mixtures, yoa will never be troubled with dis- 
tinguishing It. It is infallible, and so simple 
that it requires no chemical knowledge what- 
ever to use it, nor anything more than a basin 
of boiling water, a ooaple of test tubes and 25 
cents worth of the reagent. 

In case any grent importance is attached to 
the analysis, Mr. Brule has discovered seven 
proofs; but the direct method never fails, and 
requires less time and apparatus. 

Could yoa see the inner workings of the 
falsifications in oils as I have, and the terrible 
effect it has had upon the agricultural classes 
all over Earope, you would readily excuse me 
bothering yoa with my enthusiasm over what 
Mr. Brule has aocompliebed. 

Aethur p. Hayne 

Extracts from Letter of Mr. Henry Burthy. 

I have also in my possession a letter received, 
written by a Quaker gentleman of Philadelphia: 

Esteemed Friend Cooper: — I have thy note 
under date of Miy 26cQ and I was absent for 
some weeks until a day or two since. 

I spent some months last year in the south of 
France and Italy in the best olive regions and I 
found no oil to compare to thine. In fact one 
of the best known bankers In Florence, Italy, 
told me that he never depended on getting pure 
olive oil in the nsaal way at their stores, but 
be ordered it of a firm of oil minufacturers who 
famished him and certain other parties with 
some pare olive oil. He says the cheapness of 
our cotton seed oil and other oile, notably a 
certain Afrioan peanut oil, indaoes these peo- 



ple, no donbt, to introduce it largely in their 
olive oil. I found the same at Nioe, Sin Remo, 
Cannes, Monica, all along the M>;diterranean 
and in Rjme and Naples also. The Mediter- 
ranean ports are handy to the oil producing 
countries, and, although we were for months 
among the olive trees, mostly nothing but those 
trees, I scarcely tasted them beoauee it was' 
very disagreeable to me and there was a general, 
tacit, admission there that it was difficult to get 
the real oil. There was no possible doubt about 
it at any hotel or restaurant anyhow. I was 
very observing and had good chances, and from 
what I saw and heard of the villainous concoc- 
tions of wines (all through there (the south of 
France especially) I made up my mind that all 
the olive oil we people get from those countries 
as well as largely the wines, are wickedly adul- 
terated. Since my return I am a better Amer 
ican than ever and I cling to American produc- 
tions as fully as possible. I like a little wine 
now and then, too, and I am also abandoning 
foreign wines. The way we are fooled In that 
line is awful 1 . Thy Friend, 

Henry Burthy. 

Qtrmanlown, Phil., June 9th, 1891. 

There is no question about the deception 
practiced In all tbe so-called olive oils that are 
imported f'om foreign countries. 

In the United States both on the Atlantic 
and Pacific the adulterant used ia cotton seed 
oil. It is true that in Sin Francisco some mus- 
tard-seed oil is also used. 

Mustard-seed oils are very exciting and tend 
to serious stomach troubles. Cotton-seed oil is 
worse. By outward application it is very ex- 
citing to the skin. "Taken inwardly, it may 
produce a multiplicity of serious maUdies. 

Mr. Cooper read a letter from Mr. Peveril 
Meigs of Santa Barbara stating his observation 
concerning cotton seed as conducive to bovine 
abortion and as likely to produce serious disar- 
rangements to the human system. Mr. Cooper 
closed as follows : 

This sabjeot appeals to every sentiment in 
our msnly natures. Our sympathies should be 
enlisted for the infants and growing children so 
long as this growing danger hangs over them. 
The moral aspect is so alarming that it claims 
our united efforts to correct the trade relations 
that have been so distorted by these infamous 
practices. , 

The Joppa Orange Not the Jaffa. 

Col. J. R, Dobbins of Sin Gabriel writes to 
the Riverside Prtss as follows: 

In th?) issn» of your valuable paper under 
data of June 13th, vou quote some remarks of 
mine touching the Joppa orange, and in com- 
menting upon 8»me, you have fallnn into the 
error of considering the Joppa and Jiffi as one 
and the same variety. I have both varieties 
erowing here at San Gabriel, and, while the 
Jaffa, which was introduced into our State 
from Florida, is, as you remark, of decidedly 
dwarfish habits, the Joppa whioh I am intro- 
ducing was first propagated at this place from 
seed directly from Palestine, and the trees now 
fruiting are from buds taken from thi« source. 
So far from being of dwarfish habits, the Joppa 
is the most vigorous and strongest growing 
orange tree, both in nursery and orchard, that 
has come under my observation. It attains 
the bight and spread of largo seedling trees, 
and as the fruit and tree characteristics be- 
come known, I am sure it will be a popular 
variety and prove a valuable acquisition to 
the other varieties grown in Ctlifornia. 



Hl^UIT JX^AI^KETING. 



Shipping Fruit. 

Editors Press: — As the season has returned 
when many of onr readers are debating the 
question whether to ship fruit East or sell at 
home, It seems a good time to consider the ad- 
vice given by a veteran among shippers from 
Vacaville last year. Tbe writer was seeking 
points for publication on this question and 
approached this gentleman because he was 
known to be a shrewd, conservative, successfnl 
man of long experience. 

To Ship or Not to ShlD ? 

Was the question. He condenses thought, 
and the results of years of experience went 
IntD these words: "A man doesn't wart 
to start In unless he means to stay with it.'' 

In preparing food for the public mind, we 
generally condense. Those interested can 
elaborate for themselves; those not interested 
can soon get through and pass on to something 
in their line. In this case, the sentence seems 
to need elaboration and you will pardon the 
"padding." There are so many things to learn 
and so many chances to take in tbe business 
that one without the capital or the nerve to 
sustain losses can scarcely expect to be in at 
the finish when the profits are to be enjoyed. 
Don't start in unless you can stand up under a 
left-handed bill of sale In which you are drawn 
upon for expense instead of getting a fair price 
for your fruit. Plenty of canso for this besides 
rascality of middlemen. Some result from in- 
experience and some happen in spite of all pre- 
cautions. Yoa should produce a succession of 
shipping fruit?. 

If yon have only Tokay grapes or Bartlett 
pears to ship, it is hard to get tbe help; and 



then your teams and wagons etand on that in- 
terett acconnt the same for the two weeks yon 
have used them as your neighbor's for the four 
months. 

The list of profitable shipping fruit produced 
in any locality is not so very large, and if your 
product is outside that list, you are outside 
reasonable hope of profit. A friend who had a 
ranch that was a ranch, and meant to let folks 
know it, sent five cars of Muscats to New York 
at one shipment. They drew on him for 
freight. Now, we all think that Muscats are a 
great deal better than Tokays, but those who 
buy them Eist don't agree with as, and we 
must consult their tatts or expect left-handed 
returns. Again, it must be a good market 
with demand well established for that kind of 
fruit, and sect ta a house with a big trade and 
a good force of rustling salesmen to handle five 
oars of one kind at the same shipment. That 
time our friend got a good title ta his experi- 
ence because he paid for it, Few of us can af- 
ford the luxury of experience so gained. Any- 
body is liable to make a similar break, and if 
he then gives up in disgust for lack of capital 
or nerve, he oomes out with useless experience 
only as profits of his venture. 

SblppiDgr Locality. 

This yon must have or yon are as bad off as 
before. You need facilities for producing 
something to reach some market where prices 
are good. It is of no use to go into market to 
compete with fruit raised 2000 miles nearer 
than ours. Qiallty must be far superior or 
market pretty free from competition to allow 
us to pay that freight and come out whole. 
We have been trying to get the railroad com- 
pany to take half for shipping, but have never 
succeeded in making them see the point. They 
prefer a pnre thing, and we must live on what 
is left. Unless you are near a point where 
they make a business of shipping fruit, you are 
left again. If your wagon-load of fruit must 
go by express to a shipping point and be a day 
or two longer In the hot sun without proper 
protection, the other fellow reaps a good profit 
when you come out even. 

You Must Pack RlKbt. 

It seems as though some people never oonld 
learn that the poorest fruit in a box counts 
thret where the best counts one in fixing the 
price of that package. Yoxx may face up one 
lot to as to cheat one man and another so as to 
cheat a second, but in the long run you 
will be the loser. Suppose you pack your 
peaches pretty well. Then make the same 
Into two grades. The first brings you $1 50 a 
box, the second $1.00, while the freicht is $1.10. 

If that second grade was worth 25 cents at 
home to dry, you have lost 35 cents by shipping 
it as second, and would have lost another 35 
cents by sending it mixed with the best. O; 
oonree these figures are given only by way of 
Illustration, but they point out a slough in 
which many a fruit grower has foundered. 

There are a plenty to tell of success. Yon 
see tbe guide boards ahead and to the right and 
left, and all point on to fortune. When you 
get into the slongh that was out of sight you 
can see the outfits that have been wrecked 
there before you, as well as the rots left by 
those who barely pulled through. 

Delay in Transit 
Is a risk that higher powers must shield us 
from. No foresight of ours can well prevent a 
hot box or collision frcm side tracking our oar 
in the hot sun, but it spoils just the same. 

A glutted market is another almost unavoid' 
able risk. The Fruit Union was organlzad 
mainly to send fruit where it was wanted. Had 
it been a machine of brass or iron we think 
the inventive genius and executive force al- 
ready applied would have made it a model 
antomatom. 

Bat a machine with motiva transmitting and 
operative devices made of human prejudices, 
purses and plans often lends emphasis and illus- 
tration to the old Indian's proverb, "White 
man is very uncertain.'' 

Points gained so far in Investigation of this 
question convince ns that only those should 
make a business of shipping fruit 

1. Who have varieties specially adapted to 
shipplne, 

2 Who are near a shipping point. 

3. Who produce a considerable qaantity. 

4. Who ate prepared to meet losses without 
disaster. 

In other words, they should be ready to Imi- 
tate the example of the colored elder who lost 
a candidate through the ice and at once an- 
nounced, "Gone straight to glory I Pass along 
another onel" Frank S. Chapin. 



(She ^iei»d. 



Banana Flour — A flour is made from green 
bananas. They are allowed to mature so as to be 
readily peeled, when they are sliced and dried, 
then pounded in a mortar and passed throngh 
a coarse sieve. The color of the flour Is a dirty 
gray, like ashes. Ripe bananas are sometimes 
preserved by being dipped In lye and then 
dried in the same manner as figs. They shrivel 
up under this treatment, and when eaten taste 
much like figs, 

To Circumvent Chicken-Thieve.s, — It is 
raid that a resident of Waterbury, Oonn., has 
devised a new plan to circumvent obicken- 
thieves. He uses copper rods for roosts, and 
these he has connected with a battery in bis 
bedroom. When a thief tampers with the hen- 
coop an alarm rings at tHs proprietor's head, 
and by pressing a button a shock Is sent 
throngh the roost, and the whole congregation 
of fowls orow and cluck In voolferons unison. 



The Potato Business of the United 
States. 

As Oalifornla has become a large shipper of 
potatoes overland the following article from 
Braditreeta, will interest many of our readers: 

Our dependence upon foreign countries for 
supplies is not limited to manufactured goods, 
but embraces some agricultural products as 
well. Though our agricultural area is enor- 
mous, it has not reached that stage of develop- 
ment which is seen in most European countries. 
Onr farmers have devoted their attention to the 
production of cereals, crops which can be grown 
most successfully upon a large scale, requiring 
less manual labor and allowing greater use of 
machinery than other farm products. The 
small farmers, who are the rule ra.her than the 
exception in Earope, are forced through lack 
of capital to cultivate crops which require 
manual labor almost wholly, and in these they 
have been able to compete with the American 
farmer. Their success is, in the main, a ques- 
tion of the relative cost of labor, and hence in 
countries where labor is the cheapest the out- 
put of cereals is the least, while the production 
of other crops is in excess of the domestic con- 
sumption. The higher cost of labor in the 
United States and the lower cost of land have 
resulted in a difference in the methods of farm- 
ing here compared with those employed in 
Earope, which is shown In the greater prodac- 
tion of cereals here and the surplus cultivation 
of vegetables abroad. 

The potato output of the United States is 
very large, yet it has not shown that increase 
which is seen In the cereals. The following 
table gives our estimated crops, in bushels, of 
potatoes and cereals for ten years: 

Potatoes Opreals. 

1881 109,146 000 2,066,029 000 

1882 : 170,972,000 2,69i),394,'ooO 

1S83 208,164,000 2,62M,3^8 000 

1884 190,64 ',000 2,992,879,000 

1885 175,029,000 3,016,439 000 

1886 168,051 000 2 842,579,000 

1887 ..134,103,000 2,660 497,000 

1888 202 365 000 3,209,742,000 

1889 195 flOO 000 3 462,000,000 

1890 135,000,000 2,515,000,000 

It is not a question of quality that makes us 

large ooiisnmers of foreign potatoes. It Is gen- 
erally admitted that our potatoes on tbe wl}ole 
are superior to those grown in other countries. 
Our consumption la greater than the supply, 
and were transportation facilities better we 
should draw more from Canada and less from 
Europe. Canada is the primary source from 
which we draw supplies to meet the deficiency, 
and Europe the secondary. While foreign 
potatoes are cheaper, they are not given the 
preference in onr markets. This of itself will 
answer all questions as to the suoeriority of 
our own over foreign products. The consum- 
er as a rule ia not biased In selecting food prod- 
ucts in favor of the domestic article. He con- 
aiders quality first, cost as a secondary consid- 
eration, and the question of source rarely en- 
ters as an element into bis baying. Tbe in- 
crease or decrease of oar importations is found 
to correspond with the flactuations in the do- 
mestio output. Oar reoipts of potatoes for ten 
years were as follows: 



1881 


$ 874,223 


1886 


1882 


. 4 660,120 


1817 


1883 


l,c9-2 211 




1884 


193,623 


1889 






mo 



543 091 
3,693,021 
321,106 



The principal countries from which we ob- 
tained these supplies are Canada, England, 
Ireland, Scotland, Germany and the British 
West Indies. The receipts in bushels for two 
years, by countries have been as follows: 



1890. 



Camada 1,324,788 

England 493,105 

So >tland 1,294,600 

Ireland 126 119 

Germany 68 672 

British West Indies 92,125 

Cuba 10,656 



1889. 
776.600 
3,169 
17,644 
4,313 
7 688 
53,024 
19,715 

Although we take a large quantity of pota- 
toes from other countries, yet our annual ship- 
ment! since 1880 have exceeded 380,000 bushels. 
During certain months of tbe year our marketa 
are overstocked, and as our crop ia not har- 
vested at tbe same time that It Is In other 
countries, there is a sufficient export demand 
to relieve our markets temporarily of a glut. 
Oar shipments of potatoes since 1880 have been 
aa follows: 



Biiahclg. 
1081 638 840 

1882 468,286 

1883 439,443 

1884 f-54,613 

1885 380,868 



Bushels. 

1888 494,948 

1887 434,864 

1888 403,8iiO 

1889 471,065 

1890 406,618 



To many of the cquntriea from which we 
Import potatoes we export large quantities. 
This is found to be particularly true of Cuba, 
the British West Indies and Ctnada, The 
principal Importing countries, with tbe amounts 
received in bushels during 1889 and 1890, are 
shown in the following table: 

1890, 

Columbia 15,863 

Canada 101,788 

British West Inrtiea 10 190 

Hawaiian Islands 34,924 

Mexico 28,S61 

Cuba 147,932 

Venezuela 20,782 



1SS9 
24 153 
29,870 
15 922 
.36,204 
23,917 
272,829 
8,353 



A Luminous Harness. — A harness that 
looks luminous in the dark baa been invented. 
It is Intended to prevent oollleions between 
vehicles at night. 



48 



fACIFie F^URAlo PRESS. 



LJuLY 18, 1891 



J?ATROJ^S Of J^USBAJSIDF^Y. 



Our Grange Edition. 

Tbc Grauge iiew^ of most general iut«reet is givt'U tlirougb 
all editions of our paper uu this page. Several supple- 
raeutal pages, devoted to Grange interests, are added iu our 
Grauge edition, which any subscriber cau receive iu lieu of 
the regular edition without rxtra cost, by addressing 
the publishers. 



The Master's Desk. 

1. W. DAVI8, W.M. 8. O. Of CALIFOKNIA. 

Do yoa jerk tbp lines when driving yoar 
horae ? If ao, why ? Think aboat it and tell 
aa why. 



The aacoeaaful farmer wants to be a man 
with some means, a good wife, happy children, 
good scboola, a comfortable home, something 
of a library, good basiness tact, temperate, 
prudent, jast and, by all means, a Patron of 
Haabandry. 



Practice what yoa preach and preach what 
you practioe, and you will be on aafe ground 
ninety-nine timea in the bandred. 



Do yon strive to do well (to perfection, if 
yoa please) all that yoa undertake to do ? 



Do yoa alwaya say a good word for the 
Grange ? By ao doing, you may frequently 
convince some one that membership in the 
Order is just what Is needed. Try it I Speak 
kindly of, for and about the Grange ! 



We are taught to " work, for the night is 
oomlng." That is all true and good enough in 
its way; but did you ever aek tbia question: 
" When is the rest-t<me coming?" All work 
and no play makes Jack a dall boy. Let as 
then, to a reasonable extent, combine rest and 
pleasure ..7ith our work and thought, for 
thought is work of the beat type. 



If you knew more about the Grange, you 
woald wonder bow yon got along without it so 
long. 

We are taught to be careful of the company 
we keej). The Grange aeleots its membership 
with great care. You know three black balls 
rejects an applicant. Hence you may expect 
good company, as a general rule, in the Grange. 



Do you want your Board of Supervisors to 
give money to the World's Fair ? They may 
do so under a law paaaed by the last Legis- 
lature. 

Woman's Work in the Grange is getting 
much deserved attention just now. ^tome have 
pretended to think that Woman's Work was 
merely to provide for the Harvest Feast. Then 
a few thought posiibly her work migfU be ex- 
tended to some of the minor offices in the 
Grange. Now it baa come to pass that many 
Grangera have selected a sister for Worthy 
Master. In all these stations the sisters have 
proved themselves worthy and qaalifisd; and 
there need be no prophet to foretell the future 
of Woman's Work in the Grange. So long as 
there are men to feed, children to clothe and 
(>ducate, sick to be nursed, dead to be buried, 
fliwers to be cultivated and plucked, homes to be 
ornamented and made attractive, songs t3 be 
sung, love to be bestowed, thoughts to be ut- 
tered, joy to be shared, sorrow to be borne, 
virtue to be rewarded, crime to be despieed, 
labor to be done, so long, and in this wise, will 
Woman's Work in the Grange be important. 



Subordinate Granges that have not had a 
visit from an officer of the State Grange should 
make a request, and an officer will be aect. 
Get up a class and have a big feast, a aooial re- 
union, some good music, a few pithy essays, a 
sharp and pointed speech. In short, be on the 
alert to get some of the good of the Grange, 
other than that of dollars and cents. 



Have yon tried the Trade-Card plan of pur- 
chaaing ? How do yon like it ? 



The Sonoma and Marin Fair Association offer 
S300 premiums to Grange exhibitors. 

All over the land the politician is diligently 
trying to convince the farmer that he is paying 
t30 much attantion to politics. Maybe if the 
farmer pays more attention to politics, he will 
have to pay le»» money ts the tax collector. 
Who knows ? 



It ia pleasurable to know that there is a 
probability of replacing the Grange banner in 
Southern California. Sister Flora M. Kimball, 
who for many years was the efficient editress 
of the Woman's Department of the California 
Patron, has not lost any of her zeal and love 
for the Order. She has hosts of friends all 
over the Golden State, who would be delighted 
to meet her at the State Grange this fall. We 
sincerely hope that National Ktncb Grange 
may soon be reorganized. Why not send a 
lady Master, and wbv not have that lady 
named Mrs. Flora M. Kimball ? 



The July rain of 1891 will stand in the his- 
tory of the State as something more than won- 
derful. Though no great damage may have 
been done, sorely no good came from it. 



The fruit-cannera have combined. Will the 



ruit-growers do likewise? Fire frequently 
stops Gre ! 

Since Edison's wonderful and manifold in- 
ventions have been made, there seems no end 
to the uses to which electricity may be put. 
We find it applied In so many fields of useful- 
ness that the end seems near, and yet each day 
brings some new application of electricity. If 
we could but have electricity applied to some 
of our dormant energies, or to aome of our 
more dormant industries, no donbt good re- 
sults would follow. We would gain much 
power and Inflaence aa an Order if each anbor- 
dinate Grange would but coostrnot itself into a 
powertol dynamo, and generate power and 
light and heat and life for the community in 
which the Grange ia located. Let there be, at 
least one Kdlson in each Grange, who will see 
to it that the machinery la kept in perfect or- 
der and in constant use. There is much to be 
done in behalf of the industrial people. Where 
ia their Edison ? 

The fall campaign will soon open. Do you 
want a Grange speaker ? If ao, get up a big 
meeting, send cards of invitation to your 
farmer friends; tell us whom yon want to speak 
to the people, and such Patron will be sent, if 
it ia possible to get him. Let's have an awak- 
ening all along the line of Grange work in 
California. Do your share, and othera will be 
found who will do their share. Reciprocity in 
Grange work, as well aa in national affairs, is 
the watchword. New Granges will be wel- 
comed to the ranks, Dormants ought to be re- 
stored to fellowship and usefulness in the 
Order. From what section is to come the first 
call ? Which one of the Deputies is going to 
the front first ? Rally round the flig ! Keep 
the Grange banner unfurled ! Let the world 
know we are enlisted for the cause that is right 
and must prevail. 



A Happy Rural Day. 

A brother, and member of San Jose Grange, 
writes July 3: "We were out yesterday (a 
Grange party of us) to Dr. Mintie's ranch (the 
old Fieldated place), and had dinner under the 
big weeping willow that shades the spring. It 
was a typical Granger's visit, (.nd long to be re- 
membered as a pleasant and profitable day. 
There was a bountiful lunoh, speeches, songs, 
smoking and story-telling, and the 'gallanting' of 
our wives and Matrons; the plucking of lilies 
from the pond, and in lounging in the shade 
with the breeze blowing upon us through the 
spray of the fountain. Ah, it was worth while 
to drive across the hot valley to find snob shade 
and rest and fnn." 

We had more sitlsfaotion in reading the 
above than our friend anticipated when pen- 
ning his personal letter. Mention of Ohas, 
Fieldsted's ranch, of old, brings to memory one 
of the happiest days of our life — the firat day, 
in fact, that we creased the fielda from the 
Garden City to the beautiful bills "which 
slope to the valley green," and became ac- 
qnalnted with Capt. Fieldsted and wife. It re- 
minds us, too, of a day when, afoot and alone, 
we packed several young trees five miles from 
San Jose to that beautiful ranch, and planted 
the first English walnut tree on the place over 
.34 years ago; and how with pleasure we 
watched the growth of that walnut tree from 
year to year, as we made delightful pilgrimages 
to our old friend's home. We felt in that early 
day, as now, that every one ought to plant at 
least one tree a year, on the land of a friend, or 
of a stranger's, if having none of hie own. 

March Grange. 

At Pennington, Sutter county, this Grange 
held a very interesting meeting, Saturday, July 
11, 1891, and conferred the third and fourth 
degrees. Notwithstanding the busy time and 
heated season, there waa a large attendance 
and the usual active Interest manifested. We 
contemplate holding a Harvest Feast in the 
near future at which time a class of three or 
more will be instrncted in the degree work. 
We also expect to have our District Lecturer, 
Bro. B. F. Frisbie, with ns at that time. 
Fraternally, Jas. Myers, Master. 

Oridley, July U. 1891. 

Visited Washington. — July 11th Bro. Geo. 
Ohleyer writea that he returned two weeks 
since from a visit t3 Washington, He went by 
way of New Orleans and returned by the 
Northern Pacific R. R., visiting Tacoma and 
Portland. We are sorry to hear that he has 
had rather poor health, but expects to find 
time soon to write as concerning his journey. 
We know our readers will look with interest 
for such a report. Bro. Ohleyer has a good 
way of observing and sensibly reporting things. 
He visited our excellent National Secretary, 
Dr. John Trimble, who wished to be remem- 
bered to California acquaintanoes, which 
means not a few good and true friends. 

Buo. A. P. Martin, Petaluma, of the Co- 
operative Committee, requests the Secretary of 
each Grange in the St»te to report to him by 
the 15tb of September the amount of purchases 
made by each Grange under the Trade-Ctrd 
system, so aa to nse the figures in making bis 
report to the State Grange. 

Two Rock Granoe will hold their Harvest 
Feast and Cerea Day combined, on the third 
Thuraday of Aoguat. 



Suggestions from Past Master Coulter. 

Overproduction Not the Cause of De- 
pression. 

We are sometimes told by men of observa- 
tion and experience and culture, who have 
given some thought to the subject, that while 
there are minor and contribating causes 
for the alarming and continually increasing de- 
pression that agricultural industry Is suffsring, 
the great and overshadowing cause ia "over- 
production." I believe they are In error. I 
believe that no Instance can be cited in which 
the agricultural products of the earth have 
been in excess of the wants and requirements 
of the people of the world. 

We sometimes see a greater production of 
certain articles in a locality than ia required by 
the people of that particular locality and its 
Immediate vicinity, but that surplus is always 
wanted in some other locality less adapted to 
Ita production. To illustrate, the Gulf States 
produce more cotton, the Northwest more corn 
and pork, California more wheat and frait. 
But the Gulf States require a part of the sur- 
plus pork and corn of the Northwest, and the 
bread and fruit and wine of California, and the 
Northwest and California require part of the 
surplus cotton of the Gulf States. 

Civilization the Distributor. 

It is the office of civilization to distribute 
these surplus products, so that they may con- 
tribute to the comfort and happiness of man- 
kind everywhere; and, if properly distributed, 
they oan never be in too great abundance. 
Hence I conclude that very prominent among 
the canses of agricultural depression is the 
methods and practices of those whose business 
it is to transport the surplus products and dis- 
tribute them — methods of discrimination and 
habits of extortion, from which they can only 
be restrained by the strong hand of the law. 

Another efficient cause is the unequal and 
grievous burden that is imposed by law on the 
votaries of agriculture to meet the enormous 
expenses of Government extravagantly and 
wastefully administered. For the correction 
of these and other abuses prejudicial to the 
public welfare, the Grange has, during the past 
few years, been making some feeble efforts, 
almost alwaya too tardily begun. It is im- 
portant that whatever action Is taken 

Should Be Considered and Approved by 
the State Grangre, 

So that it shall represent the consensus of 
opinion of the entire membership. It is also 
important that this formnlation of our " plan 
of campaign " shall be made in advance of the 
politioal primaries and conventions, so that 
they may be expressed in the party platforms 
and the nominees of all parties folly committed 
to them. 

In the past we have agreed upon the meas- 
ures we desired to promote at the sessions of 
the State Grange, held in October prior to the 
convening of the Legislature, and after the con- 
ventions of the political parties have been held, 
their platforms adopted and their candidates 
put in the field. 

Our next Legislature will meet a year from 
next January, and at the coming session of the 
State Grange will be oar last opportunity of 
oonaldering and determining the measures of 
legislation we will advocate in time to procure 
their embodiment in the party platforms. If 

The Orange and Al lance 

Can bring their united influence and efforts to 
bear thus early on the parties, they certainly 
ought to be able to procure some legislation 
that would give some ineasnre of relief to our 
industry. 

Some success has attended our ill-advised 
and tardy efforts in the past. We have at least 
succeeded In discovering and fixing the brand 
of infamy on some of the scoundrels who have 
been false to us and betrayed the trust confided 
tsthem. We have their names enrolled and 
they are condemned to obscurity and Infamy. 
Let us meet at Haywards in October prepared 
to take prompt and decisive action on these 
questions which vitally effect the interest of 
our calling and through it the general pros- 
perity. 

It is true that new questions may arise before 
the meeting of the Legislatnre, but by thorough 
preparation for the promotion of those on 
which we shall have agreed, we will be the 
better prepared to take action effectively on 
new problems that may arise. 

S. T. Coulter. 

Santa Rota. July 10. 1891. 

An Euucatok and Full ov Intekkst. — If 
any P. of H, who do not attend the meet- 
ings of their society regularly, and think 
the society is at a standstill, would jnst let that 
new binder or rake rest, close up the dining 
and sitting room and attend to their social 
duties in the Grange some Saturday afternoon 
when the new question box is taking its rounds, 
they will find something to think about besides 
work. Those questions take many forms, 
range back In olden timaa to Ancient Rime 
and Its founders, to the laying qualities of the 
feathered tribe of the present day. Do not 
expect that every time the Grange meets that 
the Secretary or someone else will sit down 
and write a column for a paper. Bro. A made 
a speech on coal. Sister C tella ua the worma 
are infeating her currants, and what oan be 
done 7 Bro. B spoke on the political affairs 



of the day. Bro. D tells us politics are pro- 
hibited. Snob columns are monotonous to an 
extreme. Those who attend the meeting 
regularly and have something to say, pnt your 
thoughts on paper that they may be clothed in 
yonr own language, and there will not be any 
delay in sending them for publication or any 
aameness in the reading. Bro. Blackwood 
reported on June 13, of the Farmers' Institute, 
its objects and bis hopes in its future interested 
all his hearers to the extent that all who 
possibly oan do so, will attend the meetings of 
that society, to be held the seventh and eight 
of August, in this place. But Bro. B's original 
thoughts on the subject as expressed In the 
Grange, would make a better appearance in a 
newspaper column than the writer's oonatruo- 
tion of them, as also others who have made 
eloquent speeches in our social ball. — Cor. 
Hayward's Journal 

Pleasant Duties for Matrons. 

FroDQ Rhode Island S. Q. Committee on 
Woman's Work In the Grange. 

Worthy Hi.stkrs :— The State Committee on 
Woman's Work in the Grange respectfully 
suggests the following for your earnest consider- 
ation and adoption. 

First. It becomes yonr duty, a« specified by 
the National Committee, directed to ua, to visit 
the sick, and those in dUtrera, if any ; to look 
up absent members, and urge them to attend 
the next Grange meeting ; and to encourage 
those who are not members to join na In oar 
good work. 

Second. The Committee deem it important 
to advance the cause of edncation among our- 
selves and our children. To this end we think 
it advlaable to bold public entertainments to 
raise means to obtiin the best Grange literature 
to be freely circulated among the members ; to 
establish a Grange Library, and thus become 
better acqaalntad with the working .of the 
Grange. By this method the Grange will be 
brought more prominently before the public 
and be the means of drawing others into our 
fold. A portion of the funds we would recom- 
mend be devoted toward the contemplated 
Temple to Cares in Washington. 

Third. We recommend that Flora, Pomona 
and Cores be a committee greet strangers, 
make them feel at home, and introduce them 
to other Patrons, thus cansing a stronger frater- 
nal feeling among the members of the Order. 
It sbonld be their duty to attend to the decora- 
tion of the Hall at all times, with grains, fruits 
and flowers, and especially at the meetings 
under their direction. Let it also be their 
duty to distribute seeds among the children 
and let them exhibit what they produce from 
thecn. This will give the children a greater 
love for the oonntry and inspire in them a 
spirit to excel, besides exerting a refined and 
elevating influence. 

Fourth. It would be well for Patrons to 
have more intereat in the oultare of fruit and 
ornamental trees and flowera around their 
homea, and their lawns kept tidy and thrifty. 
Therefore, we would urge the meetings of Flors, 
Pomona and Ceres to be held in June, Septem- 
ber and November leapectively. These offioera 
should encourage the members to bring aam- 
pies of fruits, grains and flowers, and that 
readings, recitationa, or papers prepared bear- 
ing upon each subject be presented at our 
Grange meetings. Let us each do oar part 
with a will, that we may have a live, working 
Grange, always willing to help one another and 
take upon ourselves every part assigned cheer- 
fully, and may we so work hand in hand that 
the Order will be looked up to as a model of 
moral and social nplifting and enlightenment. 

Fifth. We would encourage grain exhibits 
at the State Fair ; slaters to exhibit work of 
their hands, whether it be with the needle, in 
the canning fruit department, cultivated flow- 
era, collecting of wild flowers, or any other 
work that is best suited to their taste and 
talent. 

Seventh. We favor the observing of all holi- 
days by the Orange in an appropriate manner, 
and open our doors to the children aa often aa 
practicable. The establishing of Javenlle 
Granges we hardly deem advisable in our State, 
aa the young are already taxed to their utter- 
moat in the day and Sunday Scboola, We 
think that the children deaaand rest rather 
than a greater strain upon their mental facul- 
ties, which would naturally come upon them 
by the working of Juvenile Granges. 

i^intA — Finally, Sisters : We would say 
that the time has come when the women of onr 
Order can and should come to the rescue of 
thi?, the only Farmer's organization where 
Woman has an equal voice and interest with 
Man. In every district, let no one lose Inter- 
est in the Grange, but let ua keep onr lights 
horning, and show by our fidelity to its prin- 
ciples that the Grange la the only true National 
Farmers' Organization and Home on the Amer- 
ican continent. 

" Sixth " relating to Nebraska sufferers and 
"Eighth" on "Tf-mple to Cerea" omitted. 

Mrs. 8 K Chapman Chairman ; Mrs. L. 
L. Bartlktt, Mrs M. D. Burdick, Cimmit- 
tee. 



Bro. S. a. Dawson writes : We have had 
aome very interesting Grange meetings since 
the meeting of the State Grange. 



Bru. and Slstbr Perry called this week. 
They satisfactorily viaitsd a number of Grange 
atores in S. F. 



July 18 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAlo f RE8S. 



Farmers' Alliance. 

Alliance Edition. 

Subscribers can receire our Farmers' Alliance Edi- 
tion WITHOUT EXTRA COST, by applying for the same. 
That edition contains several supplemental pages of Alli- 
ance matter, in addition to that which appears on this page 
through all editions. 

[Original.] 

Independence. 

One hundred and fifteen years ago the old 
"Liberty Bell " proolaimed liberty throughout 
the land unto all the Inhabitants thereof, de- 
olarlng that Amerioans had oommenced busi- 
ness on an independent basis, and had dis- 
charged their royal master, George III, and all 
his satellites. It was a brave deed — a deed 
worthy of the bravest and wisest and pregnant 
with more grand results, ennobling possibilities 
and inspirations of hope to all mankind than 
almost any other event in anoient or modern 
history. It introduced a new era of civiliza- 
tion, and every king-cursed slave stood more 
erect and took a fuller breath in the face of 
what America had done. 

America in other lands became a sacred 
word, a word which mothers breathed into 
their children's ears for the talismanio effect it 
had over bad fortune. America became tbe 
Mecca of the new hope which fathers pointed 
to as the land where men no longer " crooked 
the pregnant hinges of the knee where thrift 
may follow fawning." 

" A rough land of earth and stone and tree, 

Where breathes no castled lord or cabined slave. 
Where thoughts and tongues and hands are bold 
and free, 

And/riends will find a welcome, foes a grave, 
And where none kneel, save to heaven they pray, 
Not even then, unless in their own way." 

A fit country In which to rear heroes, a de- 
sirable land for desirable men, who know the 
purpose and value of liberty. 

How can we find fitting words to do those 
revolutionary fathers justice and prove our ap- 
preciation of the priceless legacy bequeathed to 
us T There were 

Giants In Tbose Days, 

Men of daring deeds and wise counsel— George 
Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, 
Thomas Paine, Patrick Henry, John Adams, 
and so on through a long Hat of immortals 
whose names are engraven ineffaceably on the 
memory of a grateful nation. 

80 the Fourth of July comes every year, to 
Imbed more deeply those glorious memories and 
to instill into our children's headp, hearts and 
bands the principles and spirit of 1776, and so 
beget a race who 

" Would shake hands with a king upon the throne 
And think it a kindness to his majesty; 
A stubborn race fearing and flattering none: 
So be they nurtured and so live and die." 

Those Revolutionary Fathers, living in times 
that tried men's souls, were Indeed giants, but 
were not omnipotent nor all-wise. In every 
age of the world when the sons of God have 
met together, Satan has been there also; so 
with them. Colonial necessities, individual 
greed and British rapacity had Introduced a 
system of slavery which the power and wisdom 
of the times could not remove without seri- 
ously endangering the life of the new-born 
nation. At least they so believed. Besides, 
principles in Government were presented for 
settlement which still continue to puzzle 
thoughtful and honest men: the dividing line 
between individual. State and national rights, 
as witness the debates and deliberations f^t the 
Federal Convention. This has, during the 
political history of the United States, kept in 
being two parties, one bated on the sovereignty 
of the individual and the State and the other 
on the supremacy of the nation over all. These 
Ideas, like the great centripetal and centrifugal 
forces of nature, had to contend till the estab- 
llshmeot of an equilibrium, and so, that terri- 
ble upheaval of moral forces gave us the Civil 
War of 1861-1865, which established the 
Union, removed chattel slavery and gave the 
nation a new life and a new history. Again 
had come a time which tried men's souls, again 
giants met in council, and, sure enough, Satan 
was there also. Not even Lincoln — of sancti- 
fied memory — could prevent the satanic con- 
spiracy which he plainly saw and foretold the 
consequences. Again national necessities, in- 
dividual greed and Britiih rapacity inoculated 
the nation with a deadly virus, which may yet 
require another heroic treatment to remedy. 

Limited space forbids going over the etory of 
the Hazard circular, the history of greenback 
currency. United States bonds, the National 
Bmking syitem, and all the various movements 
which have placed the producing and manufac- 
turing classes at the mercy of corporations, 
monopolies, trusts, money and railroad kings, 
confronting as with a more cruel and more 
gigantic slavery than was doomed in 1865, and 
has given us a longer list of grievances of a 
more aggravated charaoter than was ennmer- 
atid in the Declaration of Independence in 
1776. 

A New Declaration of Independence. 

Now comes the time for a new Declaration of 
lodependenoe, Tbe overworked, underpaid 



hirelings and oppressed producers have for 
years been praying — 

"God give us men! A time like this demands 
Clear minds, pure heatts.true faith and ready hands; 
Men who possess opinions and a will; 
Men whom desire for ofFice does not kill; 
Men whom the spoils of office cannot buy; 
Men who have honor; Men who will not lie; 
Tall men, sun-crowned, who live above the fog 
In public duty and private thinking; 
Men who can stand before a demagogue 
And damn his treacherous flatteries without winking; 
For while political tricksters with their worn-out 
creeds. 

Their large professions and their little deeds. 
Wrangle in selfish strife. Lo! Freedom weeps, 
Wrong rules the land and waiting Justice sleeps." 

The men have come I Une installment of the 
prayer was answered in Cincinnati, May 20th. 
Men, hard-fisted, large-knuckled men, with un- 
subdued hair and hearts; rough, clear-headed, 
warm-hearted men, full of facts, figures and 
faith, and earnest purpose to be free from the 
despotism of combined capital and Satanic 
majesty. 

'They met and the spirit of liberty took form 
again and tbe nation will be re-born and a new 
life will be given to Liberty, Justice and Fra- 
ternity. Another installment will be due Feb- 
ruary 22, 1892. Shade of Washington be with 
us on that day! This is the meaning of the 
tidal wave moving over the country, creating 
as it goes the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial 
Union. 

When the ory of the poor and the oppressed 

reaches heaven for redress, even the stones rise 
up as instruments to crush tyranny and restore 
justice; and long-suffering, patient, plodding 
farmers can inaugurate a movement as full of 
events for the world's regeneration as was the 
movement of 1776. And America means to 
herald to the world that she Is again etsablish- 
ing an independent business, to be run inde- 
pendently of monarchial money, that she will 
develop a money of her own, as she Is now free 
from a fetloh superstition, which has been at 
taohed to money bags. So hurrah for the 
good time coming ! 

Go ring the bells and fire the guns, 
And fling the starry banners out; 
.Shout " Freedom " till your lisping ones 
Give back their cradle shout. 



Tulare, July 4, 1891. 



J. W. Mackie 



Yolo Connty Alliance. 

Editors Pres.s: — Yolo Co. Alliance held its 
quarterly meeting at Black's Station, July 7, 
1891, Bro. Peter Roth, President, presiding. 
The Alliance was called to order by the Presi- 
dent, and the several committees appointed, 
when recess was declared, and all were invited 
to the warehouse, where the sisters had spread 
a lunch at which nothing was lacking either 
In quantity or quality. 

After lunch, the Alliance was again called to 
order, being the meeting for the election of 
oflicers for the ensuing term, the President de- 
clared nominations in order, when the follow- 
ing members were placed in nomination and 
elected: Pres., Peter Roth, Black's Station; 
V. Pres., J. S. Rollins, Black's Station; Sec'y, 
F. V. Webb, Grafton; Treas., J. Green, Black's 
Station; D. K,, U. B. Sassaman, Grafton; 
Lect., M. C. Winchester, Grafton; Sergt., 
T. A. Gallop, Dannlgan, and each was duly in- 
stalled. 

Bro. Smith then extended an invitation for 
the next meeting of the County Alliance to be 
held at Brooks under the supervision of "Sem- 
per Fidelis " Alliance, and to be held on the 
first Saturday in October, 1891. Public meet- 
ing to be held the evening before. Mrs, Watt 
Huston of Woodland was then introduced to 
the brothers and sisters, when she extended 
the right of two columns of her paper, free of 
charge, to be devoted to the Alliance, The 
offer was accepted, and Bro.- J. Cunningham of 
Black's Station was appointed editor and Bro. 
M, C. Winchester of Grafton assistant editor. 
Any Alliance news tent to either of these 
brothers, or to Mrs. Watt Huston of Woodland, 
will receive prompt attention. 

We find, at this time of the year (except city 
Alliances), the attendance slim and business 
slack, and as the Farmers' Alliance is composed 
of farmers, and as now is their busiest time, 
we cannot expect members to attend regularly, 
but when harvest is over, let each brother and 
sister work for the interest of our Order. Fra- 
ternally, W. V. F. 

Oraflon, July 11, 1891. 



Prominent Alliance Men at Oakland. 

At Grand Army hall, Thirteenth street, 
Oakland, Friday, July 24th, at 7:30 p. m., the 
Oakland Farmers' Alliance will offer a public 
reception to Alonzo Wardall (from S. Dakota), 
member of the F. A. National Executive Coun- 
cil; Marion Cannon, Pres.; J. L. Gilbert, Lec- 
turer, and other ofBcera of Oal. State Farmers' 
Alliance. Members of the Grange, Citizens' 
Alliance, Nationalists' Club, Federated Trades 
Unions and all citizens are invited to attend 
and learn more of the aims and work of the 
F. A. & I. U, from these able representative 
men. 

Bro. J. W. Mackie was detained at tbe 
County Alliance meeting, as Secretary, until it 
was too late for blm to reach the Mountain 
House to deliver his Fourth of July oration, 
which appears in part In this isaae. 



Alliance County Notes. 

Butte. 

The Connty Alliance convened here, .Tnly 7, 
at 10 o'clock A. M., Vice Pres., George 'Thresher 
in the chair. There were about 40 delegates 
present besides a namber of members who were 
here as visitors. Of the 14 Alliances now in 
operation in the county, nine were represented, 
the absence of about 30 delegates being occa- 
sioned by the busy time of the year which re- 
quires the farmer's abtention In bis wheat field. 
The Alliance was in executive session all day, 
and resolutions were adopted. The following 
officers were elected and installed for the en- 
suing term: Pres., Geo. Thresher; V. P., S. 
J. Nirkirk; Sec'y, James Myers; Treas., Daniel 
Sfcreeter; Leo., C. W. Thresher; Chap., Mrs. 
Geo, D. Wickman; Steward, Chas. P. Heffner; 
D. K., A. W. Glover; Aes't D, K., Mrs. A. 
M. Woodruff; Sergeant-at-Arms, J. T. Palmer: 
County Business Agent, Geo. D. Wickman. 
The following committees were appointed: On 
Finance, G. M. Lewis, N. B. Scott and Mrs. 
C. W. Thresher; Good of the Order, Mrs. C. P. 
Hefner; Mrs. A, M. Woodruff, Mrs. D. Abbey; 
Executive, Geo. Thresher, S. J, Nikirk, Jas. 
Myers, Daniel Streeter and Geo. D. Wickman. 
It was decided to hold the October meeting at 
Moore's Station. — Biggt Argua. 

Palermo Alliance held its regular bi-monthiy 
meeting July 6th. An application for member- 
ship was made by a lady, which was very 
pleasing to the members owing to the fact that 
they are not as plentiful among our ranke as 
might be desired, Tho regular business being 
concluded, the installation of the newly elected 
ofScers took place, which was made interesting 
by the reading of the various charges. The 
retiring officers deserve great credit ifor the 
manner in which they have conducted the 
meetings and have striven to bring our Alli- 
ance to the front. We hope to say the same of 
those entering npon their new datie* when they 
step down, — Progrtis. 

Oranse. 

The County Alliance held its regular annual 
meeting July 8l)h. A full representation of all 
the Sub Alliances was present, and a most en- 
thusiastio feeling prevailed. The State Presi- 
dent, Marion' Cannon of Ventura, State Lect- 
urer J. L Gilbert, and Executive Committee- 
men E. M, Wardell and G. L. Ensign were 
present. Tbe following officers were then in- 
stalled for the ensuing year. State President 
Cannon officiating : Henri F. Gardner, Presi- 
dent; Mrs. S. K. Bill, V, P.; G. L. Daan, 
Sec'y; Simpson Edwards, Treasurer; Dr. W. 
B. Head, Lecturer; Mrs. J. P. Leslie, Chaplain; 
F. G. Adams, Steward; F. E, Grover, Door- 
keeper; Sltton, Asst. Doorkeeper; C. T. 

Robinson, Sergeant-at-Arms; J, Wiley Harris, 
Business Agent; Members of the Executive 
Committee, H. W. Young, J. Willits, G. W. 

Hollister, 0. W, Bill, King. The report 

of the Standing Committee, showing the prog- 
ress from the organization of the first Alliance 
last November to the 15 Sub Alliances, with 
1121 members, was received with applause. 
President Gannon and Lecturer Gilbert, in neat 
and well-turned speeches, explained the ob- 
jects and requirements of the Order. The 
meeting then adjourned, after tendering unani- 
mously a vote of thanks to Prof. Fairweather 
and his charming wife for the music and enter- 
tainment furnished. The next meeting will be 
held on the first Saturday in October, at Neill's 
ball. — Santa Ana Blade. 

San Dieso. 

The San Diego Co. Alliance was a well at- 
tended and harmonious gathering. The busi- 
ness was transacted in an orderly and business 
like manner, and with equally as great regard 
for parllamentry usages as would be observed 
in an assemblage of lawyers or bankers. No 
estimate of the work done or the good accom 
plished can be gathered from the published 
proceedings. A deep seated determination 
exists, and this has been strengthend and in 
tensified, that the government of this county 
shall be reformed, and less of bribery and 
corruption must exist in the future in our 
county. State and national governments 
Plowshare and Pruning Booh. 

The County Alliance assembled In Eacondido, 
Tuesday, July 7, 1891. Wm. Hanslam of Win. 
Chester presided throughout Tuesday, with E. 
L. Richards and W, W. Horine as Secretaries. 
The 21 Alliances of the county were repre- 
sented. Nearly all of Tuesday was consumed 
in organizing and electing officers. The follow- 
ing win serve for the ensuing year : J. H. 
Sherrard, Menifee, President; A. A. Bynon, 
Winchester, V. P.; A. S. Dixon, Orange Glen, 
Secretary; R. B, Borden, Richland, Treasurer; 
Annie F. Smith, Alta, County Lecturer; Wm. 
Justice, Richland, Assistant Co. Lecturer; Ex- 
ecutive Committee for the ensuing year : B. 

F. Dixon, Eaoondldo; J. H. Breedlove, Valley 
Center; A. M. Striplin, Valley Center; Henry 
Turner, Escondldo, and W. Horine, Escon- 
dido. An open session was held in the 
in the evening and a large audience was in at- 
tendance. Pastor C, B. Carlisle, on invitation, 
delivered an address, which was received with 
great favor. — Escondido Times, 

Sonoma. 

The first annual meeting of the County Alli- 
ance was held July Ist in Santa Rosa. A good 
representation was present, and mnch interest 
was manifested. After the regular order of 
business the following offiuers for the ensuing 
year were elected and Installed : President, 

G. W. Whltaker; Vice-President, C. 8. Gibson, 



of Petaluma; Secretary, C, E, Sarryhne, Green 
Valley; Assistant Sec'y, E. Clark, Bennett 
Valley; Treasurer, J. E. Jewett, Healdsburg; 
Chaplain, Mrs. Newman; Lecturer, Henry 
Schwobeda, Petaluma; Steward, Miss E. S. 
Osbom; Doorkeeper, Henry Wymore; Asst. 
Doorkeeper, E. M. Hudson; Sergeant-at- 
Arms, Mr. Hall; Oonnty Business Agent, J. 
Roberts. No other business nature was trans- 
acted. The Alliance adjourned, to meet in 
Sinta Rosa on the first Tuesday in October. — 
Imjirint. 

Tulare. 

Another meeting of the Armona Alliance 
Packing Oompany was held July 6th, and it 
was attended by at least 100 members of the 
Armona and Lucerne Alliances. By-laws for 
the government of the company were adopted, 
and more will be submitted at the next meet- 
ing. The temporary officers were elected to 
serve until the next general election, as fol- 
lows: C. M. Blowers, John Worswlok, Samuel 
Walker, J. O. Goar, L. H. Hitchcock, S. H. 
Stickles and Nes. Hanson. — Hanford Journal. 

Farm Fiew says: The failure of Mr. Mackie to 
be present at Mountain Home on the Fourth, 
was due to the fact that being secretary of the 
County Alliance which did not close its work 
at Viealia till the morning of the 2nd, he was 
unable to take the stage from Porterville in 
time to arrive there on the 3rd. At our re- 
quest he gave us an epitome of the written 
address he had prepared, and we hope to be 
able to give it space in onr next issue. 

The Hanford Advocate says: The selection 
of Cipt, Merritt of Tulare for County Alliance 
President was a particularly fitting one. He is 
a representative farmer of the most energetic 
and conservative class; a man of superior abil- 
ity and of unblemished character, and one 
eminently popular with all classes. He entered 
the Federal army when only a boy, and rose to 
the rank of oaptaln before the close of the war. 
A successful soldier and prosperous farmer, he 
is eminently qualified for a successful leader in 
this movement in the interest of the industrial 
classes. 

Yolo. 

July 8th the Farmers' Co. Alliance held an 
enthnelaetio meeting at Blacks. The day was 
spent in the business of the Order. Reports 
showed the Order to be increasing rapidly 
among the agriculturists. After a short recess, 
the meeting adjourned to a neighboring ware- 
bonse, where, together with their friends, the 
farmers partook of a banquet. One of those 
present spoke of the occasion as one long to bs 
remembered. 

Contra Costa Farmers' Alliance. 

The County Alliance of Contra Costa county 
met at Walnut Creek on Thursday. July 2d. 
Delegates from 7 sub- Alliances were present, viz: 
Byron, Antioch, Concord, Clayton, Walnut 
Creek, Danville and Tassajara. The attendence 
was good, and the session very busy and en- 
thusiastic. A splendid banquet was prepared 
for the delegates by the citizens of Walnut 
Creek to which they were escorted by a band 
of music. Officers for the ensuing year were 
elected as follows: Pres. R. O. Baldwin of 
Danville; Vice-Pres. C. Sharp of Walnut Creek; 
Sec H. C. Whetmore of Clayton; Treas. Aaron 
Simuels of Ooncord; Chap. Rev. E. D. Hale of 
Clayton; Lect. August Hemme of Alamo; Asst. 
Lect. J. A. Bayley of Ooncord; Business Agent, 
C. J. Preston of Byron; Stew. Mark ElUot of 
Tisoajara; Serg, M. M. Tousey of Antioch; D. 
K. John Gardner; Asst, D. K. J. L. Coats of 
Taesajara. 

J. M, Moore, the State Business Agent, waa 
present, as was also Burdette Cornell, a State 
organizer. A large increase of members was 
reported, some of the district Alliances having 
nearly doubled their membership within the 
last few months. The institution bids fair to 
become popular with the farmers, who are be- 
ginning to think for themselves and to inquire 
why they should feed and clothe the rest ot the 
world, with so little profit to themselves. 
Agriculture is the principal basis of the wealth 
of the country. All kinds of business depend 
upon it. If crops are good all kinds of business 
flourishes. If they are poor business suffers and 
hard times prevail. Why should not farmers 
combine for self protection against those who 
live by fleecing them out of the profits of their 
labot? Co-operation among farmers is a neoces- 
sity of tbe times, and if it can be effected, will 
prove highly beneficial to the farming interests. 
The want of it has left the farmer at the mercy 
of every class. Those who buy of him set their 
own price upon his products. Those who sell 
to him do the same thing. By combining per- 
haps he may have some voice in the matter. — 
Gazette. 



Farmers' Alliance Protest. 

The Alameda County Farmers' Alliance re- 
cently recommended the following form of letter 
to be adopted, signed and forwarded by each 
Sub Alliance : 

Richard Grey, Esq., Gen. Freight Agent S. P. 
R. R. Co., San Francisco— TiKAV. Sir : We, the 

undersigned, shippers from Station, on your 

line, respectfully and earnestly protest against the 
rough handling on return of empty fruit boxes by 
your trainmen. 

We trust that you will prevent this; wanton de- 
struction of our property in the future. 



50 



f ACIFie I^URAId f ress. 



[July 18, 1891 




Our Flag. 

( Written for the celebration at Gilroy, July 4, and tar- 
nished for publxition to Rural PRBSsby the writer, 
Mrs. S. H Drtdbs.] 
All over this broad land of ours 
Our flig floats on the breeze, 
From fair Atlantic's eastern shores 

To our bright sunset seas. 
Where the dark pine its feathered crest 

Spreads o'er a land of snow. 
To where the sunny south winds rest 
On bowers where roses grqw. 

Over our ships white sails afloat 

Our Hag spreads forth a charm, 
OVr the great world of waters, safe 

No treacherous foe can harm. 
To all the world our flag is known, 

its folds are flung to every breeze 
In every clime, in every zone, 

Over all lands and seas. 

What is the story of our flag 

We love so fond and true. 
What of its stars of light which dwell 

Upon its field of blue. 
It tells our sisterhood of States 

Upon our nation's sky 
Is knit by bands of white and red 

Into a lasting holy tie. 

An embl' m is the field of blue 

To which the stars are given, 
T'is that our nation's heart be true 

As yon blue dome of heaven. 
Then il its heart be honor's trust, 

Its emblematic type 
Must ever be white-souled and pure, 

As each alternate stripe. 

As each alternate stripe is red 

It tells of love's pure flame, 
As heart to heart, each State is bound 

By 1 jve's united name. 
United States I how much is said 

When e'er we breath that name ! 
It links the present with the past 

By memory's golden chain. 

May no injustice or deep wrong 

K'er sully that fair name. 
And cause this emblem of the truth. 

To droop its folds, with shame. 
Never may fratricidil war 

Or foreign foes invade; 
O ! never may this flag of ours 

On soldier's bier be laid I 

Long may each schoolhouse bear this flag 

And this grand truth be given 
.To every one, all equal rights 

Is the free gift of Heaven. 
B'lt if by might, or power, or wrong. 

This right should be withheld. 
Our flag assailed, our nation's life 

Stands from that hour imperiled. 

No church of State, or iron creed 

Can rest beneath its fold; 
Freedom of thought, freedom of speech. 

Can ne'er be bought or sold. 
No purse proud citizen shall scorn 

Our nation's sons of toil. 
Her workshops, are her palaces 

Her farms, her vaults of gold. 

Egypt and Rome, the Isles of Greece, 

Were prouder far than we 
But they are gone. Was it because 

Their people were not free? 
No stars and stripes, of love and truth 

Hung in their nation's sky; 
Sin and corruption was their doom 

In buriiddust they lie. 

Wave on! Wave on! thou glorious flag! 

Type of the brave and free. 
M >y never stain of grief or wrong 

Tarnish thy purity. 
Oh! dear old flag! may every star 

Remain as pure and true. 
As those which which we behold to-day 

Upon thy field of blue. 



Skaggatt's Dorrance. 

[Written for the Rcral Pbiss by Alick Ki.nosburt 

COOLKV. ] 

The times were very hard for the poor peo- 
ple, and many a cottage was wlthoat its fire, 
and its cupboard was nigh to bare. The men 
looked donr and sullen, and the women sad and 
worritted, for the measters were cutting down 
the wages, and there was no kenning where it 
would stop. The rich were getting richer, and 
and the poor poorer, till some were being ut- 
terly crushed into the dirt. The big brewery 
that gave employment to so many was the 
worst of all, for the measter was old, and hard, 
and cared nothing for the welfare of his men, 
and they paid him back with bitter dislike, and 
sullen looks. 

Little Dorranoe came every day to the great 
rambling old brewey and brought her feytbet's 
dinner. She was a sweet and gentle lass, and 
loved her rough old feyther dearly. 

The measter's young son and she had been 
great fri-'nds, but as they both grew older, she 
had shrunk from the pinch of the chin, and 
blushed when be patted her bead, so they had 
drifted apart, and now she looked upon him as 
being as unapproachable as a young god, more 



beautiful to her than Apollo to his worthlpers, 
and more wise and grand than Jupiter himself. 

There was some trouble brewing among the 
men, she felt certain, for her feyther was un- 
usually sullen and morose, swearing fearfully, 
and muttering to himself; and he bad scarcely 
a word for her when she crept to his side. 

" What be it, feyther; is it 'oos mother's so 
ill ?" she apked one day. 

" Ay 1 Darry ! The measter 'nd let us all 
die like dogs afore he'd spend a farding on 
these kennels o' huts. Thy mother oan't get 
well, wi' the fever under her, and over her, 
and a' about, and wl' the wages, it, be oat, an' 
out, an' cut 1" 

" Why, feyther, dinnot the measter want us 
to live?" 

"What do he care! dom him t When one 
dies, there be a dozen to tak his place." 

" Bat, feyther, thee's been wl' him so many 
years, and worked so hard. Is it na how be 
gets his money, by the men's work?" 

Her father smiled grimly; how often be had 
had the same thought, if no man worked for 
another there would be no rich men to lord it 
over them and keep them always struggling 
for life and health, as if God intended these 
blessings only for the wealthy, and there would 
be no poor. Ah, God ! but that would be hap- 
piness I 

A moaning voice came from the cottage. 

" Djrrance, dear, gi' me a mug o' water." 

Dorrance hastily left the seat where they had 
been talking; it was of her own contriving, out 
of bits of refuse boards, and in summer the 
bright nasturtiums bowered it and olambered 
half over the poor hut, giving It a plctaresque 
appearance in spite of its poverty; but now the 
vines hung sere and dead, and made it still 
more desolate. 

"It does na taste well, Dorranoe, ii there na 
bit o' tea." 

"No, mother, but to-night feyther gets bis 
wages, an' I'll have thee a nice dinner for Sun- 
day, an' sammat extra, deary, to make ye well 
again." 

The great bell rang, and old Skaggatt, with 
a muttered ouree, hurried off to bis work again, 
with only a half.fiUed stomach, thus more than 
ready for rebellion. 

Night oame, and Dorrance ran to meet her 
feyther, but he looked at her almost savagely. 

" Feyther, dear, let us get the things for tea, 
summat good'll make thee merrier." 

"Ay las", there be no snpper this night, the 
measter said we'll have to bide a day or two, 
till he goes up to Lonnnn, as the meastress had 
ginged to France, an' when I told him thy 
mother wur sick, an' we needed the bit o' 
money, he said, *' What do'ee know of poverty? 
Your wife and daughter does na run cff to 
France. Ye should save. Ye have no big 
house, an' swarm o' hungry seivints to feed. 
Ye should be happy." "And I measter?" I 
said "my missus be ill from the wretched 
huts ye gi' us, and canna work to help, an' we 
men have na enough to keep ur, let be the 
savin'". He turned pale. *' Ungrateful ours ! 
Go now and come back wl' a deoentar tongue, 
or don't come back at all ! 

" Oh feyther ! Bat how be it he has snch a 
bonnie son ? '' 

', Ah! " and the feyther looked at her blaok 
and threatening. "What be he to thee? 
Brood o' the devil, never let me catch thee 
even lookln' at him I " 

Dorrance shrank back frightened. What 
could he have done to make her feyther hate 
him so? and what should they do for some- 
thing to est, snd something nice for the sick 
mother ? If the yonng measter only knew how 
they needed the bit of money, she felt certain 
he would pay her feyther, but she knew her 
feyther would be angry, If she asked him, and 
she, too, was ashamed. Then she thought of 
the only thing of value she possessed, a little 
trinket yonng mea^tar Robert had given her 
on her birthday many years ago. Her feyther 
and mother had known but had forgotten it, 
as she was then such a child; yes, she would 
pawn it till better times. 

There was an old woman in the village who 
lent money on the sly; Dorranoe went to her. 

"What hast got, deary?" Eh I a pretty 
trinket — bras*? " 

Dorranoe locked offended. "No granny 
that'd the yellow gold." 

" Didst steal it? " and the old eyes sparkled. 

"No, the young ma — but do ye want it, or 
nawt? " 

"Well, well, well, don't 'ee be in sioh a 
worritt. How many pennies do 'ee want ? " 

" Shillln's, granny, or I'll gang elsewhere." 

"Dost feyther knaw thou'et got it? ". 

" Ay 1 Now be quick, as mother's III." 

" Well, if feyther knaws," and she seemed 
disappointed, " here be two shillln' " 

" I want more nor it." 

"More? Three then." 

" Six or nothing," said Dorrance decidedly. 

The old woman sighed. " Ye want to rob 
me," but as Dorrance made a motion to go, she 
oonnted out the money, grumbling all the 
time, 

" Now gl' me a paper — I'll get it back some 
day," said Dorrance, and in a moment she was 
gone. And now for something for the mother 
— a white, crisp loaf, a bit of tea and sugar, 
and an orange for her poor hot mouth. She 
did not forget the Sunday dinner, a neck of 
mutton and potatoes for a stew, and a bag of 
meal for the daily porridge. " Yep, and feyther 
shall have bis supper, too," and she smiled as 
she bought a " pennuth o' herrings"; these with 
an onion from the string at home would make 
her ' ' dear dad " happier, 



" Where did'st get them, laH T " he aaked, 
as she laid the treasures on the table. 

" Oh, I gave the granny some of my stuff to 
tike care of for awhile." 

"Dom the measter! But hurry the plates 
on lass, I be main hungry." 

Dorrance threw some bits of wood she had 
got from the grocer's on the smoldering fire, 
and soon the kettle was singing merrily. The 
sound seemed to raise all their spirits. 

" Ah, Dorrance' I knaw thou hast the bit o' 
tea." 

" Yes, and summat nice besides." Soon the 
aroma of toast filled the room, and the Invalid 
sat up. 

" Ah I the very soent makes me better. 
What ! batter, too ? " It was a pat as big as the 
tops of two fingers. 

"Yes, wi' the grocer's compliments," and 
Dorrance smiled as she nsed the unusual word. 
She sliced an onion, covered it with vinegar, 
then called: "Raady feyther, and here's a 
cup o' tea for thee, an' a slice o' mother's nice, 
white bread, for thee didn't get but half a din- 
ner." 

A good meal to the poorest of people and 
others, too, brings temporary happiness, and 
to know there is a still better one for the mor- 
row, is j')y indeed. Dorrance had not forgotten 
the medicine for her mother, so when the next 
day came she was itrengthened enough to sit 
up In her Sunday clothes. Ah, this was a 
blight day, for the money being Dorrance's, 
she had added dumplings to the stew, and 
bought a bunch of bright green parsley. Put- 
ting some of it Into her little vase — another 
present from Maitar Robert — she said: 

"See, mother, here be a nosegay for thee, a 
useful one as well," Then twisting the pink 
paper that bad wrapped the tea into a rose or 
two, she added them and mother smiled, 

"Ay, Dorrance, ye brighten everything ye 
touch." 

The hard earth floor was swept clean, and 
mother's bed was made, and the ladder that 
led to Dorrance's poor little room, was put 
against the wall, for It was the Sibbath, and 
mother and daughter both feared Gid, though 
ihe feyther said: " It be a queer God that lets 
the workers suSsr and tho idlers thrive," so 
there was no churoh-golng — feyther would not 
hear to that. 

Monday the men were sullen and muttering, 
for they had not all been so fortunate as old 
Skaggatt, and many of them had had but rcant 
Sunday cheer, At the noon hour whin Dor- 
rance brought her feytber's dinner, she noticed 
the men were talking together secret like, and 
hushed when she oame near. The next day it 
was the same, and the feyther appeared to be 
the leader. 

"D)m the measter, and the young »nob too!" 
she heard him say. Then she was frightened — 
did they mean young measter Robert barm? 
He often came to write in the brewery book*, 
but bad little to say to the men, as bis father 
had forbidden it, 

"If you are familiar with them Robert, I'll 
get scant work for all the money I give the 
charlsl" and R ^bert, who knew how hard his 
father was, felt sorry. 

Every day the whispers grew more secret, 
and the men frowned, when Dorrance oame 
near. 

"I wish yon lass 'ad bide away," said -old 
Jack Hadly. 

''What, Skaggatt's Dorrance? Ob, she be 
wi' us, she loikes her old dad so." 

"Ay, but she loikes the measter's yonng son 
batter, ha I ha ! ha ! " 

"Na, she be wiser nor that, an' all laugh at 
the young mon's cracked crown, because 'twere 
their greed that makes her mother so ill. My 
lass 'ud laugh because of the foine lady sister, 
for she be jealous of a' her foine claes, ha I ha !" 

"Skaggatt be main ugly too, an' hates 'em 
all. Tbe young measter '11 no be so sprang, 
when he ha done wi' him." 

Now Indeed she was terrified. What shonld 
she do? Speak to her feyther? That would 
only make him worse. Warn Robert? Her 
fayther would nigh kill her, for all bis love, if 
she betrayed them. No, she would watch and 
guard him her own self. So she loitered 
about the brewery every moment she oould 
spare from her mother's side. 

" What d'ye want here, lass?" her feyther 
would often say. 

"To be near thee, feyther." 

"Nay bide at hame wi' mother, lass, we men 
be busy." 

The old measter oame back from London 
when the week was nearly gone, and then the 
word went round that wages were to be out 
again. 

" Lunnun chaps dunnut get so much as we," 
the old niggart says, " an' there baint a mon 
of us that's had a well tilled belly for mony a 
day. The Lunnuners may starve if they be 
bo willln', but we of Wyndesbire'll fight mang 
sprang," so said old Skaggatt; and all the men 
said : 

"Ay, ay !" 

"We'll lay in a big supply o' barley, eh, 

men ? " 

"Ay, ay! 'rah for Skaggatt I We'll no 
starve wi' plenty o' barley 1" 

"An' a few keg o' beer, eh men ?" 

"Ay, ay 1" and they guffawed so loudly that 
Skaggatt said : " Scatter now, but be ready 
for summat grand !" 

At last the whispers and threats reached the 
messter'a ears. 

"I'll bring the ours to their senses 1 " be 
said, " Robert, tell them that to-night tbe 



work stops, and for all of them there will be a 
lone, long lockout." 

When the men were informed of the meas- 
ter's orders, they were wild and twore 
vengeance. 

" Ay, ay, we'll gl' the builders a job " said 
old Skaggatt, "and then—" but the whispers 
were so low that the listening Dorrance could 
catch but one word, and that froze her young 
blood, so she hnrried home to get all In readi- 
ness to ataal away and pass the night in the 
grim old brewery. 

She was still more tender to the sick mother, 
and boiled tbe porridge extra long and beat it 
extra fine. She sought to soften her grim old 
feyther through his stomach. 

When he came in, she leaned over his chair 
and kissed bis cheek. 

" What Is it, lass ?" 

"Stay at home to night, feyther. It is oold 
and gloomy, an' — I'll make thee a nice mug o' 
hot grog, an' sing thee all my songs," 

He dattad a quick glance at her, but she did 
not quail, 

" How didst knaw I wur goin' away ?" 

" I — I did not want thee to — so will mak 
it good at hame," 

" I ha' bueiness to-night away, so gang to 
bed wi' thy mother, an' I'll put thy ladder out 
sn' get me in thy winder, and sleep up there — 
BO — 80 nawt to disturb thy sick mother." 

She dared not argue more, for fear of betray- 
ing what she knew. 

" What be it, dear?" asked the mother. 

"Ob, don't ee bother thy sick head, I'll 
ooom In quiet." 

How oould she get away T 

"Feyther, my — my head be aching so. Lat 
me have my own room. I'll leave the latch 
string out. Ye'Il na wake either of us, if ye 
but try." 

"Well, If thy head aches so. It may be 
best," and beseemed glad, for now he felt sure 
she did not suspect, and would not follow him. 

"My head be just a ding-donging ! I'll go 
up now, Good night, mother. I'll be down 
after my first nap, for tbe sleep'U make it well, 
bat dinna call me, feyther, for that'll make it 
worse. I'll take my ladder up to make it 
sure.'' She kisied him, then tying a towel 
about her head, she mounted into her garret, 
and drew the ladder np after her. 

Dorrance sat still for awhile, planning what 
to do. Then she arose, and pinning a shawl 
over her head and shoulders, the tied the towel 
to the ladder, and lowered it from the little 
window at tbe farther end, then she cantiously 
followed, holding on to the window-sill, and 
stretching her full length before her foot could 
touch the ladder, then she quickly reached the 
ground, and hiding the ladder, she sped like a 
deer toward the old brewery, but she met no 
one, as it was too early for the men to begin 
their nefarious work. Oa she sped through the 
darkness and piercing wind, stopping abruptly 
at some black shadow, then on again. 

There was a faint light in the watohman's 
box, and the little half-door leading into the 
brewery was ajar; she stole in quickly, and hid 
in tbe empty barrel that she had often ten- 
anted of late, to learn the plot that might 
mean death to the man she loved — now she bid 
in it to save him. All was quiet save once 
when the watchman made his rounds. * Bow 
long the time seemed I Perhaps after all they 
had thought better and would stay at home. It 
was so hard to listen and watch in the dark- 
ness and silence; so, waiting, she dropped into 
a dczs. 

She awoke with a start; the counting-room, 
or o£Sce, was aglow with light; for a moment 
she thought it was on fire, but no, there was 
young Measter Robert writing in tbe bonks. 
She could see him well, for most of the office 
was made of glass. She was just about to 
oome from her hiding place, when several dark 
figures crept by her, stooping almost to the 
ground. She raised her head and watched 
them; they made straight for the office. She 
did not shriek — what could the poor yonng 
measter do against three brutal men ? She 
climbed out of the barrel to follow them — she 
would defend him with her life. If necessary — 
when a bright light shot ap from another part 
of the brewery and for a moment distracted 
her attention. 

When she turned, the woodwork of the 
office was in flames. Oae of the wretches had 
locked the door, and Robert was shaking it 
furioasly. She rushed to unlock It, bat the 
key was gone ! 

" Help ! help I " be cried. 

Dorrence seizad a beer- keg, and struck the 
door with superhuman strength, bom of love 
and fear; it yielded, and she shrank back, into 
tbe darkness. The brewery was now on fire in 
a doz^n diffarent places. In a moment young 
Robert was up the ladder, and on to the plat- 
form near the big vats, where the bell-rope 
hung. As he raised his hand to pull it, some 
one rushed from his hiding-place, and poshed 
him headlong into tbe poisonous empty vat, 
sprang from tbe platform snd was gone I 

O God t it was her loved feyther ! She did 
not shriek or faint, but with a low moan, she 
knelt and looked down, down into the black- 
ness of the vat; then like a fltsb came tbe 
thought of how to save him, that she had 
learned from her feyther. Seizing one of tbe 
buckets of water, several of which always 
etocd on the platform, she dashed it scatter- 
ingly down into the vat, then another and an- 
other. Then grasping the bell-rope, she palled 
it bard and fast. 

Out into tbe still air it rang, furious and be- 



July 18, 1891.] 



f ACIFie f^URAlo PRESS, 



b 



aeeobiog, calling for help as plainly as a human 
voice 1 

"0 feyther, feyther I thoa ehalt not be a 
mnraerer 1 Will na one come ! " 

Again the bell rang loader and faster, till 
her hands were blistered, and she nigh falling 
with exhanstion. 

The brewery was as light as day, but aa yet 
the smoke was not so great as to stifle her. 

" O God 1 he will die ! Measter Robert, 
forgive him, he were mad; he thonght I loved 
thee, and so I do, so I do I Oh, live 1 live I" 

Now the doors were being beaten In, and 
those not in the plot, rushed to her. 

"Qaick, quick" she cried. "The young 
meabter's in the vat I Some one gang down or 
he will diet" 

Bat no one offered to go. 

"For the love o' God, will na somebody, save 
the poor young measter who ne'er did ony o' ua 
harm?" 

"It be death, lass to gang down." 

"Na, nal I've scattered water, an' the air 
be a little fresh." Still no one volunteered to 
go. "Lend me thy knife ladl" and quickly she 
was up the cleets that led to the bell— Catting 
the rope, and tying it aronnd her body under 
her arms, she said: 

"Hold It, ladsl" And before any one could 
stop her, she had disappeared down the vat. 
The flames were coming nearer — the men were 
dazed and speechless. 

"Pull, quiokl" came in faint tones from the 
vat. And they pulled with a will. As their 
heads appeared, they stooped and drew them 
up, Dorranoe had her apron around him, and 
held the hem in her teeth. Her arms were 
clasping bis body with fingers Interlaced, but 
they were both Insensible. 

Qaiokly the men carried them into the air; 
somebody had gone for the old measter, and 
now he came, wringing his bands and crying. 

"Oh my son I my boy 1— Oh! my brewery !— 
Is he dead? Qaick for the doctor 1 Oh! it will 
all be lost I Sae! see, the flames! What's that 
girl here f 01? Take her away ! " 

Bat they told him she had saved his son, and 
they could not pull her hands apart. 

Soon the doctor came, and after loosening 
Robert's cravat and dashing them both with 
water, ordered them removed to the nearest 
bonse — and that was Sksggatt's. 

At their knock, old Skaggatt cried, " Who 
be there?" 

"Open quickly," said the doctor. 

White and trembling, and In his night 
clothes, Skaggatt opened the door. 

" What be it, measter, doctor ? Oh, my 
lass and the young measter ! God ! men, what 
do it mean?" 

" The brewery be afire," the men cried 
altogether, " and the young measter was in the 
vat, and thy lass — " but the doctor drove them 
oot and shut the door. 

For days they hovered between life and 
death, but Dorranoe recovered first, having in- 
haled lees of the deadly gas. What a tender 
norse she was ! and never a cross word or ac- 
cusing look at her old feyther, who crouched, 
white and frightened, at her side all day long. 

" The doctor says he'll live, feyther — the 
poor young measter; now rouse thee and tend 
to mother — poor dearie, she ha' been so 
patient." 

The old measter looked ten years older, 
broken and almost childish. Soon as young 
R}bert was able, the measter took him to 
London and never retarned to Wydenshire, and 
the brewery was left a ruin for yearp, and never 
rebuilt. 

After a few mouths had gone, and everything 
in nature was beautiful, even Skaggatt's old 
nasturtium covered cottage, the young measter 
knocked at the door. 

" I have come for Uorrance," be said. " She 
saved my life, and now she shall be my w:fe — 
if — if — you are willing." 

For answer old Skaggatt placed her hand in 
that of Robert, as he whispered to her : 

"Dorranoe, does he knaw ?" 

But she shook her head, and then her mother 
blessed them. They live in the great house, 
and through her icfluence cottages were re- 
built, gardens planted and works were 
established, thst changed the miserable little 
place irto a thriving village, and everyone 
blessed Skaggatt's Dorranoe. 



Chaff. 

The oorset is a paradox. It comes to stay; 
and yet goes to waist. 

After a man has made a certain amount of 
money bis neighbors begin to hear he had an- 
cestors. 

" Well, I did'nt miss that one, at all 
events." "No, air, they will fly Into It some- 
times." 

Sir Isaac Newton's nephew, a clergyman, al- 
ways refused a fee when he married a couple, 
saying — "Go your way, poor wretches, I have 
done you mischief enough already." 

"Now, why is It, Biddy, that we Irish are 
always said to be paying compliments ?" "Faix, 
bekaae an' its a dale ban'aomer to say a nate 
thing than to spake the truth.', 

"Therb, now, Mr. Moss! There's a picture 
tor yer. Why ht's regular downright built 
for yer, that little 'orse is. Suit yer to a T — 
and dirt cheap at a hundred and twenty 
guineas!" "Exactly, Mr. Isaacs. Knock off 
the hnndred, and he's mine." 



^OUJMG J!{0LKS' QoiflUJVIN. 



Caution. 

"The boneless tongue, so small and weak, 
Can crush and kill," declared the Greek. 

"The tongue destroys a greater horde," 
The Turk asserts, " than does the sword." 

" A Persian Proverb wisely saith: 
" A lengthy tongue an early death." 

Or sometimes takes this form instead: 

" Don't let your tongue cut off your head." 

" The tongue can speak a word whose speed," 
Say the Chinese, " outstrips the steed." 

While Arab sages this impart: 

" The tongue's great storehouse is the heart." 

From Hebrew wit the maxim sprung: 

" Though feet should slip, ne'er let the tongue." 

The sacred writer crowns the whole: 

" Who keeps his tongue doth keep his soul.'' 



Emmy's Gingerbread. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Mart E. Bamford.] 
The new next-door neighbor gave Emmy 
some gingerbread. Emmy thought the woman 
was very polite because she said "Excuse my 
fingers " when she gave her the gingerbread. 
Emmy never had heard any one say that be- 
fore. The woman said it because at the time 
she had no plate to hand Emmy the ginger- 
bread on. 

Emmy sat down on the front steps and ate 
part of the gingerbread, and gave Tim a little. 
Tim was Emmy's oat, Hfs other name was 
Wiggins, but no one called him both at once. 
It was just Tim or else Wiggins. 

The gingerbread was very good, bat Emmy 
was thinking about Cackles. Cackles was the 
speckled hen that had been sitting for three 
whole weeks on nothing but a little empty tin 
yeast-powder can. You would not think that 
a hen would expect a chicken to came out of a 
hollow tin can with a hole In one end, would 
you ? But Cackles did expect It, and Emmy 
was sorry for Cackles. It must be tiresome to 
sit on a tin can for three weeks. 

" I'll give her a little gingerbread," said 
Emmy. 

She ran to the shed, where Cackles was down 
in a dark corner. Emmy broke off some of the 
gingerbread and pat it by Caokleo' uest. The 
hen pecked at her crossly and scolded a little, 
but pretty soon began to eat the gingerbread, 
Outside in the hen -yard were the other hens — 
Ready and Five Toes and Old Plym and Yonng 
Piym and Gray-neok. Sometimes Emmy's 
mother said that she was going to kill one of 
the hens for dinner, but Emmy's father always 
said that he felt too well acquainted with the 
hens to eat any of them, so Ready and Five 
Toes and Old Plym and Young Plym and 
Gray-neck lived on, and Emmy's mother 
bought a sack of cabbage for them every week. 
Emmy put another bit of the gingerbread 
through the laths for the five hens, and they 
ate it very qnickly. 

There was a little gingerbread left. Emmy 
looked at it. She would have liked to have 
given it to her grandmother, who was in the 
bonse, but Emmy remembered that grandma 
did not eat gingerbread. Emmy was sorry for 
grandma, because her eyes were bad and she 
had to sit still almost all the time, and she said 
that the days were "te-jus." Emmy did not 
know exactly what "te-jas" meant, but she 
thought it must be tiresome. 

"I'll play doctor," said Emmy. 

She rolled the gingerbread into little pills, 
and she took a market-basket on her arm and 
put on her sunbonuet and went to grandma's 
room. 

"Come in," said grandma, when she heard 
the knock. 

"How do you do, ma'am?" asked Emmy, 
and then grandma saw the market-basket and 
knew that the little girl was playing. 

"I'm not very well," answered grandma. 

"Lst me feel of your pulse," said Emmy, 
coming to the big rocking-chair. 

So grandma put out her hand, and Emmy 
put her finger on the wrist. 

"You need some gingerbread pille;" said 
Emmy." 

She counted out five brown little pills from 
the market-basket and put them on the win- 
dow seat I She did not expect grandma to eat 
them, really. It was only make-believe. 

" Now your day won't ba tf-jus, will it?" 
asked Emmy anxiously. 

"No, dear," said grandma, "Every time I 
look at the five gingerbread pills. I shall 
thirk about the little girl who loves grandma, 
and then my day will not be tedious." 

So Emmy went away. There were six more 
gingerbread pills in the bottom of the market- 
basket, and that was all the gingei bread that 
was left. 

" Whatshall I do with them ? " asked Emmy, 
looking at the six pills. 

"I want them !" said Old Plym through the 
Uths of the henhouse. 

Old Plym talked in hen language, but Emmy 
underitood. She threw the six pills through 
the laths. Five Toes got one pill, and Young 
Plym got another, but old Plym got the reet. 
So the gingerbread was all gone. 

Emmy stood on the steps and looked over the 
fence at the new next-door neighbor's bonse. 

" The next time I hand anybody anything to 



eat with my fingers I'm going to say, * excuse 
my fingers,' too," she said. "It's politer to 
give folks things on a plate, but if you haven't 
a plate, you must be polite anyway." 



Intemperance Successfully Treated as 
a Disease. 

There is an institution at Dwight, Illinois, 
which has been in existence for a number of 
years, where intemperance is treated as a dis- 
ease and cured. The institntion has become 
qaite famous, and from all accounts the treat- 
ment appears to be a decided success. People 
go there from all parts of the country. Pro- 
fessional men from the highest walks of their 
profession; busineas men — in fact all classes and 
victims to all manner of slavery, from men who 
drink paregoric to [opium fiends of the worst 
imaginable type, and 95 oat of every 100 are 
said to return to their homes cured of their 
affliction. 

A Pittsburg (Pa.) paper, in speaking of this 
institution, says that it is one of the moat won- 
derful discoveries of all time for these habits, 
and thousands upon thousands of homes are 
being restored and made happy once more by 
this remarkable man. The paper adds that 
there are a dozen or more well-attested cures 
from Pittsburg, most of which were given up 
as about hopeless long ago. 

That inebriety, when long continued, devel- 
ops into a disease entirely beyond the control 
of the sufferer, and which can be made to yield 
only to the action of medicine. Is a theory 
which has long been maintained by_ many, but 
which is now fast becoming acknowledged by 
the great majority of medical practitioners. 

Dr. Leslie L, Keeley, the founder of this In- 
stitute, has long beld to this theory. He is a 
practicing phyeician of the allopathio school and 
surgeon of the Chicago & Alton Railroad. He 
has been long at work with hia cure, but the 
world in general has heard but. little of him, 
because he had been full of businesa and has 
preferred to become more generally known 
through the results of his practice. It is said 
that he has successfully treated over 6000 
patients during the last ten years, fully 95 
per cent of which have been reported as perma- 
nent cures. 

He has made no effort to advertise his core, 
probably in oonsequenoe of the absurd practice 
of the profession that such a course is held as 
unprofessional, and any one who so offends is 
boycotted by hia medical associates. 

Whether the remedy is secret or not we are 
not informed. The information at hand simply 
informs na that the patient may come to the 
Doctor either drunk or sober — it makes no 
difference which. The treatment is daily and 
consists of the administering of a hypodermic 
injection of "a bright red liquid," which is 
done at the office. The patient is then given 
an eight-ounce bottle of " bichloride of gold 
mixture," which he takes to his room. A tea- 
spoonful of this mixture in a quarter of a glass 
of water is to be taken every two houra while 
the patient la awake. The hypodermic injec- 
tion is administered three times a day — mc ru- 
ing, noon and night. The time of treatment 
generally occupies aboat three weeks, although 
it is sometimes extended to four. IThe hypo- 
dermics, from the account before us, seem to 
be Intermittent — adminiatered a few days and 
then withheld for a few days, according to cir- 
cumstances of the case. The basis of the cure 
appears to be the bichloride of gold mixture, 
which is taken internally. 

There is no need that liquors should be kept 
away from the patients. The Doctor keeps 
them in all variety in hia cffioe, and deals them 
out freely in drinks to any of his patients who 
wish them; but after two or three days' treat- 
ment they become nauseating to the patient 
and are refuged. After a complete treatment, 
a person would be obliged to do violence to his 
appetite and will in drinking any kind of 
spirituous liquors, but by doing so repeatedly 
be may create a new appetite for the intoxi- 
cating cup. Bat It Is almost incredible that 
any one who nas passed through the fires of 
auch a disease would deliberately go to work 
and kindle them anew after they have been 
once extinguished. 

We have condensed the above from an ac- 
count written by a New York gentleman who 
has recently been taken successfully through 
the "treatment." The writer, who is evident- 
ly a gentleman of standing and well informed, 
occupies three columna in the New York 
World in his well-written naration, in which 
he says : " I have stepped out of the shadow 
into the sunshine — out of the daiknesa of 
death into the golden glory of life. So firm 
am I in the belief of the great work of healing 
and physical reconstruction accomplished for 
myself and thousands of ethers at the little 
village on the prairie of Illinois, that I cannot 
rest until I tell the story to those who have 
known me in the city of New York, which has 
been my home for almost half a century." 

So much interest and importance attaches to 
the above that we have taken steps to learn 
directly and through an independent source the 
full truth in regard to it, which, when it 
reaches ua, we ahall place before our readers in 
fall. We have seen a number of references to 
this alleged " cure " in our various exchanges, 
but never before have met with anoh a full and 
apparently truthful report aa the one from 
which this aocoant baa been oondenaed. 



]DoMESTie QCOJMOMY. 



The Song of the Ironing Stool. 

IWritten for the Rorai. Press by Adah F. Battrlle.J 

She had ironed that day till she could not stand 

She was weary of foot and weary of hand, 

And the half-filled basket of sprinkled clothes 

Made her spirits sink as the mercury rose. 

"No modern convenience, ' said she, "looks toward 

The hard worked slave of the ironing board." 

.She placed a stool in the nearest chair 

Which she moved to her work, and seated there. 

Ironed, folded her garments, one by one 

Nor was she worn out when her work was done. 

"I'll patent the idea, then I can afford 

A special stool for the ironing board," 

And as she works in the morning cool 

She sings the song of the ironing stool. 



Hot-Weather Dinners. 

Instead of having fried ham and boiled pota- 
toes when he comes in at noon — almost too 
tired and heated to eat — have the potatoes that 
you boiled in the early morning nicely chopped 
and warmed in batter and milk, and a platter 
of cold boiled ham shaved cff aa thin as a 
wafer, and sweet brown- and- white bread and 
and butter. Try this sort of meal before yon 
blame "John" for the lack of an innovation 
you have not the courage yourselt to make. 

Old and new potatoes, until the latter are 
fully ripe, and many other kinds of vegetables 
are much nicer boiled and warmed over by 
some of the various (rocesses, and there are a 
great namber of light, cold desserts that are 
far more delicious and easily digested than 
warm ones are. 

In this way, by good management, the 
greater part of the cooking and baking can be 
done in the early morning, and dinner on ex- 
treme warm days need require only a light fire. 

Fresh meat for boiling should be put into 
boiling water and boiled very gently about 20 
minutes for each pound. A littld vinegar added 
to the water with tough meat makes it tender, 
and salt or spice should be added for aeaaoning. 
Salt meata should be put over the fire in cold 
water, and as soon as it boils it should be re- 
placed by cold water, and this repeated until it 
is fresh enough to be palatable. Salt meata re- 
quire 30 minutes very alow boiling to each 
pound; sweet herbs may be added for aeaaon- 
ing, and they ahould ba allowed to oool in the 
liquor in which they were boiled. 

If roast beef is preferred rare, 15 minutes to 
each pound of meat is sufficient. Baste well 
every 15 minutes, and about half an hour be- 
fore it is done, sprinkle a little salt and dredge 
a little flour over it, and turn until it browns 
nicely. 

Braised Bee/. — Put five or six pounds of beef 
fillet, without bone, in a Scotch bowl; scatter 
two aliced onions over it, cover closely, add 
half a teacupful of boiling water, and pat into 
a hot even. Add more hot water if it ainks 
low, and cook 1^ hours; then dredge with flour 
and leave off tho cover. As the floor browna, 
baete with butter to glaze, and if it is to be 
served hot, add half a teaoupful of tomato 
catsup to the gravy. Ponr some of the gravy 
over the meat, and servo the rest In a boat. If 
served cold, pour some of the gravy over the 
meat; pat the latter in a aaitable diah to prees 
with a weight. 

Beefs Tongue. — A large tongue requirea to 
be boiled about 12 mlnutea to the pound. Wash 
it two or three times and cover well with boil- 
ing water. When nearly done, salt and add 
the jaice of one lemon, leave ancovered, and 
allow the liquor to boil nearly away. Strip cff 
the skin and slice thin when ready to serve. 

To Boil a Ham. — Soak well in cold water 
24 houre; then scrape very clean and put into 
a large stew-pan with water enough to cover 
well; add 20 cloves, a blade of mace and a 
sprig of thyme. Boil four or five hour;; then 
remove from tbe fire and allow it to become 
cold in the I'quor in which it was boiled. Ra- 
move the rind carefully, and preas olotha over 
It until all the fat posaible has been absorbed. 
Slice very thin when served, and garnish with 
parsley. Some cooks prefer to set it in the 
oven half an hour after the skin has been re- 
mcved; then cover thickly with bread crumba, 
and return to the oven another half hour. By 
thia means It is not only made more tender, but 
mnch of the fat dries out. 

Corned Beef. — Freshen If necessary, and 
cook in sufflsiunt water to cover well. When 
it comes to the boiling point, remove it to the 
back of the range, where the water will only 
bubble. When boiled bard, even beef is sure to be 
tough and stringy; but cooked five or six houra 
in this way, and allowed to stand in the liquor 
uctil half cold, then placed in a diah where you 
can turn a plate over and preas with a weight, 
it will be tender and delicious. 

Boiled MuUon. — Use plenty of water and 
allow 12 miuuoes to each pound. Bay leaves 
are a dellcions saasoning for mutton. 

Roasted Mutton. — Put a little boiling water 
and salt into the dripping-pan. Allow 20 min- 
utes to each pound and baste often. It served 
hot, lemon juice or tomato catsup give a de- 
licious flavor to the gravy, but when eaten cold 
whole cloves and sticks of cinnamon put in the 
dripping-pan at first, before oommenoing to 
baste It, are preferable. 

There are many other and newer methods of 
cooking these meats, but if directions are care- 
fully followed the above will be found tender, 
appetfzinsr and dnlioioue, — Kathtrine B. John- 
ion in Country Oent. 



52 



f ACIFie I^URAlo PRESS. 



[July 18, 1891 




A. V. DKWET. W. B. SWEB. 

PnbUshed by DEWEY & CO. 



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tr Take the Klevator. No. It Front 



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SAN FBANOISOO: 

Saturday, |uly i8, 1891. 
TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



EDITORIALS.— Irr'gition and Drainage, 45. The 
WeeH; Calif irnia Wheat; F rtlficatlon Must Be at the 
Vineyard; MUceilsneous, 62 

ILLiDSTBATIONS.— Au Irrigated Garden upon Re- 
claimed Oveiflow La id in Kcra County, 45. Potato 
Grater for Starch Uaklng, 52. Hauling Sagebrush, 
Tuscarora, Nevada, 53. 

ABttoBICULiTUj*!!;. — Culture of the Soft-Shell 
Peoiii, 46. 

TH h; I ft K IQ * TOR.— An Arid Field in Irrigation, 46. 

HORTICULiTURB. — The Olive Grower..' Conven- 
tion, 46 'Ihu Joppa Orauge Not the J.fla, 47. 

PRUI 1 MAKKETING — Shipping fruit, 47. 

XHE FIELD.— The Potato Busmess of the United 
States, 47. 

PATRONS OP HUSBANDBT. - The Master's 

Desk; A Happy Rural Day; March Grange; Suggestions 

frum Past Uaiter Coulter; Pkasiknt i/utles tor Matrons; 

MlBcelUneoua, 48. 
FABMBRS' /iijLIANOB. — Independence; Yolo 

County Alliance; Alliance County Notes; Humboldt 

County Allianc"; Mi8;ellaneou9, 49. 
THE HOME CIRCLE — Our Flag; Skaggatt's Dor- 

ance, 50 Chafl. 51. 
TOUNG POLKS' COLUMN.— Caution; Emmy's 

Oingerbrod, 51. 
GOOD H E A L T H. — Intemperance Successfully 

Treated as a Disease, 51. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -TheSongof the Ironing 

Stool; Hnt-Weater Dinners, 51. 
QUE BIBS AND BH PLIES. — Manufacture of 

Starch from Potatoes, 52. 
THE DAIRY.— The Shorthorn Dairy Prize, 53. 

KN TOMOLOOIuAl The Late Henry Kdward8,53. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES.-From the Various 

Counciea • f California, 54. 
MISCELLANEOUS The Lake in the Desert; State 

Boaid cf Horticulture; Pacific Coast Teaming!, 53. 

The Fourth In San Diego, 54. The Lumber Trade; 

Sea and Railway Travel. 62. 



Business Annonnoements. 

[NIW THIS ISBUK.J 

Carts, Wagons, Etc.— California Was-on & Carriage Co. 
Pumps, Hoise-Powers, Etc. — Woodin & Little. 
Music Books— Oliver Diteon C' mpany, Boston. 
Semi-Annual Statement— Grangers' Bank of California. 
Paper, Paper Bags and Twines- 8. P. Taylor Paper Co. 
Orange Seed— L. O. Sicsovich & Co. 
Poultry — E F. Musson, San Leandro. 
Land fur Sale — Pecus Irrigation and Improvement Co., 
Ediiy, New Mexico. 

tS'See Advertising Columns. 



The Week. 

The harvest activity ooDtinaea. Frait is go- 
ing Eastward and to the oanners at a rattling 
rate from the earlier fruit regions, and the 
later localities will soon fall In line. The com- 
plaint in the city is that consumers can find lit- 
tle bat culls. Naturally, the city will have the 
inferior fruit as long as it can be sent here for 
a little profit over drying. 

It occurs to us that the present situation 
opens an opportunity for those who are not near 
enough to overland lines, or whose produce 
does not reach to carloads, that they may do 
better in the city trade by giving a little extra 
attention to the quality and packing of their 
fruits, and that possibly the adoption of suit- 
able retail packages might be made prohtable. 

San Francisco is a good-sized city and able to 
eat much fruit. The people should have good 
fruit, and the catering to their tastes may be 
profitable to those who are ready to produce 
the good fruit and will take pains to pack it 
well in acceptable shape. The subject is cer- 
tainly worth consideration. 



California Wheat. 

We have often alluded to the commendable 
enterprise and tireless Industry of Mr. Albert 
Montpellier, Manager of the Grangers' Btnk, 
in preparing for the public, data which will en- 
able the wheat-grower who has an inquiring 
tarn of mind to acquaint himself not alone 
with the course of his product commercially, 
but also the progress and character of natural 
phenomena which influence production. Mr. 
Montpellier evidently believes In a thorough 
popularization of the bottom facts npon which 
iotelligent judgment can be formed as to 
amounts of wheat production and probable 
values. He does not content himself with 
oracular statement i about crops, demand and 
supplies, etc., such as the expert is too apt in- 
dolently to fall back npon, but he puts forth 
most elaborate and painstaking tabulations of 
facts, and says to the producer : " Here are 
the bases upon which intsillgjnt estimates can 
be formed; study them and draw your own con- 
clusions." 

These remarks are called forth by receipt of 
two large sheets of statiatics which we have 
jast received from Mr. Montpellier. One re- 
lates to wheat and bag prices, also rates of 
ocean freights for a long term of years, and 
will appear in next week's Rural, as we oan- 
not find room for it in this issue. It should be 
watohed for and preserved for future reference. 

Another very important study, and one 
which has required a vast amount of time in 
compilation, is a table of statistics of rainfall in 
the principal agricultural counties of the State 
for the last deoade. This sheet is altogether 
too large for our pages. No doubt Mr. Mont- 
pellier will furnish a copy to any one who is in- 
terested enough to apply for it, It affords the 
opportunity for most profitable studies of the 
distribution of rainfall and the effect produced 
thereby npon the local crops. For example, 
this ye tr the fields on the east side of Stanis- 
laus county have produced vastly better crops 
than the central and western portions. This 
table shows that as you approach the Sierra 
foothills on the east side of the valley, the 
rainfall increases nntil we find that at La 
Grange the precipitation is asnally twice as 
great as at the countf seat, on the line of the 
railway, and is of course a most important 
factor in determining the yield. This year the 
rainfall has been 15.65 inches at La Grange and 
6,22 inches at Modesto. This is only one of 
hundreds of instances which could be cited, 
showing the importance of statistics of local 
rainfall in ettlmates of crop production, and 
how one may err in taking oar window notes of 
the crops of the country. 

From Mr. Montpellier'a table, we take the 
following interesting showing of crops and 
acreage sown in the years named : 

Year. Wheat Crop, Tons. Acreage. 

1881 1,030,000 2,387,'/00 

1882 1,040,000 2,767,000 

188S 1,018,000 2,796,000 

1884 1,600,000 3,160 000 

1886 850,000 2,800,(00 

1886 1,110,000 3,1110,000 

1887 950 000 3,200,000 

1888 900,000 3,100 OOD 

1889 1,300,000 3.300,000 

1890 1,000,000 3,000,000 

1891 1,200,000 S.SjO.OOO 

Thus it appears that the crop of the present 
year stands next to those of 1884 and 1889 in 
amount, and the acreage sown is the same as in 
the latter year. This will be very different 
from what those who have worthless fields in 
regions of short rainfall would infer. Of this 
year's crop as affected by weather, Mr. Mont- 
pellier says: 

The rainfall last season has been rather mod- 
erate, but the cool and damp weather that pre- 
vailed during the month of May and the first 
part of Jane has been of immense benefit to 
the growing crops, and has increased both the 
yield and quality considerably, which otherwise 
would have been very light in many sections of 
the State. 

We are fortunate In having such a crop to 
sell when prices favor producers. Of the rise 
and the prospect, Mr. Montpellier says: 

The most remarkable feature in the wheat 
market here, the past cereal year 1890-91, was 
the sudden rise in prices last spring, when 
$1.85 per cental was paid in April — an advance 
of $8 per ton over the average prices paid the 
past few years. What the ruling price for the 
crop of 1891 will be, no one can tell. It is cer- 
tain, howevAr, that cereal crops, both wheat 
and rye, In Earope are considerably short this 
year. B iports from Odessa, Southern Russia and 
Germany confirm it. Another very significant 
fact is that the French Government has 
definitely settled that the rednced duty on 
wheat in France will go into effect July 10, 



1891. All these nations are bread-eating peo- 
ple, and they mast have It. 

We are glad to ase these facts of production 
and prices both because of their intrinsic value 
to wheat-producers and because of their gen- 
eral bearing upon the industrial affairs of the 
State. We have frequently called attention to 
the fact that in setting forth our magnificent 
fruit interest, people are too prone to look upon 
wheat as an old-fashioned crop which has been 
thrown aside by our fruit product. We like 
the fruit interest and the vast money it brings, 
and look for its great extension, bat do not let 
us forget the staff upon which we have leaned 
in years gone by and which is still strong and 
an important support of our prosperity. A 
crop which is worth something like $36,000,000 
should not be slurred over. May it live and 
prosper I 

Fortification Mast Be At the Vineyard. 

Accounts of the oonoluiioni which the rev. 
enne ofiBcials have reached in reference to the 
fortifioation of sweet wines, have bean tele- 
graphed from Washington. Among the new 
rules is one providing that each winery must 
have a separate room for the purpose of forti- 
fication. All fortification will take place in 
these bonded rooms, into which the freshly 
manufactured wine will be conducted and re- 
ceived in vats, and United States Gangers will 
have charge of the pipes to turn on or shut off 
the supply at their discretion. The manufac- 
turers will have the right of returning to the 
winery fortified wine, where it may be kept 
until full completion of the manufacture. 

Commissioner Mason stated that the only 
point at issue between him and Mr. West of 
Stockton, who represented the Oalifornia wine- 
makers, was as to what constituted the 
"winery" under the law of Congress, and 
where It must be located. Mr. Mason says the 
winery must be at the vineyard where the 
grapes are produced, and this will be rigidly 
enforced. The revenue agents are authorized 
and empowered to seize brandy-fortified wine 
with unpaid tax In any establishment elsewhere 
than at the vineyard. Oommisstoner Mason 
believes that the manufacturers themselves and 
all concerned will finally acknowledge the 
justice of this construction of the law. " I am 
sure the wine-growers will be, at any rate," 
said he. "In fact, the law we are working 
under was intended to protect the grape pro- 
dnoeri. 

If this can be interpreted to that manufac- 
turers purchasing grapes from actual producers 
and actually making wine therefrom be included 
In those privileged to fortify. It may do. We 
should imagine that to limit fortification to 
those who operated their own cellars at their 
own vineyards would make it too narrow. 

At the Statk Board of Trade. — Visitors 
to the city should not forget to visit the new 
free exhibit of California products and indus- 
tries at the State B3ard of Trade rooms, open 
daily also Saturday evening, at 603 Market 
street. Grand Hotel Block, S. F. The pur- 
poses of the State Board are to develop the 
industries and possibilities of California, and 
thereby attract a desirable class of home-seek- 
ers. It is sustuned by voluntary contributions. 
New comers to the State can learn much of our 
resources and productioits by studying this 
exhibit, and producers can often see that they 
can contribute something excellent to place on 
view. The Board proposes to continue Its 
enterprise of exhibiting California products, 
Oae of the latest undertakings is the prepara- 
tion of fine sample oases of Oalifornia dried 
fruits to be placed on view in the leading gro- 
cery stores east of the Rooky mountains. This 
will familiarize eastern consumers with our 
fine products and create a demand for them. 

Crickets and Gbasshoppebs. — EJ. M. 
Ehrhoro, assistant entomologist of the State 
Board of Horticulture, has been out studying 
crickets and grasshoppers in the northern and 
eastern parts of the State. He advisee that 
more attention be given to asoerttining the 
plaoea where the egg deposits are made, and 
thoroughly breaking them np with plow and 
harrow. 

The Woeld s Fair Hortiooltorist.— The 
ohiefship of the horticultural department of 
the World's Fair is still vacant. Mr. Forsyth 
has withdrawn from the contest. The State 
Board of Trade at Its meeting on Tuesday has 



Indorsed any of the following named horticul- 
turists as eminently qualified to fill the posi 
tlon: J. DtBjrth Shorb of Los Angeles, Frank 
Kimball of San Biego, Elwood Cooper of Santa 
Barbara, and George A. Fleming of Stn Jose. 



Queries a^d J[!{,epue8. 

Manufacture of Starch From Potatoes. 

Editors Press:— Will you please inform several 
of your readers as to the process used in extracting 
starch from potatoes. There are many potatoes 
raised here, and as a ready inarl<et cannot be found 
for them, quite a number of them are lost, which 
might be turned into starch, if we had a starch fac- 
tory near by.— Reader, Neu) Jerusalem, Ventura 
County. 

The manufacture of staroh from potatoes Is 
one oT the great industries of the world. In 
districts where fine potatoes are produced easily, 
and yet no profit tbie price can be obtained for 
them, it is barely possible that they can be 
profitably turned into starch. In case any of 
our readers may be Inclined to experiment a 



FiQ.i 




Potato Orster for Starch Making. 

little to see what manner of starch they can 
produce, we give a little account of a homely 
way of making staroh, and the rude appliances 
needed, which anyone with a little mechanical 
twist to his brain oan easily make. A wire 
basket to wash the tubers, a rotary rasping 
machine, a few large tubs or water-tight bogs- 
heads, some wire and haircloth sieves and a 
drying-room, comprise the principal pieces. 

A simple rasping machine is shown in Fig. 1, 
and consists of a band wheel, A, over the rim 
of which has been secured, rough aide out, a 




Potato Qrater— Improved Pattern. 

piece of sheet iron, previously roughened 
up like a nutmeg grater by punching it full of 
boles with a blunt-pointed tool. The wheel is 
mounted on an axle supported by the wooden 
frame, so as to revolve immediatBly beneath 
the mouth of a metal-lined wooden hopper, B. 

A more effective rasper or grinder Is shown 
in Fig, 2. It oonsists of a cylinder C, 20 Inches 
diameter and 2 feet long, mounted on an axis. 
It Is armed with steel saw plates, placed about 
three-quarters of an inob apart, parallel with 
the cylinder, and having small and regular 
teeth. The plates are held in position by iron 
clampn, so that the toothed edges prcj -ct about 
four-fifths of an inch from the periphery of the 
drum, It is driven at the rate of about 80O 
revolutions per minute before the hopper, and 
is capable of pulping about 48 bushels of pota- 
toes an hour. In both thisa machines the rasp- 
ing surfaces are kept clean by the action of 
small jets of water pro jict:;d with some force. 

As the washed potatoes are passed through 
one of these maobioes, the pulp and wash- 
water are run off into tubs, and after the 
coarser pattioies have been deposited, the 
milky liquid is drawn off Into other tubs, and the 
starchy matter allowed to settle; or, as In large 
factories, the pulp may be rubbed and washed 
through a series of sieves, ranging from coarse 
wire gauze to fine haircloth. After repeated 
washings with fresh water in the tubs, to sep- 
arate the gummy and fibrous matters, the 
starch granules are finally allowed to settle, 
and after the water has been drawn off, the 
pasty mass of starch and water Is run off Into 
long, wooden troughs, slightly inclined, where- 
in the paste gradually hardens as the water 
drains off. When hard enough, it Is cut into 
blocks and put on shelves in a warm room to 
dry out. With good management, from 17 to 
18 pouoda of clear starch c«n be ob'^iined by 
these simple means from 100 pounds of average 
potatoes, which could be disposed of in bulk 
at present prioes. 



July 18, 1891.] 



pACIFie l^URAlo PRESS. 



6- 



The Shorthorn Dairy Prize. 

Editors Pbess: — In yonr lesne of July 11th 
I ootioe a oommanioation from Robert A^b- 
bnrner copied from the Chicago Breedert" Oa- 
ztttt, in which be refers to the premiums of- 
fered by the American Shorthorn Breeders' As- 
•ooiatlon throagh the State Agricultural So- 
ciety in 1890, In which be lays some blame 
upon the Oalifornia State Agricultural Society 
for not receiving his premium from the Short- 
horn Breeders' Ansooiation ofSce in Cbiosgo. 

I herewith submit copy of awards offered by 
that AsBOolation for 1890: 

Glass I— Durhame 
Judged Monday. SeptembT isth, lo A. M. 
DAIRY PRIZES FOR if<)\ 
[Offered by Amekican Shokthorn Breeders' 
association. j 

Reiolved, That Shorthorns, contesting for dairy 
prizes, sha'l be pure bred cows actually giving milk 
and subject to test. All other^ classes shall be 
dropped. 

Resolved, That the Secretary be authorized to ar- 
range with the Slate Agricultural Societies, or Fairs 
of such Stales as have considerable dairy interests, 
to pay from the funds of the Association $225 as 
premiums for Shorthorn class for the production of 
milk and butter upon the following conditions: 

1 — That Shorthorns be permitted by such Socie- 
ties to contest for sweepstake premiums with other 
dairy breeds. 

2— That no arrangement for these premiums .will 
be made with any Society, except on condition that 
actual tests of dairy cattle shall he made on the fair 



rell all the data there is. You understand that we 
have no control over these premiums, and cannot 
make any award that our premium list does not call 
for. 

" We have done everything possible to bring it to 
the attention of Mr. Pickrell, by designating which 
of the Shorthorns gave the most milk that was in 
competition for the Breeders' premium; the amount 
of milk given by each Shorthorn in competition; 
consequently it is for him to decide the matter, as I 
understand it. Edwin F. Smith, Sec'y." 

Consequently he was wholly apprised six 
months before be wrote thi» communication 
that the d»ta had been forwarded to Mr. Pick 
rell, and that we had complied with every 
obligation put upon ns. 

PereoDally I am of the opinion that the con- 
tt'uotion put upon conditions of American 
Shorthorn Breeders' Ass'n by Mr, Ashburner is 
different from what said American Shorthorn 
B eeders' Ass'n intended. I do not bdieve that 
they intended their premiums to be awarded if 
the sweepstake was not taken by a ShoitHorn, 
but of course that is between Mr. A«bburner 
and other Shorthorn exhibitors and the Short- 
horn Association, Very truly, 

Edwin F, Smith, 
Seo'y State Board of Agrioulttre. 

Sacramento. Jvly 10 



The Lake in the Desert, 

For the last fortnight the water has continned 
to rise in the new lake at Sjilton, Colorado 
desert, Sin Diego county. There is said to be 
no danger to the railroad track, which crosses 
the desert a few miles from the flooded district, 
although the salt works st Salton have been 
temporarily abandoned. One may now go in a 



ed to get the assistance of capital and of Coo 
gresB. The idea was to moderate the climate 
of the snrronnding region, and make available 
lands, then worthless from their aridity and 
dietance from water. Nature has taken the 
matter in hand herself without the assistance 
of engineers, and Is filling up with water the 
deeper basin of the desert. 



State Board of Horticulture. 

A meeting of the Execntive Committee of the 
State Board of Hortionltare was held July 9 h 
The following Commissioners were preisent: 
Bllwood Cooper, Frank A. Kimball, and Chair- 
man J. L. Mosber. 

The following resolntlon was adopted: 
Resolved, That a warrant for $1,500 be drawn in 
favor of Albert Koebtle. ^who has been appointed to 
visit Austra'ia, New Zealand, etc., in search of 
pirasites). $750 of which shall b3 paid to him in 
cash, taking his receipt therefor, and $750 in form of 
a letter of cedit to his order on some bank in 
Australia, and said Koebele shall make monthly 
reports of exp'^nses, and forward all vouchers there- 
for to this office. 

The following resolution was also adoptad: 
Whereas, We are informed that some nursery 
men, through the scarcity of peach stocks for bud- 
ding pu'poses, have contracted for large lots of 
E<stern peach stock for budding purposes for next 
season's delivery; and 

Whereas, There is great danger of introducing 
into this State the yellows, a deadly disease of the 
peach, on said roots, and on peach trees imported 
from lb" Eastern States, and while they may not 
now have the disease in the locality where they get 
this stock, but we having no guarantee that the 
Eastern growers may not get trees grown in infested 
sections to supply the California demand from 
dangerous quarters; therefore be it 




HADIilNa SAG^BBOSH. TUSUAKOUA, NEV. 



grounds under the personal supervision of proper 
officers or committees. 

3 —That these resolutions and requirements shall 
be printed in the premium lists of the Society accept- 
ing the offer. 

For cows three years old and over, first prize. . .$ioo 

Second prize 5') 

For heiters under three years old, first prize. ... S'^ 
Second prize 25 

In the first place, we are not responsible in 
•ny manner for these awards. Oar duty is 
aimply to give the successful exhibitors a oer- 
tifioate, which he forwards to the original of- 
fice, and if the award is made in complianoe 
with conditions, I suppose they pay them. At 
any rate, we assnme nothing regarding the 
payment of these awards. 

B/ reading the conditions you will see that 
the first is: "That Shorthorns be permitted 
by such Societies to contest for sweepttake 
preminms with other dairy breeds," 

This was done, and the premium of the State 
Society was awarded to a HoUtein. Now, it is 
for the American Shorthorn Breeders' Asioola- 
tlon to decide npon records sent who is entitled 
to the award cffjred by them; we cannot see 
bow any blame should be attached to us. We 
ha7e nofuither interest in the matter than 
properly presenting the facts, oonscqaect'y if 
Mr. Ashbnrner, or Mr. Pdterson, or Mr. Hell- 
bron did not receive their awards from the 
American Shorthorn Breeders' Association, it 
is in order for that Association to explain to 
tbem the reason why. 

la permitting these preminms of other asso- 
oiations to pass throagh our exhibitioos, we do 
■o for the interest of the various breeders 
represented, but we ooald not assnme any re- 
sponsibility for the payment of these awards. 

I think Mr, Aahborner't "charitable oon- 
•trnotion" regarding neglect of snpe'lntendent 
Is entirely out of order, as he was not. Bed, un- 
der data of Ddo. 26, 1890, from this (.f5:e, as 
follows: 

Mr. Robert Ashburner, Baden Station. Cal.— 
Dear Sir: I have yOur favor of the 24th with 
reference 10 the Shorthorn Breeders' Ass'n premium- 
In regard thereto, would say I have sent Mr, Pick- 



boat over the fields where the salt was formerly 
gathered. It is proved that a heavy current tf 
watsr is running into the desert from the Colo 
rado river, and the new channel is both wide 
and deep. Eogineers are now out making a 
survey of the situation. Advices to the South- 
ern Pacific Co. state that the water leaves the 
Colorado river about eight miles from El Rio, 
and flaws throagh several channels from four to 
six feet deep and from 30 to 40 feet wide. It 
fl)W8 westward along the sandbills and on the 
line of the old etige routs through the Alamo 
Looho Scation. Toe channels there join, mak- 
ing a stream about 100 yards wide or more, and 
having a velocity of four miles an hour, and 
gaining. It was too deep to get the depth, 
but the old slongh at that point was formerly 
20 feet deep. This is about 35 miles from the 
river. 

The source was followed about two miles far. 
ther in the direction of Indian Wells. The 
water all the way was from half a mile to two 
miles wide, and from two to four feet deep, 
having a velocity of two miles per hour. Toe 
main channel passes Cock's Wells, Seven 
Welle, Gardner Station, or Butt S.atlon, then 
on to Alamo Muoho, making a distance of 52 
miles from the river. This is the point it 
enters the desert for Sjilton. The old stage 
routi>, with the exception of five or six miles, 
is all covered with water. The only way to 
reach thl'4 point is over sandhills and mesa. 

This mr-sssge was received by Superin- 
tendent Mulr from R'chard Qalno, one of the 
parties sent out from Ogilby as a preliminary 
expedition to make an examination of the 
country on the south side of Salton basin. 

A onrions fact in connection with this flood 
is that the Colorado river is daily falling, yet 
the volume of water in the sink is on the in- 
crease. It seems odd that this Glling-up of the 
deseit with wtt'r from the Colorado river 
•bonld occnr in this way, when for years men 
have advocated the assistance of Congress to 
this end. 

Tne late 0. D. Wozenoraft of Sin Bernar- 
dino for many years agitated the subjiot of 
taming the river into the desert, and endeavor- 



Resolved. That we warn intending purchasers of 
the.dinger of getting trees affected with the yellows, 
and other diseases and pests not now in this Slate; 
and be it further 

Resolved, That we call the attention of all the 
Boards ol County Horticultural Commissioners and 
Quarantine Guardians throughout the State to this 
danger, and to the rigid enforcement of the Law in 
all such cases. 

A resolution was read from the Campbell 
Horticultural Society containing charges, 
preferred by F. M. Rigbt»r, against Alexander 
Craw, State Q larantine Officer, and also several 
commanicatiuns were read from F. M. Righter, 
in which several allegations were made con- 
cerning the subject mattsr. It was considered 
to be exceedingly important that the grounds 
for such charges should be fully and carefully 
investigated. To secure this result, a number 
of parsons were summoned to give testimony 
bearing on the case. F. M. Rigbter, 3 . H. 
Fiickinger, H. A. Bralnard, and others testi- 
fied. No tettimony was produced showing 
taat Mr. Craw bad not fully carried out the 
inetructions of the Board, but in giving his 
instructions to the parties employed to disinfect 
a quantity of peach trees at Sin Jose, (from 
which fact the charges against Mr. Craw 
originated) — the tistimony regarding the man- 
t er of disinfecting was conflicting. It was also 
shown that a large number of the trees com- 
plained of were sold and dintributed over the 
country before the Board or Qiiarantine OflBoer 
was notified of the presence ot the trees in the 
State. 

The Executive Board after having carefully 
considered all communications, resolutions, and 
evidence adduced before tbem, exonerated Mr. 
Craw. 

The date for holding the next Fruit Growers 
C 'nvention was fixed for November 17 to 20, 
1891, inclusive, »t Marysville. 

Commissioner Cooper movel that the Secre- 
tary be instrncted to request the members to 
make reports of the progress of the horticul- 
tural interettt in their districts, and aUo the 
two Commissioners for the Sttte at Lirge, in 
accordance with previous custom and the Law. 



QNTOJVIObOQICAI.. 



The Late Henry Edwards. 

Probably no entomologist who has died of re- 
cent years will be more sincerely mourned by a 
larger circle of friends than Henry Elwards, 
who died June 9ih at his home in New York 
City. Mr. Edwards was a man of the most 
engaging qualities, was a well-known actor, 
and was one of the foremost entomologists of 
this country, where be has resided for many 
years. His collection of Jfpjrfopiera is almott 
uniurpassed, and he possessKl, also, very large 
series in other orders. His collection was not 
strictly American, but included many thou- 
sands of specimens from other parts of the 
world, principally from Australia, where be 
lived for a number of years. He was not only 
a syatematlat of some note, but also a keen ob- 
server of the habits of insects, and a most en- 
thusiastic lover of the biological phase of the 
science. His kindly nature and his great gen- 
erosity were two of his most prominent charac- 
teristics. 

Mr. Edwards was 60 years of age at the time 
of his death, having been born at R'bb, Here- 
fordshire, England, August 27, 1830. His 
early manhood was spent In Londor, where he 
beoanne an amataur actor and subsequently a 
professional. He began the study of ento- 
mology while yet in London, and when, in 
1853, he sailed for Australia, it was probably 
the entomological novelties to be collected in 
that then almost unknown country which »t- 
tractjd him, quite as much as the chance of 
professional success. Ha remained in Aus- 
tralia 12 y^ars and then moved to C»llfomia, 
where tor 12 years more he was an actor and 
stage manager in the Oalifornia theaters. 
Daring that period he collected as Industri- 
ously as ever and made one or more tiipa to 
Mexico, as described in a charming boc k of 
-ketches published in 1878 under the title of 
"A Mingled Yarn." Daring his stay in Cali- 
fornia be w<»8 for some years presinent of the 
celebrated Bohemian Club in San Franci-oo. 
He removed to Boston in 1878 and in 1879 to 
New Ycrk, where for a number of years he 
was connected with Wallack'n Theater, During 
this time he was president of the New York 
Eatomological Club and one of the founders 
»nd first editor of Papj/io. Ii the summer of 
1889 he went to Aubtralia to fill a professional 
engagement and returned to this country last 
fall. His. death was due to the grip, followed 
by pneumonia and B.ight'a disease. Ento- 
mologists of the present generation will never 
forget Mr. Edwards oa acconnt of his lovable 
personality, as well as on account of his prom- 
inence as a scientific man. Those of futnre 
times will know him from his descriptive 
papers in lepidopterology. Perhaps the most 
aseful work be has left behind him is his ex- 
cellent catalogue of the' desor b^d transforma- 
tions of North American lepidoptera, which is 
indispensable to every student of North Ameri- 
can insects. 

The senior editor had the pleasure of meet- 
ing him only a few weeks ago while playing 
with the D..ly company at Washington. His 
appearance then greatly shocked us and showed 
the severe illness which he had passed through. 
He was, in fact, at that time unfit to be on the 
stage, yet he was hopeful and genial and 
pleasant as ever. The last article which he 
probably penned was published in the previous 
number of Insfcl Life on the "E.rly Stages of 
Cryplophaia unipunclala." So far as we can 
learn, he left no will and made no particular 
disposition of his magnificent collection. 

We also regret to learn t hit as Is so often 
the case with men of his generosity and devo- 
tion to art and science, he left little of this 
world's goods, so that his widow depends 
chiefly upon the insect collection. It is of 
great sclentifio value, and its money value may 
be judged from the fact that for many years 
M-. E I wards carried npon it an insurance of 
$17 000. We hope and trust that it will re- 
main in this country. There are few, if any, 
institutions as capable financially of paf ing its 
true value as the new L3land Stanford Univer- 
sity, and we should be glad to learn that this 
institution had secured it. — C. V. Rilhy in 
Imtct. 



Pacific Coast Teaminff. 

One of the most Interesting sights to a new- 
comer is the western team. We suppose that 
nowhere in the world is one man expected to 
handle so many animals as in our Pacific coast 
states. At all events strangers stand in wrapt 
contemplation of our outfit like that shown in 
the engraving on this page. 

The sagebrnsh, which is so abundant in cer- 
tain portions of this coast, is Ufed for fuel 
where larger wood is scarce, and it would be 
difficult to get along without it in many min- 
ing camps, especially in Nevada. The cut on 
this page shows one of the teams hauling this 
brush to the quartz mills. A correspondent 
furnishes us the following information. 

' The handling of sagebrnsh has proved a re- 
munerative business in Tuscarora, Nevada. As 
it Is impossible to get wood enough to supply 
the mines, the brush is substituted." 

" In early days it wa<> cut within half a 
mile of town and sold at $2.50 per cnrt^; since 
it became necessary to hanl it 10 and 15 miles it 
has advanced in price. Generally a man takes 



f ACIFie F^URAId f ress. 



LJuLT 18, 1891 



a oontraot to famish a certain quantity, and as 
soon at the weather permits, be takes a crew of 
Mongolians equipped for the season. After the 
brush is cut and trimmed, it is loaded on the 
wagons sometbin)! in the fashion of hay. Three 
wagons comprise a load for seven span of horsen. 
After being hauled to the mills or mines, it is 
measured. After this, all the ropes are untied 
and some of the horses are transferred to the 
side of the wagon; then the driver tells hie 
men to 'stand clear.' He then oracks hie 
whip and the wagon in turned on its side and 
the brush is dumped," 



jJrSRICULTURAL JJo^ES. 



CALIFORNIA. 



Mendocino. 



Hop Groweks M beting. — Ukiah Rtpublican: 
The annual meeting of the Mcniooino Hop 
Growers Association was held on July 6, and 
elected the following ofiioers for the ensuing 
year with the following result: President; 
L, F. Long; Vice President, P. Cunningham- 
Uecretary, Tbos. Rhodee; Treasurer, R. Mc. 
Garvey; tioard of Directors, L. F. Long, W. D, 
White, Z. Bartlett, R. Haywortb. T. J. Fine, 
J. H. Sturtevant, and T. S. Parsons. The 
Association then proceeded to the discussion of 
the labor problem. It seemed to be the opinion 
of those present that hop-piokers, on account of 
the large fruik and grain crops, would probably 
be scarce. After some discussion as to the 
price to be paid for picking, a resolution in- 
troduced by Judge McOarvey that $1.10 per 
hundred pounds be paid to those who oame 
into the field at their own expense; and that to 
those who were transported to the field at the 
expense of the grower, $1 per hundred should 
be paid, was adopted. It was also urged upon 
the members when makiog sales or uontract*, 
to insist upon the taie allowed upon baled hops 
as fixed by the law passed the last legisla- 
ture. The bill in full is as follows: Section 1. 
There shall be allowed on baled hops a tare at 
the rate of two per centum of the weight of the 
bale for the cloth and other material used in 
baling; that is, the tare shall be at the rate of 
two pounds per hundred on the weight of the 
bale. Sec. 2. This Act shall take effect and 
be in force from and after its passage. 

A Bio Poultry Project.— Ukiah City 
Diipatch and Demoerai: Geo. H, Phelps has 
leased for a number of years the Clevinger 
property, at the junction of the Mendocino and 
overland roads just noith of Ukiah, and Is now 
busily engaged in putting it into condition to 
carry on an extensive poultry bnslness. His 
project is to raise poultry for the market. In 
order to do this he has contracted for three 
400-egg incubators. After getting nicely start- 
ed, he will BO arrange matters as to have a 
batching from one incubator every week, 
which will enable him to raise about 1600 
chicks a mouth. Largo runs and other conven- 
iences will be constructed for the proper rais- 
ing of the ohickp, whiob, when they become 
broilers, will be shipped to market, weekly 
shipments being made. 

San Bernardino. 
Feuit Dry ing. —Redland The Fuels: Apri- 
cot drying is now under way, and a week from 
now will be at its height. The prevailing 
price is about 1 cent per pound, against 1^ cent 
last year at this season. Thus far the fruit 
received has been principally of inferior early 
varieties, but this week the R'>yals pat in an 
appearance and the crop is fast ripening. The 
great advance of last year over early prices 
tends to restrain growers from selling, they 
hoping for a recurrence of the rise. A ray of 
hope has been given them io this by the reported 
damage to northern fruit by hot winds in un- 
irrigated districts. Many growers are drying 
their own fruit. 

Santa Olara. 

EoiTORis Press: — The general outlook for 
fmit in this district is good, with the exception 
of Yellow Egg plums and Silver prunes, which 
were scorched somewhat during the late heattd 
spell. There is an immense crop of apriccti on 
the trees, but through premature ripening, they 
will be small. French prunes will ba a good 
crop, though not as large as anticipated early 
in tie season, as they dropped considerably 
when about one-third grown. Buyers have 
been out in full foroe, but no large sales havd 
been made, the growers asking from ^ to i 
cent more than offered. Nearly all tne or- 
ohardieti are prepared to dry their own fruits, 
and unless buyers offer an advance on the 
prices they now make, orchard drying will be 
the rule aod not the exception this season, un 
less the different varieties of fruiti ripen all 
together (which looks likely), when there will 

be a lack of suffioient help to oare for It. 

A L. S Z/oi Oatos, July 11. 

Fbdit DaviNO.— Campbell Cor. Mercury: 
For reasons unkoown to our fruit growerr, 
there is a gnat reluctance on the psitof buyers 
to make prices for (rulte. Apricots are chang- 
ing color, and will probably he fit to begin 
picking next week. Most of them will be dried 
by the growers themselves. Messrs. Campbell 
and Rodick have made 1000 new trajs, aod are 
laying track sufficient for extensive drying. 
The Duncans have also made large preparations. 
Marshall Ross has done the same, and many 
others also. 

Grain Yield.— Gilroy Oazttte: The grain 
ti>lds are now the scene of active operations 
with the threshing outfits. Birley is turning 



out splendidly and wheat promises to do so. 
The latter is about two weeks later than usual 
this year in the harvest. The hot spell did no 
harm except to a small amount of late planted 
grain. 

Fruit Notes, —Santa Clara Cor. BtUer Timet, 
July 8: The chief topic of conversation now-a- 
days is fruit. The orchardists In this section 
are jubilant over their crops as they expect to 
have a good yield. The Rsyal apricots will be 
ripe in a few days, when the driers will begin 
operations. Apricots and peaches will be nn. 
usually heavy this year and of good quality. 
Prunes ssem to be sectional; some growers 
reporting a tine yield, while others oomplain 
of a smaller crop than of former years. The 
prices are unsettled as yet, but a few sugges- 
tions have been made. It is stated that some 
fruit buyers have offered 1 to 1( cents for 
apricots and have engaged prunes at 2 cents. 
Many orchardists have erected driers and will 
dry their own and their neighbors' fruit as they 
are pretty sure of good prices io the Fall. The 
various driers about town are overhauling the 
old fruit trays and are making new ones. The 
West Side Fruit Growers' Association, a newly 
established fruit corporation, had over .3000 
new trays made this season, and will com- 
mence to dry In a few days. The A, Block 
fruit packing establishment is now packing 
early pears for eastern markets. Etch pear is 
wrapped in a sheet of paper, and the fruit 
arrives at its destination in fine condition, 
Apricots are not shipped as they are liable to 
perish on the way, and it is veiy seldom that 
a carload reaches the east In salable condition. 

Shasta. 

Harvest Notes. — Anderson E}nUrprise, 
July 9: Harvesting begun on Churn creek 
the middle of last week, and the headers have 
clipped off a good many bushels of grain since 
that time. Some little ditiioalty is experienced 
in some fields, in getting all of the heads of 
that grain that was lodged by the storms, but 
they are succeeding very well In getting a 
pretty clean cut. "Thp haads are splendidly 
filled, and the yield will be large of plnmp 
grain. 

Solano. 

Wheat Yield.— DavlsvlUe Cor. Tribune, 
July 11: Harvest has now fairly begun and 
grain Is in most cases turning out beyond ex 
pectatlons. One case is mentioned in whtoh a 
farmer wat, compelled to duplicate his order for 
sacks, his crop yielding just double his expec 
tatlons. Mr. Cecil is confident of 25 sacks to 
the acre, and others are equally hopeful. 

First Dried Apricots Shipped, — Hanford 
Journal, July 7: The aprioot harvest Is at 
last finished, and Armona has the honor of 
• hipping the first car-load of dried fruit Eist. 
It was sent to Denver on June 26th by Chas. 
King. 

StanlBlaua. 
Heat and Grasshoppers. — Editors Press 
One of the most remarkable spells of hot 
weather we ever remember experiencing in 
this State commenced on the 27tii alt., giving 
us for a starter at 3 p. m., 100 degrees in the 
shade; on the 28tb, 106 degrees; on the 29th, 
108 degrees; on the 30th, 110 degrees; July 1st 
and 21 each 110 degrees (* fair test). July 3d 
came a change, only raising to 96 degrees. The 
beat was accompanied by very little wind gen 
erally from southwest as hot as from the 
month of an oven, and dry enough to roast 
grasshoppers. Foliage on small trees and 
plants that we expect in extreme hot weather, 
will appear in a wilted, aaffering condition, 
were really scorched and crisp, as tboagh a 
fire bad run in close proximity. Another 
phenomenon, equally as remarkable, that oame 
hand in hand with the heatsd wave, were 
millions of grasshoppers appearing in a body 
the first heat ;d day, the 27th of June, and ap- 
parently nine-tenths disappearing the last ex- 
tremely bet day, thus having nnoeremonlously 
taken and held possession for six days, and 
left after doing all the damage they were 
capable of without saying "thank ye, sir." 
Their first appearance was In an orchard and 
vineyard adjoining, and nottheatt from the 
town of Oakdale, cocttioing 15.000 trees and 
vines, the output variously from this season 'a 
settings, to two years old. They fed meetly 
from the young trees, stripping many clean of 
leaves. Olives and other fruit trees, two years 
old, especially the almond, were not so much 
injured as the younger grovit''<, Gra[,e vlner, 
though fed off considerably, cio net seem t:> be 
permanently injared; but where the hoppers 
came from and where they went to hangs a 
mystjry. No one saw from whence they oame. 
The fir(t seen of them they were there in full 
possession, grubbing, as though they owned the 
whole country. Durlne the six diys of ex- 
treme heat, their (ffi)iti seemed bent on in. 
creasing the desolation Between Thursday 
evening and Friday morning they took their 
departure, but the couree they pursued, no 
one knowetb. They were a small, lonx-wioged 
variety that could po up in a gost of wind and 
light next day in Kansas. Grasshoppers have 
been reported in the latt three or four weeks 
in a radius of 20 miles around, in some places 
in considerable quantities, though net in this 
immediate vicinity. This scorching hot 
weather will be a severe set-back to young trees 
and vines this season. But should the weather 
clear up reasonably favorable soon, with a 
little extra irrigation and cultivation, we need 
not fear any very serious injury permanently. 
We have no means of irrigation here, yet, bat 
from the pamp and water cart. 'Trees and 
vines the first season will make a fair growth 



by watering from one to three times, according 
to the character of the land and good cnltiva 
tion.— C. 8. S. Hill, Oakdale. 

Satter. 

Harvest "Sorm.— Independent: The wheat 
harvest has progressed sufficiently to warrent 
us in saying that the yield will be good. The 
grain, owning to cool weather, matured slow 
ly, and is tlierefore in most oases unusually 
plump. In some sections rust Is reported, but 
it oame too late to destroy the grain, and It 1 
confined to a small area. The unsually large 
area of wheat In the county, taken In connec 
tion with the good yield per acre, and the fair 
prices likely to be realized, ought to, and 
doubtless will, make times better than fo 
several years past. As heretofore stated, the 
fruit crop of the county is simply immense, and 
the many young trees just coming Into bear 
ing added to the older orchards will make an 
aggregate output of fruit never before reached 
In this county. 

Grain Yield Around Oakdale. — Cor 
Modesto Herald, July 2: Those engaged in 
harvesting the grain orops in this locality and 
upper Dry creek, report the yield better than 
had been estimated. J. 0, Laughlin, who runs 
a combine, reported to the writer on yester 
day, that " his orop made an average yield of 
20 bushels per aore." John McHugh, In re 
ply to inquiries, stated to the writer to-day 
that his orop was turning out much better than 
be had expected, and several other leading 
armers report equally favorable. 

Yolo. 

Shipment of Dried Afrioots, — Winters, 
July 9: Winters shipped the first car of dried 
apricots for tbe season of 1801, on July 6:h 
This car was loaded by Messrs. Tucker, B )yd, 
Ish and Rsid, and sent to Chicago, It will be 
followed by one on Monday to tbe same firm 
In New York. 

Crop Acreage. — Assessor Meek has oom 
plied his assessment o! Yuba county. Thi 
following statistics of orops may be of interest 
to our readers: Wheat, acres 30,000; oats, 
acres 3000; barley, acres 8000; corn, acres 
690; hay, acres 10,000; grapes, table use, acres 
100; grapes, raisin, acres ISO; grapes, wine, 
acres 160; number fruit trees growing, 120,000. 

ARIZONA. 

PRoriT in Figs. — Yuma Timtt: The future 
great value of the early fruit land in tbe vtcin 
ity of Yuma i« well illustrated by this yea-'s 
sbles cf blsck figs from three trees In Dr. J, H 
Taggart's garden — the entire first orop having 
been sold for 75 cents per pound in the S<n 
Franoisco market. This gave a yield of $15 
per tree, or over $1000 per aore for a well laid 
out orchard. His trees are so crowded, how- 
ever, that the rate of yield was fully $2000 per 
aore. Ripe figs were picked May 17ch this 
year, which is about five days later than the 
average for many years and the latest ever 
known. The earliest on record is May 6tb, 
and as the early varieties of peacbcs ripen with 
black fige, Yuma will make a showing of early 
peaches before many years. 

NEVADA. 

Farm Notes — Territorial Enterprise, July 
3: Owing to the oool backwardness of the 
spring weather, the crops generally are ilot 
quite so well advanced as usual, at this time of 
tbe year; indeed, one night, a week or so ago, 
a heavy frost nipped the potato vines and 
other similar herbage about Carson, and far- 
ther up the valley. The grain and hay crops, 
however, promise abandantly, and a larger 
acreage will be harvested this year than ever 
before. Mowing macbines are already com- 
menoing work in some of the bay fields along 
the line of tbe railroad, in Carson, Pleaiant and 
Truckee valleys, and tbe alfalfa will give its 
regulation three crops without fail. Hay will 
be cheap this fall; indeed, many stacks remain 
over from last year. Irrigation is at a dis- 
count, tbe mountain streams are flowing free. 
Washoe lake is fnll, and great reserves of 
snow still whiten the rngeed peaks and steep 
ravines of tbe old Sierra Nevada. 



FBIOHTFaL DEATH RATE OF JOLY. 

The mortality amonK children is startlloK in the sum- 
mer months, cholera intaDtuiii then reaping its harvest 
of death. Out o< a total of thirty thousand deaths from 
this dread disease, 12,468 occurred during July. 

The chief cause o( this (rightful death rate is Improper 
fsod, Mrs, I. J. Woodmauaee of Speocerport, N. Y., had 
an experience that will be of value to every mother. 
Her baby was taken very aitk with bowel trouble, and 
nothing helped the child until Laotated Food was used, 
when health soon returned. All through the summer, 
when cholera Infantum was raging, little Edna lived on 
this Food and kept well and atrong, 

A trial can coei but 25 cents (of druggists or of Wells, 
KicbardsoD &. Co., Burlington, VL) and mothers do their 
children grave iojuatice when they refuse to use this 
pure food that sustains and nourishes the life that would 
otherwise expire. 

Wearing a Badge. — It Is stated that work- 
men in Japan usnally wear on their oaps and 
back an inscription giving their business and 
employer's name. 

FAIBVIBW STOCK FARM. 
D. C, Palmeter, Chicago, owner above Farm, Wilbur, 
Neb. , writes: " I have given Qninn's Ointment a thor- 
b trial, has proven great euooess, does more than la 
claimed," For Curbs, Splints, Spavins, WIndpuffs, 
Bunches, has no equal Trial box, 26 cents, silver or 
stamps. Regular size tl.M delivered. Address W, B. 
Eddy ft Co., Whitehall, N. Y, 



The Fourth in San Diego. 

Editors Press:— The Fourth was a lively 
day for this section. Probably no city In tbe 
Union was as brilliant on that day as tbe San 
Diego bay oities, Han Diego, Coronado and 
National. At eight o'clock a »i , the anxiously 
looked for United States Cruiser Charleston 
and the Chilean runaway Itata were sighted 
about ten miles south of National City, and at 
ten the Itata came to anchor in the harbor off 
Spreckels' wharf and the Charleston about a 
mile from the Hotel del Coronado. 

Tbe bay oities were In holiday attire, the 
weather perfect, and every one was wild with 
enthusiasm over the extra treat not laid down 
on the program for the day. The magnificence 
of tbe evening, clear, cool and quiet, was even 
more enjoyable than tbe day. Tbe flath-llghts 
from the Charleston Illuminating for miles 
around, the nnoeual display of fireworks from 
the yacht Lurline close by, displays from all 
points on land, and the brilliant illumination 
at the big hotel, all reflected In tbe glassy 
waters of tbe bay, was an enchanting scene 
such as writers of fairy tales might depict, bat 
which Is rarely witnessed. 

Camping parties and picnic parties were cff 
at an early hour for La Jolla, Ocean Beaoh, 
Point of Rocks and Mission with colors flying. 
There was no tedious marching, no tiresome 
speech-making, but a freedom of enjayment 
that made tbe day all the more enjoyable. The 
wheelmen and fast horses added life to all the 
other lively attractions at Coronado Beach. 
Eacondido was the point of attraction for sev- 
eral thousand, who preferred an inland oelebra- 
tion in that tbrilty and delightFol valley. 

This extreme southwest portion of the Union 
seems to have been designed by nature for en- 
jayment, and a pleasure-loving people have 
been attracted hither. We have no extremes 
of heat or cold to offend the most sensitive, 
and no disturbance of the elements to alarm 
the nervous. 

The new-formed body of water in this oounty 
excites a good deal of interest. We are wait- 
ing to know if we are to have an inland sea, a 
great fresh- water lake or only a voluntary con- 
summation of the plans of various engineers, 
who propote tapping tbe Calorado river for the 
purpose of creating an immense reservoir for 
irrieating purposes. Irrigation is in tbe air. 
Let us hope that Nature has a little scheme of 
her own, and will cause the desert to blossom 
with beauty and utility. F. M. K. 

National City. 

As there is no royal road to learning, so there Is no 
magical cure for disease. The efleot, however, of taking 
Ayer's Sarsaparilia tor blood diaordere comes as near 
magic as can be expected of any mere human agency. 
This la due to its purity and strength. 

A LITTLE oampbor placed in every window 
sill will keep out flies, except in tbe kitchen 
where the temptation is etronger and tbe 
remedy of necessity more stringent; but a little 
camphor sprinkled on the cook stove now and 
again will drive out tbe pests and keep them 
out, while it will also nentralfzs the unpleasant 
smell of cooking. 

Oar AgtiatM, 

Odk F&iiNDs oan do much In aid of our paper and the 
muse of practical knowledge and eoience, Dy assisting 
Agents In their labors of canvaslng, by lending their In- 
Suenoe aod encouraging favors, we intend to send noot 
but worthy men. 

Osc. WrLsoD— Sacramento Co. 

J. 0. HOAS — San Francisco. 

SiucBL E. WiTSON— Sonoma Co. 

HssNAN Staklet— Modoc Co. 

C. J, Wadi— San Bernardino Co, 

W. S. Psosssa— Placer Co. 

Chapkcbt A. Datton— Monterey Co. 

W. W, MiLLRE - Plumaa Co. 

R, G. Bailrt— San Francisco. 

E. B. SCBASprLs— Central California. 

Wm. M. Hilliart— Oregon. 

AaTiiCR M, MiTCiiKLii — Oregon. 



IT STANDS AT THE HEAD I 



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Other landii for sale ot |lo to nn acre and on 
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of imnjenso nize. the water supply fur all tiie cunaU 
cm carry is a^'^nred. In this renpect the pBtxjg in 
un**<^naled for IrriKaticg purpoHes by any river on th-j 
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Climatic nnd soil conditions here are superior to 
those of Houthem Cnlifornia. All the fruits that ar» 
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Cotton.tobacco and hemp al«o crow here luiurianUf, 
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Jit- 



Jdlt 18, 1891.] 



PACIFie F^URAb PRESS. 




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66 



f ACIFie F^URAlo f RESS. 



[Jolt 18, 189) 



Wlicalional. 



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but on progrese in etu lies. 
T. 6. BOWENS. M. A.. Head Master. 



School of Practical. Civil, Mechanical and 
MINING ENGINEERING. 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and As aying, 
728 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO, OAl 
Open all year. 
A. VAN DER NAILLEN, President. 
Asnring of Ores, 125; Bullion and Chlorination Assa\ . 
$25; Blowpipe Assay, tlO. Full Course of Assaying, $50 
KSTABLISHED 1864. KT Send for Circular. 




IRVING INSTITUTE. 

A Select School for Young Ladies. 

Fifteenth Year. Eighteen Prof -ssors and Teachers. 
For Catalogue or Information address the Principal, 

REV. EDWARD B. C HUHOH, A. M., 
loss Valencia Street, Sac Francleco, Oal 




I MURPHY BUILDINC, 



Tbe Only Actaai Business College 

ON THE PAOIFIO COAST. 

This popular institution stands upon its merits as the 
live, progr' ssive, practical Commercial Training School 
of San Francisco. 

Individual Instruction given in the Fnglish Branches, 
Commen ial Law, Penmanship, Commercial Correopond 
ence, Shoithaod,'Typewriting, and Book-keeeping In all 
its forms 

Exper' Accountants of wide experience only, employed 
as teachers of Bi^ok keeping and Commercial Cus oms. 

First-class board at the College B lardii g Hall, under 
the management of members of tbe faculty, at 813 per 
month 

ENDORSED BY THE FARMERS' ALLIANCE OF 
THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 

Send for Uliislrated Catalogue, and copieB of our 
College Jourral. Address 

San Francisco Bnnness College, 

Cor. Market nnd Jonea 8ta.,8ao Francinco.Cal. 



CHESNUTWOOirS 
SANTA CRUZ. CAL. 



BK.ST EQUIPPED ON THE COAST. INDIVIDUAL 
Infltruotion. No classe''. Ladles admitted to all 
departments. Board and room In private families, tl6 
per month. Tuition, t\\ months, $42. 

J. A. CHESNUTWOOD, B .x iS, Santa Cruz, Gal. 




HOPKINS ACADEMY. 

OnklRQd, Cal. 
A FIRST-CLASS SCHOOL. A PLEASANT HOME. 

Qraduates adn^itted to tbe State University and to 
Stanford University without examination. 

W. W. ANDERSON, Principal 



PACIFIC GROVE, MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA. 

"THE GREAT FAMILY RESORT OF THE PACIFIC COAST." WITHIN THE MEANS OF ALL. 



X80X 



District Conference Encampment June 11-17 

V. M C. A. Day June 17 

Pncilic Grove Retreat AssocUtlon Juno IS 

Chatauqua Summer Srho 1 of Normal and Review Work June 16-July 25 



W. C. T. U. School of Methods July 14-21 

Midsummer Reunion August 4-8 

Itinerants Club of the Cillfornla Conference September 2-8 

Calif -rnia Annual Conference M E Church S' pte^nber 9-16 






IIIK MclliAI. ANii PIU"LiENTIAL Ma;.A..i ll N 



I t ion of I mill 111 



tli > r inf rmation address REV.T. H. SINKX, Sapt 



BUSINESS OOLLEGE. 

24 POST ST., S. F. 

FOR SEVENTY -FIVR nOLLARS THIS 
Colleire Instructs tn Shorthand, typewriting. Book* 
keeping, Tel gra(hy. Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
English branches, and everything pertaining to busioefs, 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
its graduates in every part of the State, 
iir Send pok Cikcdlar. 

E. P. HEALD, President. 

O. a. HALEY. Secretary. 




TUIH €0.ni>I.ETK KIT OF TOOLS 

Only 925. 

Si-iid for No 16 Illuslrati;il Catalogue. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., San Francisco. 



FRUIT GRADER. 




GRADES ALL 
KINDS OF FRUITS 
AND NUTS.uidthe 
only ORAUEK made 
that will grade cher- 
ries aid gra[i«s. Will 
not injure tbe most 
delicate; never cirgs, 
as the fruit is carried 
on an endUss rubber 
belt and does net de- 
pend upon gravity. 
For thii) reason its 
apacity tor rapid 
work is double any 
other GRADER, 
while the pries i« 
leDS. All who use it 
commend it. Send 
for circu ar, giving 
prices kud tesilmoa* 
ials. 



0. H. EVANS & CO. 

(Successors to THOMSON & ETVANS , 

110 and 118 Beale Street, S. F. 

MACHINE WORKS, 
f Steam Pumpt, Steam Engines 

and aU kinds of MACHINERY. 

CQ 




m 



DRIVING r''" "•■'J' bit made that can 

DIT the miij.t vicious hoitfewith 
^* ' 'igiial ;ind entiri- guccess. 

.JO.OUO nold ill I8S«). 

7o,OiHl Hold in I894>. 

THEY ARE KING. 

Sample mailed X C for <^ i r\f\ 
Nickel Ml.r>o. I -UU 
*<>tiillioii Hil!t Fifty cents extra. 

RACINE MALLEABLE IRON CO.^i.?M- 




MOSHER, CHANDLER .& CO., Manufacturers, 

216 FRONT STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



THE HAMILTON FRUIT GRADER. 

CAN GRADE 60 TONS OR MORE PER DAY. 

WILL GRADE FRUIT ACCURATELY. 

Any Oeiired Grade Made 

From No. 1 np to No. 7, 

Making Seven Diferent Sizes. 




hnportcr and Dealer In 

^ Dipping Baskets, Field Cars, 

' Tran>f<-r C ' rs and 

Turn Table*. 
ALL SIZES MADE TO ORDER. 



rNo Chtirclng of FruJt In 
my mbctili.e. 



Address W. C. HAMILTON. Patentee and Manufacturer. 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 




IT WILL SUIT YOU. 



ORANGE SEED! 



THIS IS THE LAST OPPORTUNITY TO PROCURE 
Choice Ta' iti Oranice Seed. Dairels avtrage over 
30 000 Seeds. Pri~es greatly reduced. L. O. SRESOVICH 
& CO , San F.aoci3i.o. 



California Inventors 

VNTi FoKEiON Patent Solh itop.s. for ohtalnlnf Patent* 
and Caveats. Established lu 18«0 Their long ezperlenoe as 
JoumalistB and large practice as Patent attoroeri enabUe 
them to offer Pacific Coast Inventors far better ■urvlce than 
they can obtain elsewhere. Send for free elrculan of lo/o*- 
matlon. Offloeof tbe MiNiHO AKDSoiurnrio Paws and 
P&oinc KURAL Prus No. HO Market S., Ban Frandsoo. 
■leTator, U Vront St. 



July 18, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 



Harvest Advices. 

Washington, July lo. — The regular monthly 
report of the Department of Agriculture says that 
the acreage for 1891 as compared with the harvest 
last year is as follows: Corn 108.3, potatoes 102.3, 
tobicco 102.6. The condition of the growing crops 
is: Corn 94.8, winter wheat 96.2, spring wheat 
94.1, rye 93.9, oats 87.6, barley 90.9, potatoes 95 3, 
tobacco 9t, I. The increase in the corn acreage is 
more apparent than real as comparison is made 
with the extent of country harvested last year, when 
the loss was heavy on account of the drought. The 
present return makes the acreage slightly less than 
78,000,000 acres, or somewhat smaller than the area 
actually planted last year. 

The crop is late in all sections on account of 
drought and unfavorable conditions at time of plant- 
ing and the cool weather during May, but June was 
warm with abundant moisture, and the crop was 
coming forward rapidly luly ist. 

In the Ohio and the Upper Mississippi valleys the 
progress during the month was especially gratifying, 
but in Kansas and Nebraska considerable damage 
resulted from the excessive rainfall. In many dis- 
tricts the June rains prevented proper working, 
leaving the fields foul. But a few days of sunshine 
would remedy this. The general average is a frac- 
tion below that of 1888 and 1890, and slightly above 
that of 1889. The averages of the surplus Stales are: 
Ohio 93, Indiana 95, Illinois 96, Iowa 94, Missouri 
88, Kansas 82, Nebraska 90. 

The condition of winter wheat returned is 
practically the same as in June. The crop is 
harvested except in its more northern section. Wilh 
a condition, the highest reported since 1879, with 
one exception the averages of the principal States 
are: Pennsylvania 98, Ohio 97, Michigan 89, 
Indiana 99, Illinois 93, Missouri 98, Kansas 94, 
California 98. 

The condition of spring wheat has improved 
during June, the advance being in Minnesota and 
the Dakotas, where the month was exceptionally 
favorable. The chinch bugs have appeared in 
portions of the Northwest, but with no ap- 
preciable damage yet. The State averages are: 
Wisconsin 77, Minnesota 93, Nebraska 96, Iowa 
96, North Dakota 98, South Dakota 97, Washing- 
ton 93. 

Oats improved during the month, but the general 
average is the lowest reported since 1879, except 
1887 and last year, when the July condition was 
81.6, followed by a practical failure of the crop. 
The poor condition generally is the result of drought 
early in the season, the present improvement having 
followed seasonable rains and the high temperature 
of June. 

The first return of potatoes shows the condition 
higher than the average recent years, while that of 
tobacco is higher than in any year since 1886. 

The fruit prospect is very flattering in New 
England and the North Atlantic States and west of 
the Missouri River to the Pacific Coast, The crop 
in Ohio and Michigan was materially damaged by 
frosts in May. 

A special cablegram from the European agent 
indicates a heavy deficiency in the European crop. 



List of D. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

Beported by Dewey & Oo., PloDeer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 

FOR WEEK ENDING JULY 7, 189I. 

455.588. — Balance Scale — Brastow & Rice, 
S. F. 

455,306. — Sectional Cam for Stamp-Mills— 
1. K. Cleaver, S. F. 

455.589. -Car Coupling — F. A. Fox, S. F. 
455 593 — Car Coupling — F. A. Fox, S. F. 
455,531.— Ore Separator — Good & Thorne, 

Portland, Or. 

455,396. — Rock Drill— H. S. Grace, S. F. 

455,619. — Hose Bridge — B. E. Hennksen, 
S. F. 

455.630. — Derrick— O. M. Loveridge, Weaver- 
ville, Cal. 

455,637. — Brake-Head Attachment — J. H. 
Nethercott, S. F. 

455.515 —Double-Acting Lift Pump— O. W. 
Parker, Oakland, Cal. 

455,465.— Can Faucet— C. M. Symonds, S. F. 

455.1:23.— Picture Canvass Stretcher — E. 
P. T. Widell, Albma, Or. 

455498. — Gold Saver and Concentrator— 
W. A. Woods, Santa Cruz, Cal. 

455,677.— Crushing Mill— J. H. Yeaton, Coro- 
nado Beach, Cal. 

The following brief list by telegraph, for July 14 
will appear more complete on receipt of mail advices: 

California— Thomas C. Churchman, Sacramento, 
tongue support; Vireinia M. Cune, Alameda, noiseless 
chamber attachment; Salome P. Davis and J. H Dicks, 
Sao JoHe, baby carriage; Robert B. DiVis, San Diego, 
v/ttve motor; Axel Johnson, O^k and, assignor to Mar- 
ahall Improved Window Furniture Compauy of San 
Francisco, saeh-fasteuer; Thomas Pepper, assign '^r of 
thlrty-tive forly-eightB to H. T. Christian, K, W. Burn- 
ham and H. B. Sheppard, San Diego, windmill (con- 
tinued); William F. Shedden, assignor by mesne assign- 
ments to the E ectric Street and Station Indicator Com- 
pany, Sm Francirco, street or station iodluator; Qeorge 
R. Tietjen, as^liinor of one-half to O. B. Bahes, San 
Francisco, street or station Indicator (or cars; Jon^than 
V. Wibster, Creston, cultivator. 

Idaho— John J. Morrison, Lewiston, vehicle axle coup- 
ling. 

Oregon — James Oill, assignor of one-half to J. QUI, 
Portland, device for operating steam-engine indicator; 
Jane L. Landreth Marshficid, roUing-pIn combined with 
other implement); Walter J. Uontcith, Albany, pliers. 

Washiaglon — Joseph Kormel, Qoldendale, car coupling; 
Edward H. Pir cat, Puyaliup, baling press; Michael E. 
Riley, Montesano, Ice-freezer. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co , In tde shortest time possible (by mail 
tor telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacific Coast 
nveotors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
ates, and in the shortest possible time. 



Import ant to F armers. 

We have 93,003,000 In sums of $SO0O up to loan on 
County Banch Property below market rates. It you 
desire a loan or wish to renew one at lower rates, write 
US the rate u( interest you are low paying and we will 
Immediately advise what amount we can save you. 
MERCANTILE AGENCY & INVESTMENT CO., 18 Post 
Street, S»n Franelsoo. 



Young Herds at the State Fair. 

Editors Press: — By an oversight the pre- 
mium for Yonng Herds in each class were omit- 
ted from the State Fair premium list thia year. 

The Board of Directors of the State Agrioult- 
nral Society, last season, after publication of 
premium list, decided to give a Young Herd 
premiam In each cUes, and it was done. That 
rule still holds good; bat by error was left ont 
of preminm list this season; consequently all 
that intend to exhibit will bear in mind that 
the Young Herd premium, similar to that 
r£F'>rFd to the Darhams in the premium list of 
1891, will be given in each class, 

Sacramento, July IS, Edwin P. Smith, 
Sec'y. 

Ayer's Hair Vigor has long held the first place, as a 
hair dressing, in the estimation of the public. Ladles 
find that this preparation gives a beautiful gloss to the 
hair, and gentlemen use it to prevent baldness and cure 
humors of the scalp. 

CalKoruia Wagon & Carriage Go. 

A Rural reporter called at the repository of the 
California Wagon & Carriage Co., 220-222 Mission 
St., San Francisco, whose advertisement appears on 
another page, and to satisfy himself, eximined their 
goods and finds them straight — certainly number one, 
and at prices that are extraordinarily low. For in- 
stance, they sell a most excellent road-cart for 
$13.98; buggy, $60.98; spring-wagon, $42.98; etc. 
They have upward of 90 samples of all kinds of 
vehicles, and are shipping goods to all parts of the 
country. 

You get goods from them at less than wholesaU 
rates, without any middle profit added to prices. 
Any one desiring to purchase vehicles will positively 
do well to examine their goods or write for cata- 
logue. Mr. W. H. Crute the manager, tikes 
pleasure in exhibiting goods and explaining their 
merits, and cordially extends an invitation to all 10 
call at their rnpository, and satisfy themselves ibit 
this is the opportunity to purchase good vehicles at 
prices before unheard of on this coast. Com. 



Let Us Know 



If you fail to get this paper. We prefer to send 
missing Nos. Write soon and to the office direct. 
It is important that we should know when the 
paper miscarries. 



$3,250,000 

To loan on mortgage on ranches and citv 
real estate below market rates. HOWE & KIM- 
BALK, 508 California St., S F. 




BUY YOUR HARNESS AT WHOLESALE 
PRICES. 

Liebold Harness Co. 

110 McAllister St., San Francisco. 

Good Hand Made Buggy Harness. $1 8 
Good Double Spring Wagon Harness, $30 

Send for Descriptive Price List. 




IN 



J rRIQATED Jj ANDS 

— VIZ. : — 

Five-Acre Villa Lots within one mile of 
Tulare City limits, at from $50 to $80 per 
acre. Good investment for small or large 
holders. 

Twenty to i6o-acre Lots in N. E. quarter of 
section 8, township 21, range 24, seven 
miles S. W. of Tulare City. Fenced and 
every acre cultivated; adjoining a young 
and nicely growing orchard and vineyard. 

Twenty to 8o-acre Lots in N. W. Quarter of 
section 8, adjoining the above; all fenced, 
ditched and cultivated; $22.50 per acre. 
The quarter (160 acres) will be sold as a 
whole, with a splendid flowing artesian 
well, large reservoirs, 7 acres of 8 year-old 
orchard; 20 acres of alfalfa, and 7-room, 
2-story, hard finished house, in good order, 
costing, with barn and the other improve- 
ments mentioned, over $5000; will be sold 
at $35 per acre. The house, front yard and 
reservoir are environed with beautiful 
shade trees and shrubbery. 

N. E. Quarter of section 7, adjoining, in 20- 
acre lots, all rich and well cultivated; $30 
per acre; as a whole, $27.50 per acre. 

Plentiful ditch irrigation is to be had for 
every acre of this land at very reasonable 
rates. All except the first quarter men- 
tioned is near the center line of the cele- 
brated Tulare artesian belt of flowing 
wells. 

The N. E. one-quarter and south one-half 
of Sec. 15, T. 23, R. 24, three miles S. W. 
of Pixlev, Tulare Co., in 40-acre lots, $20 
per acre; r6o acres or more, $18 per acre; 
entire, $16 per acre. Also in Artesian 
Belt. 

The above valuable but extremely low-priced 
lands will be sold on small cash payments 
and long-term credit or installments at 8 
per cent interest, if bargained for soon. 

Visitors to the premises will do well to notify 
the undersigned owner a little in advance, 
who invites close examination and cash 
oflfers. These terms will probably prevail 
for a short time only. 

Address A. T. DEWEY, 220 Market St., 
S. F., for further information. 




RUPTURE 

PERMANENTLY CURED. 

No Detention from BagineHn. We refer you tii 7U0 
patients in Colorado aiid Six National Banks in Denver. 

Investigate our method. Written guarantee to absolutely cure 
all itindsot RUPTURE, of both 8e.\e9, wilhout the use of KNIFE 
OR SYRINGE, no matter of how Iouk standing. 

EXAMINATION FREE. 

THE 0. E. MILLER COMPANY. 

Rooms 2 and 3, nortliwest corner Kiftli and Washington Streets, 
PORTLA.ND, OREGON. Entrance, Wa'hington Street. 

Ottice hour^, 10 to 12 a. m., 2 to 6 and 7 to 8 p. m. Personal cor- 
respondenoe solicited. 




Whitewashing Machines &Tree Cleansers. 

Complete Oatflts at prices from $S to $50. 

The Pumps ore all BRASS, with BRASS AND RUBBER VALVES. 

For Orchard Ists, Florists, Stockmon, Poultry Raisers 

THKRE I.S NOTHING LIKK TBEU. 

Pump sent complete a3 in cut tnr $14. Send for Illuitiated Catalogue. 

WAimiGHT SPRAYIMG APPARATDS CO., 1409 Jacison St., S. F. 

Oontracta tafean for Large Job* of WhltcwaahiDK. 



SEMI-ANNUAL STATEMENT 

OF THE 

GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA. 



Amount of Capital actually paid in U. S. 
Gnld Coin, Surplus paid up and Reserve 



Fund. 



$814,664 ne 



ST ATE OP CALIFORNIA, ) 
City and County of San Francisco. J 
A. D. Logan and A. Montpellier, being each duly 
sworn, severally depose and say that they are respect- 
ively the President and Manager of the Grangers' Bank 
of California, above mentioned, and that the foregoing 
statement is true. (Signed) A. D. LOGAN, 

(Signed) A. MONTPELLIER. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 15th dav of 
July, 189L 

(Signed) .JAMES L. KING, Notary Public. 



SEMI-ANNUAL STATEMENT 

HHOWINQ THE ACTUAL CONDITION OF THE 

GRANGERS' BAXK OF CALIFORNIA. 

And the value of its Assets and Liabilities at the close of 
business .Tune 30, 1891, viz : 

ASSETS: 
Loans on wheat, real estate and other se- 
curities $1,306,188 21 

Due from banks and bankers 15,7^9 09 

Real Estate 103 877 10 

( ffice furniture, fixtures and safe 6,750 fo 

Cash on hand 134,276 23 

Total $1,666,850 63 

And said assets are situated in the fallowing counties 
in the State of Ca ilomia, to-wit: Alameda, Butte, Con- 
tra Costa, Colusi, Fresno, Merced, Monterey, Placer, 
Stanislaus, Sutter, Solano, City a^d County of San 
Francisco, Tehama, Tulare, Yuba and Yolo. 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital stock paid in U. S. Gold Coin $700,000 OU 

Surplus paid up and reserve fund 111,664 96 

Due depositors, banks and bankers 716,728 52 

Interest 35,459 16 

Total 81,586.8.^0 03 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 
City and county of San Francisco. > 
A. D. Logan and A. Montpellier, being each duly 
sworn, severally depose and say that they are respect- 
ively 'he President and Manager of the Grangers' Hank 
of California, above mentioned, and that the foregoing 
statement is true. (Signed) A. D. LOGAN. 

(Signed) A. MONTPELLIER. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 15th day of 
June, 1801. 

fSlgned) JAMES L. KING, Notary Public. 



S. F. OPFIOE. 29 STEUART ST. 



S. P. TAYLOR PAPER CO., 

DEALERS IN 

Paper, Paper Bags and Twines 

OP EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

LARGEST MANUFACTURERS and CLOSEST DEALERS 
IN 

FRUIT PAPER, RAISIN WRAPS, SWEAT 
PAPER AND PAPER TRAYS 

ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

414 & 416 CLAT ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

Send for Samples and Prices. 



TRUMAN, HOOKER & OO.. 

8AN FRANCISCO. 




Housewives, Attention ! 

Two new first-class Sewing Machines for sale 
cheap. Will be sent direct from warerooms if de- 
sired. Address, H. F. D., Box 2517, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

$500,000 

To LOAN IN ANY AMOUNT AT THE VERY LOWEST 

market rate of interest on approved sectuity in Farm- 
ing Lands. A. SCHULLER, Room 8, 4S0 Coll- 
fornta St„ San Frandsco. ** 



58 



f ACIFie F^URAL> PRESS. 



fJoLT 18, 1891 



fireeder;' birectory. 



six llnea or lees in tbls Dlreetory at 60e per llo* per month. 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



OOTATE BANOH BBBBDINQ FARM, Page'i 
Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn'e Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Willred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Drait HorMR, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 



POBB-BRBD HOLSTKIN FBIB8IAN Cattle 
lor Sale. Bonnie Brae Cattle Co., Holllster, CaL 



JOHN LiYNOH, Petaluma, oreeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns. Voung stocli for sale. 



IMPORTED STALLIONS.-English Shire, Cleve- 
land Bay, Qermaa Coach. Import direct. Write 
Bolbert & Conger, 129 18th St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

P. H. BCRKE, 401 Montgomery St., a F.; Registered 
Holsteios; winners of more first prizes, sweepetal<es 
and special premiums than any herd on the Coast 
Pure registered Berltsbire Pigs. All strains. 

J. H. WHITB, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cai., breeder 

of Registered Uolstein Cattle. 



P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co. , CaL , Importer and 
Breeder of Sliorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 



M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, importer and dealer In 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Red Polled Cattle, Hoi- 
steins, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 



PETER SAXB A SON, Lick House, San Franolsco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 'il years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

PBBRIN STANTON, Sacramento, Cal., Importer 

and Breeder ol Registered A. J. y. C. Jersey Cattle of 
the Best Strains. Stock tor sale. 



J. B. ROSE, Lakevil'e, Sonoma Co., CaL, breeder of 
Thoraughbred Devons, Roadtters and Draft Horses. 



P. PETERSEN, Sites, CoIusaCo., Importer & Breeder 
registered Shorthorn Cattle. Toung bulls for sale. 

WILD PLiOWBR STOOK FARM, Fresno Co. 
A. Heilbron & Bro.. Props., Sic. Breeders of thorough- 
bred strains and Cruikshank Shorthorns; also Registered 
Uerefords; a fine let of young bulls in each herd for sale. 

UBARLES B HOMBERT, Cloverdale, CaL, Im- 
porter and Breeder of Recorded Holstein-Friesian 
Cattle. Catalogues on application. 

PERGHBRON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
marcs, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, for sale at 
my ranch near Lakepurt, Lake Co,, Cal. New cata- 
logue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 



WILLIAM NILBS, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
• Registered Hoistein and Jersey Cattle. None better. 



T. PHILLIPS, Simi, Ventura Co. 
Percheron Horses for sale. 



Cal. Pure Bred 



POULTRY. 



IP YOU KEEP ANY KIND OP FOWLS, 

Pet Stock, Dogs, &c., it will pay you to send your ad- 
dress at once to C. R. Harker,Santa Clara, Cal. you can- 
not afford not to do it. It will cost you but one eent 
and you will receive something worth ten times that. 



JOHN McFARLlNQ, Calistoga, Cal. , Importer and 
Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send for Circular. Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Pigs. 



R. G. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
■nd Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 



OALT POULTRY YARDS, Gait, Sac Co., CaL 
Pure bred Fowls, Pekin Ducks, Belgian Bares, etc. 



MADISON H ORITOmEB, Bonnie Doon, Santa 
Cruz Co., Cal. Thoroughbred Poultry. Settings, IS. 



B. P. MOSSUN, San Leandro, box 165. BuB Cochins. 



O, J. ALBBB, Lawrence, Cal. Pure bred poultry. 



SHEEP AND OOATS. 



B. H. OBANB, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and Importer. 
Sonth Down Sheep from Illinois and England for sale. 



KIBKPATBIOK St WHITTAKBR, Knight's 
Feiry, Cal., breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sale. 



L. U. SHIPPBB, Stockton, Cal., Importer and breeder 
ol Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys ft Berkshire Swine high graded rams lor sale 



PRANK BULLAfiD, Woodland, Cal., Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Spanish Merino sheep. Pre- 
mium band of the State. Choice rams and ewes for sale. 



J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Cross bred 
Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for cale. 



ANDBBW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adY't. 



SWINE. 



J3SBPH MBLVIN, DavisvUle. CaL, Breeder ol 
Poland-China Hoga 

WILLIAM NILBS,Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars free. 

TYLER BEAOH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
•aorenghbrod Berkshire and Essex Hogs 

ANDBBW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal. ; see adv't 



BEES. 



APIABIAN SUPPLIES or sale by Mrs. J. D. 

Enas, Kapa City, Cal. 



DR. A. E. BUZARD, 

VETERINARY SURGEON. 

Member ol the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
London, England. 
Graocatrd April 22, 1870. 
AdTloe by Mall, $». 

OFFICE AND PHARMACY: 

631 O'Farrell St.. cor. Hyde, San Francisco. 

Open Day and ^'g , Telephone No. 20M, 



IMPORTER AND BREEDER OF THOROUGHBRED 

(RECORDED 




DISHFACED BERKSHIRE PIGS, 

IMPROVED POLAND-CHINA PIGS. 

SHROPSHIRE DOWN SHEEP, 

Toung Stock for sale at reasonable prices. Every animal guaranteed, 
OFPICB— 218 Oallfornta St., San Francisco. REDWOOD CITY. OAL. 





AMERICAN RIVER BREEDING FARM. 

Importer and Breeder I f ABKRDEEN ANGCS CATTLE. Proprietor, J. E. CAMP, Sacramento, CaL 



HOWE SCALE CO, 

411 & 413 Market St„ San Francisco, 



AGENTS FOR 





GRAIN AND WAREHOUSE SCALES, 

Fruit and Grain Truciis of ali Descriptions. 

Descriptive Catalogue of all Styles of Scales and 'Irucka sent on application. 



Registereil Hen! Book Stock of ihe Aaggis.Nethcrland, Nep- 
tune, ClifHen, Artis antl other families. None better. 

Of the Coomaseie, Alphea and other choice strains. 

Poland-Ohina and Berkshire Pigs. 

aE^OXJIjTin?"— Nearly all Varieties. 

Third Edition PODLTKY St STOCK BOOK, 60 cents 
by mail post)jaid. Thirteen years experience on this coast. 

Address: TTCTXX^l-iX^IVE JNTXX^XSS. Xjios ^xiaeles. GaI. 




The Blue Ribbon Phaeton Body Cart. 



$35 ! 



Has proved {lie bet^it built, most popular 
and best selling low-prieed t haeton Cart 
ever desi(rned. 

Seat is wide r nough for two, with box for 
parcels. Body hai been lengthened, is 

neiurely framed and BtrengthcuPd by making the panels in one piece. Sarv 
wheels, ste>l axles, and curveil dash. Kinished in ccirlet lake or brewster 
green. Has PATENT SPIRAL SPRING LAZY BACK. iShipped securely 
crated. Weight, 175 pounds. 



FRANK BROTHERS. 



33 & 35 iMAIN STREET, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 




IS AN KXCULLSNT SUUSTITUTK VUK GRASS. 



Qenuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 

Recommended b.v Qold- 
smith, Marvin, Gamble, 
W ells. Fargo & Co., etc., etc. 

It keeps Hoisesand Cattle 
healthy. For milch cows; 
it increases and enriches 
tliuir milk. 

683 Howard St., San 
Franoinco, Oal. 




MAKES THE BEST BREAD. 

H. E. CARPENTER, 

Veterinary Surgeon, 

Graduate of Ontario Veterinary College. Toronto, Canada. 
RESIDENCE AND VETERINARY INFIRMARY: 

SSI Oolden Gate Avenue, San Francisco. 

Telephone 3069. 
IS'OFKN DAS AND NIGHT. 
No risk in throwing Horses. Veterinary operating table 
00 the premises. 



$100.00 Reward ! 

If Browne's Mffh Squirrel 
Exterminator tljfei Tails to Eill. 




3END FOR CIRCULAR TO 
3I4&3I6 
S. Spring 
Street, 



F. E. Browne 
Los Angeles, 
Cal. 



BADEN FARM HERD. 
Short Horn Cattle and Draft Horses. 



Catalogues and Prices on application (o 
BOBBBT ASHBUBNBB, 
Baden Station, • San Mat«o Oo., Oal. 



DEWEY & OO., PATBNT AGENTS, 220 
Market 81., aaoFranclsw). Blevator, 13 Front St. 



PoJltWi Etc. 




To And out how she did it send 8c in stamps for 80-nage 
colored catalogue of Incubators,, Thoroughored 
Poultry and Poultry appliances to the 

PACIFIC INCUBATOR CO., 

ISI7 Oastro Street, Oakland, Oal. 



I» O XT I* T H. Y M El lO" 

WHOSF RRX.S ARR BEOINNTNC TO STOP LAVING. 
E-Mf liav.- ndvanred lioin l.^S its. to 30 eta., and will lu 
atlvanpe diiiink' the utit few n^oijtli.^t OOcta. per dozen, 
Thosu uishiug (gg8 t'> Bell at that price miiiit >tegiu fetding 
WKLLINGTON .S IMPROVED EC.(t KOOD Immedi- 
ately, now. at once. Duu't get caiiKht aa;,iii. Your 
liei^'hVtor:,, u'tx, alwaya have pl<>nty of never 
Lillow th'-nist'lv- a to l-t- wirn..iit thi^ lin|>rov«-d Kgg 
Food (Klandard for I tty<.arMi :in<l uili iw nootlier 
kliKl. <^;ut t>f au> Urueer. IkruKslaioi itlercbaiit, 
ur uf Proprietor, i25 Wasbiugtou Htr^et. San Fiauclsco. 

halsted7hcdrator 

COMPANY, 
Itl* H^tlo Mtroet, eaklMd, CaL.- 

Send Stamp for Circular. 





rn?, K A.T EST 
'Flen & Chirken Lice Killer. 

Ask your dealer for it, or niiui for Free Circular to 

Petaluma Incubator Co., Petaluma, CaL 



WHEN YOU BUY, 



BUY- 



THE BEST! 



Horse Liniment 

Is certainly the best preparation of Its 
kind In the market. Ranchers, Stock 
Raisers and Horse Owners of every 
description will tell you that It does 
g^ood work every time. 



Msssaa. H. IL MooRi & Sons, Stockton, Cal.— Outli- 
mtx: In answer to your Inquiry, would state that I used 
your H. II. U. Liniment on my Holland prize-winning 
cow, " Lena Menlo," tor a wrenched shoulder, and it re- 
lieved her very much. She calved the next day, and while 
still suffering from the sprain gave tbe largest authen- 
ticated quantity of m<lk ever given on this coast (KM 
gallons per day), showing conclusively the great relief 
received from your remedy. I consider it a necessity In 
my stables, and when away from home feel perfectly 
sate, as inexperienced men can do no harm with it, as 
they can with the more p>owetful hllRtem. Ilefpecttully 
yours, FRANK H. BL'KKK, 

Breeder of Registered Holsteins and Berkehires. 

Menlo Park, Cal.. January 22d, 18S9. 



MANUFACTURED BY 

H. H. MOORE & SONS, 

THE DRUOGISTS, 

348 MAIN STRKETI, STOCKTON, CAL. 

COLTSlROKEr 



THE SOUTHER FARM, 

One and a half miles northesiat of San Leandro, 
Alameda Oonoty, baa every facility for Break- 
ing Colts properly. Rates very reasonable. 
Horses boarded at all times. 

THE SOUTHEB FABM, 

QTLBBRT TOMPKINB, Proprietor, 
p. o. Box 1 46, Han Leandro, Oai 



BKEEPER OF ItEOIHTEKKD 

■taortkora, Abordeea - Abkb* 
aad J»rm»jr CntUe. 

Yoima Stock for Sale. Oorreepond ce 

FoUdted. O. W. BIHICK, Habbard 




Jolt 18, 1891.1 



f ACIFie I^URAlo PRESS. 



INSURANCE AGENCY. 



Bitler k Mn, 

413 California St., San Francisco. 



Pboenix Assurance Go. of London. 
American Firelns.Co.ofNewYork. 



Policies Issued on 

GROWING CROPS, 

GRAIN IN WAREaOUSE, 

FARM BUILDINGS AND OTHER 
PROPERTY, 

In these Old and Reliable Companies. 



LOSSES PROMPTLY AND LIBERALLY 
ADJUSTED. 



Special Agent, HERBERT L. LOW. 



WORTH'S PATENT 

CoiMiied Screw M Toggle Lever 

WINE.GIDER AND OLIVE PRESS. 



Ueinc; two baskets so 
that while one In under 
the press the other cao 
he emptied and filled 
ready to move under 
the press as soon as the 
first basket Is pressed. 
First Premium awarded 
at all (airs wherever 
exhibited. Parties de- 
siring a press combin- 
ing Power, Speed and 
^ase to Handle, can 
see them at the leading 
wineries ou the Pacific 
Coast. 

The followlDg extracts from well known 
wloe-makerg are qaotationg from letters 
received by ng: 

" I have much pleasure in stating that your press is a 
perfect machine. It works admirably, qu ck, is simple 
to operate, easy to move. I have to acknowledge that 
your iTt 88 gave me full satisfiotion."— J. C. MAZAL 
Pino, Placer Co., Cal. 

" We have usid your press with great satisfaction, all 
along, finding both convenient, effective and easy to licep 
clean, with no metal to be corroded by contact with the 
gripe Juice."— E. W. HILG.\KD, University of California, 
College of Agriculture, Berkeley, Cal. 

" Yout press gives very good satisfaction, vjrks per- 
fectly. Is stro g, durable, very powerful if properly 
U8ed."-RANCH1T0 WINE CO., Los Angeles, By J. W. 
Bustu. 

"The wine press gives entire satisfaction."— WM. 
HILL, Petaluma. 

" Wo take great pleasure in attesting the true merit? 
of your wine press The one now in use in our winery 
gives the utm.st satisfaction and we cheerfully recom- 
It as good as the best." — THE UOWNEV WINE & 
FRUIT CO., Los Angeles, Cal. 




Alfo Worth's Improved Grape Elevators, Improved 
Continuous Pressure Hydraulic Presses, Worth's Patent 
Power Grape Stemmcr and Crusher, Worth's Patent 
Hoise Power, and all kinds of machinery tor wine-makers. 
The Large Toggle Lever and Screw Press is capable of a 
pressure of 266 tons nr 300 pounds to the square Inch, the 
small press his 38 tons or iio pounds to the square inch. 

Petaluma Foundry and Machine Works 

P. O. Box 288, 
Petalama, Sonoma Conntjr, Cal. 



BEST TREE WASH. 

"Greenbank" 98 degrees POWDERED CAUSTIC 
SOUA (tests 99 3 10 per cent) recommended by the 
highest authorities in the State. Also Common Caustic 
Soda and Potash, etc., for sale by 

T. W. JACKSON & CO., 
Manufacturers' Agents, 
104 Market St. and 8 Oallfornia St., S. F. 

ITALIAN SHEEP WASH 

Kxtract of Tobnco. 

FREE FROM POISON. CURES 
the Scab of the Sheep. The 
BEST remedy known. Costs LESS 
than 1 cent per head for dipping. 
Price reduced. For particulars ap- 
ply to CB AS. DU1«KM BUKG 
& CO., Sole Agents, No. 314 Sac- 
lamento St, San Francisco. 




THE 0IANT POWDER COMPANY. 



PATENT OWNERS Of 

NOBEL'S DYNAMITE, 
NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE, 
NOBEL'S GELATINE-DYNAMITE, 

Best and Stronpst Eiplosires in tlie World. 

Ai other makers IMITATE our Giant Powder, so do they Jndson, by Manofaotaring 
a second-g:rade, inferior to Jndson. 
BANDMANN, NIELSEN A CO, General Agents, San Francisco. 



JUDSON POWDER, 

The Only Reliable and EITicient Powder 

For Stamp and Bank Blasting, From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stnmp, Tree or Root clear 
oat of ground at less cost than grabbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers nse no other. 



JOS. WAGNER MFG. CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

FLOUR,FEED,CORN 




• AND - 



MEAL MACHINERY, 

ELEVATING 

AND 

CONVEYING 

SHAFTING, 

PULLEYS, BOXES, 
HANGERS, ETC. 

LEATHER, 
RUBBER 

AND COTTON 

BELTING. 

MILL AND ELEVATOR 

MACHINERY 



BARLEY, MALT AND PEED ROLLER MILL. STTZE^ZPHlIiEj S 

134 i 136 MAIN STREET, SUN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



P. & B. Fruit Papers 

(PATENTED.) 

ESPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR FRUIT DRYING. 

No need of expensive wooden trays. No need of turning fruit. Costs much less than any other method. 

SAMPLES AND CIRCULARS FREE. 



PARAFFINB PAINT COMPANY, 

116 BATTERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

SHIPPINGS COMMISSION HOUSE 

OFFICE. 108 DAVIS STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 
Wareboase and Wbarf at Port Ooata. 



CONSIGNMENTS OF GRAIN, WOOL, AND ALL KINDS OF PRODUCE SOLICITED. 

Money advanced on Qraln In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Fall Oarsoea of Wbeat fumlsbed Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricnltnral Implements. Wagfons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited, 

B. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 



.J. F. HouOBTON, President, J. L. N. Bhepard, Vice-Prea. 
CuAS. R. Story, Sec"?, R. H. Maoill, Gen. Ag't. 

Home Mntnal Insurance Company, 

216 Sansome Street, San Franciico, 

Incorporated A. D. 1864. 

Losses Paid Since Organization 93,175,759 21 

Assets. January 1, 1891 867,512 19 

Capital Paid Up in Gold 300,000 OO 

NET BURPLUB orer everrthlng 378 901 10 



PoilirjaidSiockBook 

successful Poultry and Stock Raising on thcPacific Coast 
A New Edition, over 100 pugea, profusely Illustrated with 
handsome, life-like Illustrations of the dlHerent varieties 
of Poultry and Lire-Stock. Price, postpaid &0 eta, Ad- 
drMS PACIFIC RURAL PRESS Office, San Francisco, Cal. 



Niles's nev, 
manual and 
r e f e r e nee 
Dook on sub- 
j ects con- 
nected with 



Coiii|iii3$ioii |Nerchapt3. 



WETMORE BROTHERS. 

Commission Merchants. 

GREEN AND DRIED FRUIT, NUTS, 
PRODUCE, POULTRY, EGGS, 
HIDES, PELTS, EIC. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. PROMPT RETURNS. 

41S. 415 Se 417 Washington St., 

(P. O. Box 2099.) SAN FRANCISCO. 



MOORE, FERGUSON & CO., 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR 

— AUD— 

General Commission Merchants, 

810 Oallfornia St., S. F. 



Hembers of the San FrandSGO Produce Exchange 
IVPersonal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vancek] made on Consignments at low rates of Interest. 



DALTON BROS., 

Commission Merci\ant$ 

MID DIAIiKRS IN 

CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

Green and Dried Pniita, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances naade on Oonslgnments. 

308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. O. Box 1S86.] 
SVConslgnments Solicited. 



ALLISON.GRAY&GO. 

501, 503, 505. 507 & 509 Front St., 

And 300 Washington St., SAN FRANCISCO. 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

GREEN and DRIED FRU[TS, 

POUI.TKY,EGGS,GAME,GBAIN,PKODUCB 
AND wool,. 



[BSTABLI8HBD 1864.] 

GEORGE MORROW « CO., 

HAY and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

89 Olay Street ancl 28 Oonimerolsl Street 
8ah Fbanoisoo, Cal, 
tr SmPPIRO ORDERS A SPBOiALTT.'m 



EU8RNI J. Grrookt. [Established 1862.] Frahe Gkiooki. 

GREGORY BROTHERS CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF 

CALIFORNIA FRUIT AND PRODUCE. 
126 and 128 J St.. - Sacramento, Cal. 

San Francisco Office, 313 D{itU St. 



EYELETH & NASH. 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

And Dealers In Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Sgga 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221, ISt, 
226 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 



WITTLANS ft FREDRICESON, 

Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Oreen and Dried Fruits. 

Consignments Solicited. 324 Davis St., S. F. 



Go to American Exchange Hotel. 




Hi 



a 



O 



The above Hotel is situated in the midat of the Banli- 
ing and Commercial houses of the city, and is by far the 
most home-like and desirable Hotel to stop at. 
OHAS. A WM. MONTQOMBRY, Prop'rs. 



T NGRAVING COMPANY 

■ Make the best of Photo-Enyravinj^ He'ief 



J Frintinf^ Plates, Fine ZincograpbB,Wood 



En|?ravin^9, Society and fitisincFS SealB, 
Negatives, Blue Prints, Photo-Lithographic Transfers, 
Maui*: Lantern Slides and other Special Fhrtogra^hing, 
and nearly alt kinds of Ent^ravingB. Our Photo-facsimile or 

HALF-TONE ENGRAVINGS 

By our New Secret Processes, are unsurpssFed by any 
others. Prices Uniformly Reasonable. Send (or Samples 
and Estimates. 220 Market St. , San Franciaoo. 



60 



f ACIFie I^URAlo PRESS. 



[Jdlt 18, 1891 



njAF^KET ^EPORT& 



Market Review. 

DOMBSTid PBODOOB, BTC. 

San Francisco. July 15, 1891. 

The general weather has been favorable to har- 
vest work, although some localities complain of high 
winds. All grain crops are turning out well. Trad- 
ing in both wheat and barley is active. The mar- 
kets at the East and abroad have fluctuated— being 
largely influenced by weather changes. The follow- 
ing is to-day's cablegram : 

Liverpool, July 15 — Wheat — Rather easier. 
California spot lots, 73 lid; off coast. 40s 6d; just 
shipped, 4 ts 6d; nearly due 41s; cargoes of! coast 
and on passage, quieter; English country markets, 
quiet; wheat and flour in Pans, rather easier. 
LilverDooi wneat MarKet. 

The following are the closing prices paid for wheat 
options per ctl. for the past week: 

July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. 

Thursday TBtlid SsOld aOid SsO^d Ssljd 

Friday SsOd 8so|d Ssljd 892Jd Saajd 

Saturday SsOd Ssld SsUd Sj2d 8»2d 

Hooday.. ..Talld SsOid Ssld Ssld ssld 
Tueeday "slid SsOa SaOJd SsOJd SsOJd 

The toUowmg are the prices lor Calilornia cargoes 
•or off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
the past week: 

O. C. P. S. N. D. Market 

Tbursday 4l80d 4l80d 4l66il Steady. 

Friday *lBOd 4lB0d 4lB0d Steady. 

Saturday *1M 4l80d iUM yuiei. 

Honday 4l80d 4l80d 41s0d t^ulet 

Taeaday 41«0d 4l80d 4l8Ud Very yulet. 

Bastern Oraln Markets. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
at New York for the past week, per cental: 

Dav July. Aug Sept. Oct. Dec. 

ThUTsdav 169 163 162 .... 185J 

Friday.; 1674 162 161 162 164i 

aatarday 188 162i 161 162 184J 

Monday 185J 160 159 1604 18.1 

Tuesday 165J 159J l.WJ .... 102.1 

The closing pnccs for wbeat have been as follows 
at Chicago lor the past week, per cental: 

Day. July Sept Die. 

Thuiaday ISl.n 14SS H'ii 

Friday.. 160i 143; 147} 

Saturday ISOi lUh 1474 

Monday l«3J 146J| 

Tuesday 1*«9 1*6 

New York, July 15.— Wheat— 96 J^c for July, 
4^c for August, 94^iC for September, 97c for 
December and $t.oiJ^ for May. 

Chicago, July 15.— Wheat -87 Kc for July, 84%c 
for September and 87J^c for December. 

Visible Supply of Qraln. 

New York, July 13.— The visible supply of grain 
in store and afloat, as compiled by the New York 
Produce Exchange, is as follows: Wheat, 11,- 
806,000 bushels, a decrease of 778,000; corn, 
3,965.000 bushels, a decrease of 55,000; oats, 3,- 
795 000 bushels, a decrease of 769,000; barley, 62,- 
000 bushels, a decrease of 14,000. 

Baetern Wool Markets. 

New York, July 10. — Bradstreet.s : The leading 
wool markets still report trade quiet, with values 
easier. Australian wools are not in as strong de- 
mand as heretofore. Buying is confined to small 
lots. Manufacturers are taking account of stock, 
and hence the mills are not using much wool. In 
domestic wools the sales of Territories are the larg- 
est. The greater part of the Wyoming and Utah 
wool has now come forward. Montana continues 
to arrive slowly. ( "alilornia and Texas wools are 
in light demand; holders' prices are considered 
too high, and they will have to be lowered in order 
to create an active movement. Ohio and Michigan 
wools are dull. The views of growers, as usual, are 
too high to suit buyers. Little wool has been received 
in either of these Stales for Eastern markets. The 
London sales have closed. Prices were fully five 
per cent higher than at the close cf the last series. 
It is said that 15,000 bales were taken for American 
account. There is no change noted in carpet wools. 

New York, July 12. — Some selected lines of 
wool in the East made a shade better rates, with no 
falling off in any straight parcels. The prevailing 
opinion in trade quotations is not likely to cheapen 
the assortment. California wools are in heavier and 
better supply, the large New England millers look- 
ing at lull sized blocks. The enlarged sales at Bos- 
ton are not in proportion to the increased receipts. 
Philadelphia did considerable trade with New Eng- 
land buyers, but the local demand is quiet and with 
some promise of activity, as mill wants are becom- 
ing more definite. 

Wheat Crops In Europe. 

Washington, July 13. — A report on harvest 
prospects in France and Europe has been received 
at the Slate Department from Commercial Agent 
Griffin at Limoges, France. The National Millers' 
Association of France, the report says, has issued 
%n estimate, showing the yield of wheat for 1891 to 
be 31 per cent less than the harvest of 1890. Rus- 
sia, Tunis, Egypt, Roumania, and some of the 
Danubian provinces have a fair harvest. In Hun- 
gary it will be below the average this year. The 
estimates given by the millers the report says, are 
optimistic. Their desire to create an jmpre.«sion 
that there is a better suppjy than really exists is 
done with a purpose. They want to buy grain as 
cheaply as possible in those fortunate countries that 
have of their abundance to export. In conclusion, 
the report says, not only France but all Europe) is 
looking longingly to the wheat fields of the United 
States. 

New York, July 13. — A St. Petersburg letter to 
the London Telegraph just received here by cable 
states that the outlook is for a failure of the Russian 
wheat crop from the effects of early frosts, hail and 
drought, leaving little hope that famine can be 
averted. 

In reply to an inquiry by Bradtlreels, J. E. Beer- 
bohm of London, who is well informed of the con- 
dition of the wheat crop of Europe, sends word that 
the reports of a failure of the Russian wheat crop 
are exaggerated and have had no effect on the mar- 
kets. He adds that the Russian surplus for export 
will be atx>ut 64,000,000 bushels, or a little more 
than two-thirds of an average annual export during 
the past four years. 



Vegetable Market. 

Chicago, July 14. — New Potatoes — California 
stock sells at $i.45@i. 55 for z-bushel sks of choice 
heavy weights, though a very fancy car of bright 
stock, in lull 2-bushel sks sold at $1.75 and $1.25 
@i.4o for light weights. Sales were made by the 
bushel at 72@75C. Some heated and common stock 
was quoted at 75c@$i.25 ^ sack. California onions, 
I }^ -bushel sks. $2.40(^2.50 for red, and $2.75@3 
for Yellow. California Lima beans, 45<c ft. 
Last Year's Dried Fruit Market. 

Chicago, July 14. — Nearly nominal, stocks being 
about exhausted ol everything but raisins, and they 
are held steady, being, it is, said, about as low as 
they can very well get. Raisins, London layers, 
3-crown 10 box, $1.30; loose Muscatels, 3-crown, 
$t.i5@i.2s; do, 2-crown, $1.05; do, sacks, s@6c ^ 
!b. Prunes, 40 to 50 to the ft; in sacks, loc; 50 to 
5o, 9K@9Kc; 60 to 70, 9 5i@9Kc; 70 to 8o,9@95ic 
80 to 90. 8M@;c; 90 to 100. 8@8^c; 100 to 110, 
8@8Xc; ungraded, in bags. i@i%c; Apricots, 
choice, lie, off goods; loc; Peaches, unpeeled loc, 
peeled, 20c. 

Local Markets. 

WHRAT 

Buyer Buyer Buyer Seller 

1891. 1891. Season. 1891. 

th,„«i.y....{f 

^^■^"y 1^ 

~v {fl^^i :::: }^^| 

Monday 

_ „. |b 166 150 

'After August. 

BABUT. 

Buyer Season. Seller 1891. Buyer 1891. 

Thursday " 108J 1C6J •lllj •lllj 

Friday 118 118 107 I08| 1154 114} 

Saturday.. .. 121 120 107i 1071 'luf 'lU 

Monday 122 1194 IO84 107^ US 117i 

Tnesdav 1194 1194 107:} 107A 117* 117J 

'After August. 

BAGS — The market continues dull at 6>i@7c for 
standard-sized. 

BARLEY — The sample market has gained in 
strength under an improved home and export de- 
mand. In futures, dealing has been fairly active. 
The following are the reported sales on to-day's 
Call Board : 

Afternoon Session: Seller 1891 — 100 tons, $1.07^; 
100, $1.07^. Buyer 1891, after August ist — 200 
tons, $i.44K. Seller season — 100 tons, $1.07. 
Buyer season — 300 tons, $1.19. August — 100 tons, 
$1.09 ^ ctl. 

BUTTER— Gilt-edged firm, roll is wanted at a 
further advance. The market as a whole exhibits a 
better tone. Receipts are only fair. Considerable 
is still coming forward from the East. 

CHEESE. — The market rules strong at full 
figures, with a fair demand reported. 

EGGS — Choice selected ranch fetch another ad- 
vance. Eastern eggs are slightly higher. Receipts, 
overland, are lighter. 

WHEAT — The sample market shows activity 
when buyers pay over $1.50 for No. i white shipping, 
but when buyers bid down then sellers withdraw. 
In futures, trading has been fair. The following are 
to-day's reported sales on Call : 

Morning Session: Seller 1891 — 100 tons, $1.49; 
100, $i.495f. Buyer 1891, alter August ist— 600 
tons, $1.5554; 600, $1.55!^ per ctl. Afternoon Ses- 
sion: Buyer 1891 — alter August ist— 200 tons, 
$i.5SH; 600. $1.54^; 1400, $1.55. Seller 1891— 
300 tons, $1.48^; 200, $1,48^. Buyer season — 
200 tons, $i.59M ^ ctl. 

Market Information. 

Produce Beceluta. 
Receipts of produce at this port for the week end- 
ing July 14, were as follows: 

Flour, qr. sks 130,040 Middlings, sks. . . 4.1 15 

Wheat, ctls 339,567 Alfalfa, " 

Barley, " 57,991 Chicory, bbls.. 310 

Rye " 256 Broomcorn bdls 

Oats " 499 Hops, bis 22 

JCorn " 1,258 Wool, " 831 

•Butter " 815 Hay, tons 2,120 

do bxs 355 Straw " 217 

do bbls Wine, gals 183,270 

do kegs Brandy, " 2,620 

do tubs j Raisins, bxs 2,600 

doj^bxs 235' Honey, cs 55 

tCheese, ctls 895 Walnuts, sks 

do bxs 60 Flaxseed, " .... 460 

Eggs, doz 29,650 iMustard, " 

do " Eastern. 25,800 Almonds " 

Beans, ctls 328 Peanuts, " 

Potatoes, sks .... 28.012 Popcorn, " 

Onions, " 2.629 Beet sugar,bbls 

Bran, " 8.329 do do sks 

Buckwheat " 

'Overl'd 961 ctls. tOverl d 218 ctls. JOverl'd 1233 ctls 
Oereaia. 

The local wheat market exhibited more strength 
the forepart of the week under review, due to bad 
weather in England, causing export buyrrs to bid 
up; but with finer weather the market is slow. 
Although the market is slow, yet buyers find con- 
siderable difficulty in securing wheat below $1.50. 
Many sales are quoted at that price, and even less, 
but we fail to have them confirmed; they are done 
to influence holders. Farmers through their 
organizations are working more in harmony, and 
are thefore not so much at the mercy of unscrupulous 
dealers. There is another factor largely in favor of 
farmers; viz., in Eastern Washington and Eastern 
Oregon the Farmers' Sub. Alliances have erected 
elevators and are independent ol the railroad wheat 
elevator ring. While the farmers have not as many 
elevators as they want, yet they have a sufficient 
number to give them power to largely regulate the 
market up north, and this will be in the interest of 
California growers. Last season forced sales of wheat 
by the railroad wheat elevator ring, were against our 
farmers, for these sales made in our city largely con- 
trolled values. All European advices are still in 
holders' favor, and point with unerring certainty to 
good, if not high prices throughout the season. The 
wheat and ship rings did all they could to keep ships 
from coming here by crying only a fair crop, but the 
Rural Press statements of a good crop are attract- 
ing ships. A small supply of ships would mean 
high freight, a large supply means fair freights. 



Harvesting is under full headway in this State, 
and the yield to the acre is above an average — con- 
firming our previous statements. The berry is plump 
and fine. From the Oregon Weather Bureau, July 
II, we obtain the following: Western Oregon — The 
wheat prospects continue to be unusually good. 
Twenty-two to thirty-four stalks stooled out from 
grain in Yamhill county. The heads are large and 
berry full and plump. The grain is turning yellow 
and harvest will begin in ten days. Oats and barley 
are promising large yields. Eastern Orpgon, the 
bureau reports as follows: Fall wheat has headed 
remarkably well and the excellent prospects con- 
tinue. General reports indicate that the largest 
yield per acre and totals, will be obtained. Oats 
and barley are fine crops; in sections rye is a poor 
stand. 

Barley has strengthened, notwithstanding specu- 
lators and their tools attempt to send prices to much 
lower figures. Although the crop in this State and 
up north is large, yet it now looks as if all will go 
into consumption. Heavy shipments are being made 
to Iquiqui. Shipments will, it is claimed, be made 
to Europe and also to the East. Purchases, it is said, 
have already been made for the latter purpose. The 
local market is unusually active. The grain is of 
superior quality, averaging large and bright. 

Corn is coming in fairly free from the Central 
States, and as the Central American demand is light, 
it is with difficulty that current quotations can be 
secured by sellers. Crop prospects are said to be 
good. 

Rye is being picked up for shipment to Europe. 
In oats the market shows more strength. Receipts 
are light, while the demand is good. 

Feedstuff 

Ground barley is higher, with good shipping and 
home demand. Bran, middlings and feedmeal ap- 
pear to have an easier tone. 

Hay holds up under a free shipping and home de- 
mand. The exports are chiefly to Iquiqui. The 
grade this year is above an average. I'he outturn 
is not as large as was expected. Up north, while 
the yield is fair, yet there was considerable damaged 
by rains. 

Uve-BtocK. 

Bullocks and mutton sheep are in fair supply, 
with the latter fetching an advance. Hogs are 
steady. Milch cows and horses are about as hereto- 
fore reported. 

The market for dressed cattle is quoted as fol- 
lows [to obtain the price on foot, take off from the 
price for stall-fed one-third to one-half, according to 
the nature of the feed and time fed; and for grass- 
fed take off the price from 40 to 60 per cent |: 

HOGS — On foot, light grain fed. 5K®5?^BC<f ft 
dressed, — @ — c Ifi ft.; heavy, 5H@S3i<c ^ ft.; 
dressed. — @ — clf ft. Stock hogs, 45f@4Hc ^ ft. 

BEEF— Stall fed, 6%@—c ^ ft. ; grass fed, extra, 
6@—c # ft. ; first quality, 5K@ — c ft.: second 
quality 5® — c ft.; third quality, 4® — c 
ft. ; bulls and thin cows, 2@3c ^ ft. 

VEAL— Small, 6@7}^c |?ft.; large, 5@6)^c. 

MUTTON— Wethers. 8@K8c V ft.: ewes. 7^6® 
8c ft.; spring lamb, 8M@9Kc # ft. 

Frulta. 

Currents are going out, and in consequence quo- 
tations are dropped. Strawberries, raspberries and 
blackberries are in fair receipt. Cooler weather has 
been more favorable to the maturing crop. Can- 
ners are taking under their contracts large quan- 
tities of berries. 

Oregon advices report the fruit crop prospects 
better than heretofore reported, but sunshine weather 
is wanted. 

Grapes are coming in sparingly, but they are 
hardly merchantable, b^ing small and more or less 
sour. Unusual quantities of grapes will be shipped 
to the East this season. 

In tree fruits the market is well supplied with 
apricots, but other kinds are in light supply. The 
size of all kinds of fruits sent to this city is small 
and the flavor is not up to the usual run. These 
two drawbacks are against sellers. Barllett pears 
are coming to hand, but the quality as yet is poor, 
Crawford peaches have put in an appearance. The 
range of values for peaches this year is about 50 
per cent less than at the liketime in 1890. Ship- 
ments of fruits to the East are still on a large scale. 

Canners have contracted for larger quantities of 
fruits this year than they did in 1890. Dryers are 
reported slightly offish. Prices now bid are the 
same as quoted last week. 

It now looks as if more fruit will be dried this year 
than in 1890, but the most of it will probably 
be small sized, which will cause larger sized, well 
cured and packed, to be in demand and fetch an 
advance on other grades. Apricots are selling at 
from 9c to 12c, according to size, etc. Dried 
grapes are being [contracted at 3H>@3Kc; other 
dried fruits are about as heretofore quoted. 
Vesetabies. 

The market is well supplied with all kinds of gar- 
den truck. It now looks as if the crop of tomatoes 
and vine vegetables will be much less than was es- 
timated a month ago. This falling off is due to hot 
weather about 10 days since. 

Onions are in hberal supply. At present prices 
shipments are being made to the East. 

Potatoes continue to come to hand quite 'reely, 
and how the market cleans up so well is a puzzU:. 
The quality is good. Shipments overland are still 
in order. Oregon advices report a good crop, but 
warmer weather is wanted for maturing. 

Miscellaneous. 

From reliable advices up to July 15, the following 
summary tonnage movement is compiled: 
On the way to 1891. 1890. 

San Francisco 326,128 236.965 

San Diego 25,070 9.600 

San Pedro 5.525 13.500 

Oregon 33212 28,068 

Puget Sound 30,337 46,290 



Totals 420.272 334.423 

In port at 

San Francisco, disengaged 9,618 12,990 

" " engaged for wheal 69.429 42.584 

San Diego 2.514 "| 

San Pedro }-i2.i4' 

Columbia River S.960 J 

Puget Sound 



Totals 86,521 67,715 

To get the carrying capacity, add 65 per cent to 
the ref^stered tons as given above. 



From July i, 1891, to July 8, 1891, the following 
are the exports from this port: 1891. 1890. 

Wheat, ctls 140,223 341,913 

Flour, bbls 46,433 21.348 

^'ey 23,573 2.644 

Poultry is in better supply and weaker. Choice- 
conditioned young and large-sized poultry fetch top 
prices. 

Honey is coming in more freely. 

Beans are cleaning up. Crop advices continue 
favorable. 

Chicory is being dealt in more freely. 

In reply to reader, we will state that small broilers 
are one month, and over old; large broilers 
from a quarter to three-eighths grown, and fryers 
from one-half to three-quarters grown. 

In hops, the market is quiet. Old are about 
cleaned up. while both buyers and growers are 
watching crop developments at home and abroad. 

Wool is essentially unchanged.. Holders gener- 
ally, are not pressing the market. 



Domestic Prodnoe. 



Bxtn oholoe In good packages fetch an advance on lop 
qaotatloiia, while very poor grades wll leea than the lower 
iiaotatlocs. Weonesdat. July 15, 1891. 

BEANS AND PEAS. NUTS-JoBBUfo. 



Bayo, ctl 2 50 

Butter 2 70 

Pea 3 00 

Bed 260§290 

Pink 3 20 a 2 45 

BnuU White .. 2 85 @ 3 10 
Lima.... ... 2 20 a 3 25 

rid Pean.blkeye I 70 @ 2 00 
do grrra .... 1 50 2 50 

do Eastern do. . 2 60 @ 3 00 

do NLea 1 55 @ — 

Split 4i@ 6i 

BROOM OOEN. 
Ob'oetoExtralOO 00 @115 00 
Pair to Clood..70 00 @ 99 00 

Poor 50 00 @ 60 00 

OHIOORY. 



3 30 I WalnnU. OaL lb 74^ 

3 06 do Ob'oe 8 @ 

3 30 do paper shell 9 & 

do OhlTi 8 @ 

Almonds, hd alii. — ( 

Sottahell 16 ( 



Paper shell. 

BrazU 

Pecans smalL . 

do large. , . 

Peanuts 

PUberts 

HlckoiT 

Chestnuts 

Pine. 



Red., 



ONIONB. 



16 I 
7i| 
U I 
16 I 
4 I 
10 I 
7 I 
12 ( 
9 (S 



38 m 

Oalifomla 5i<g 6; Silver BMn 66(0! 

DAIRY PRODUCE, KTO. POTATOKtt. ' 



23 

|22 50 



BUTTER 

CaL Poor to fatr.Ib 16 @ 
do good to choice 19 (g 
do Oiltedged... 24 @ 
do Creamery rolls 25 @ 
do Eastern IC @ 

CREBSB. 

Oal. oholoe mild 9i@ 
do fair to good Si'^ 
do gilt edged.. 

Young America 

N. York Oream. 

Western 

BOOB 

Oal. ranch, doi. 

do do gel'cted 

do. store 15 ^ 

Eastern 17 (S 

FEED. 

Bran, ton 21 00 

Peedmeal 35 03 

Or'd Barley.... .24 00 

Middlings 23 50 

OU Cake Meal.. 25 00 (927 00 
ManbattanFood $1100 lbs 7 SO 
HAY 

Wheat, per ton. 12° 50 & 
do choice 14 50 @ 

Wbeat andOatsl2 00 S 

WUd Oats 11 00 @ 

Cultivated do.. — @ 

Barley 10 00 @ 

Alfalfa 12 00 © - 

Clover 12 50 & - 

Straw bale 65 @ 75 

FLOUR. 

Extra, CltyMiUs S 00 < 
do Oo'tty IliUs 5 10 1 

8upertine 3 50 1 

GRAIN. ETO 

Barley, feed, ctl 1 15 

do Choice I 20 

do Brewtng.old 1 60 1 
do do Cb'ce.old 1 65 < 
do duGiltedg," 1 70 

Buckwheat 1 25 

Com, WWte.... 2 00 

Yellow, large... 1 85 
do. smaU 1 87J( 

Oats, milling.... I 70 

Surprise 

Feed, Choice.... 1 65 

do good. 1 CO 

do fair 1 55 

do Gray 1 CO 

Rye 1 30 (fi 

'Wheat, milling. 
Oiltedged.... I C5 @ 

do Choice 1 60 W 

do (air to good 1 55 (g 

Shipping, cho'oe 1 53! 



14 

m 

5 

Hi 
8 
IS 
11 

50 
80 

«0 



Early Bose.sks. — & 

— I Peerless 65 C" 86 

23 Garnet Chiliee. . . 60 W 75 

— Burbttok Seedling. 90 ® 1 25 

— POULTBV AMD QAMIC. 
21 Hens, dos 6 50 @ 8 OO 

Rooeten.old.... 5 00 3 6 60 

— ao young 7 00 @10 00 

— Brolleis, small 2 50 M 

— do large 4 00 ^ 

— Fryert 4 50 (» - 

— Ducks 3 00 a - 

— Geese, pahr 1 00 @ I !6 

Turknys. Gobl'r. 30 (§ 

— Turkeys. Hens. . 17 9 

— , Pigeons 1 75 @ 3 SO 

Rabbits, doz.... - « — 
Hare — 9 — 

EGO FOOD. 
Manhattan. V lb U 9 - 

PROVISIONS. 
Oal.Bacon.he'vy.lb 9im — 



50 Medium 

Light 

Lard. 

Oal. BrnVdSeef 
HamsJCalsalt'd 
do Eastern... 

SEEOe. 

Alfalfa 5j 

Canary 

Clover, Bed. 

Whits 171 

(Totton 10 

Flaxseed 1 SO 

Hemp 

5 25 ItaUaaByeOraas 

5 25 I Perennial 

4 10 I Millet, German, 
do Common.. 
I Mustard, yellow 2 40 

— I do Brown 2 50 

— Rape 2 

- Ky. Blue Grass. 36 

- Sweet V. Grass. 76 

1 SO Orchard 14 ( 

2 15 Hungarian.. . 711 

Lawn nl 

Mesquit 7 1 

Timothy 4i( 

TALLOW. 
Rendered, S>. . . . S ( 

BeAned 4{! 

WOOL. -Spring. 18M. 
Humb't &Men'cino 20 1 




Bao'to valley 

Free Mountain. 
1 75 S Joacjuin valley 
i 70 do mountain. 
1 C5 Cala'T k VtbH. 
1 57! Or^on Eastern. 



do good. 1 Slig 1 621 do valley 



16 ( 
19 ( 

13 I 

15 I 

16 I 

14 ( 

21 I 
11 I 
1314 



Bo'n Coast. de(.. 
1 52i So'n (3oast. tree. 

IIONEV. 

— White Comb, lb 11 (a) 
8 do do lb (ram^ 

White eltract'd 

— Ambtr do 

— Beeswas. lb. . . , 



14 at 

6 

5 m 

25 1 



16 

7 



do fail 1 47 

Sonora 1 45 ^ 

HIDES. 
Dry Ight to h'vy 10i| 

Salted 6 ^ 

HOP». 

Oregon. 1890 30 le 

Cal 1890 Choice 30 | 
do Fair to G'd 25 @ - 
'inside i|UotatiouR are for new. and outside quotations 
are for oltl. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Choice selected. In good packages, fetch an advance on the 
quotations, while very poor grades sell lees than the lower 
Wednbsdat, July IS, 1891 
' J .W do white do JS (a 50 
I - Cantaloupes, cr. S 00 <" 3 50 
Wiitermelons.dz.1 60 (ft 4 OJ 
Grapes, box.... 1 50 (a 2 Oo 



Quotations. 

Bananas, bunch 1 60 ( 

Umes, Hex ....12 00 ( 

Lemons, lx>x. 
do Riverside.. 4 00 ( 
do LosAngeles 2 00 ( 
do Sicily, bx.. 7 00 ( 

Seedling Oranges 
do Riverside.. 2 00 ( 



VEGETABLES 
Okra. diy. lb.... 30(3 

do green 10 (.<t 

Panuips, ctl I 29 

- ■ ,2 



Phieapples. doz 4 00 ^ 5 00 Peppen, dry. lb 
Strawberries. Chest, do green hi . 

Choice to extra 8 00 @ Turnips, ctL ... . 

do (air to good 3 00 W — Beets, sk 

R'spberries.chst 6 00 @ 8 00 Cabbage, 100 lbs 

Figs, black, box SO # 76 Carrots, sk 

Apples, box.... 26 (« GO Garlic, lb 
■ ■ ■ 75 W 

1 00 m 
35 @ 
35 W 



do Aetrachan. . 

do do choice.. . 
Peaches, box . . . 

do basket 

do Crawford bx 
Apricot8,Royal,bx. 50 

do do lb H(g 

Plums, lb 1 @ 

Blackber's.chest 4 00 (3) 

do Choice 6 00 (" 

Pears, Com. box 40 (jc 




Cauliflower. ^d2 
- Tomatoes, Dox. 

75 do Bay 76 10 

75 S'm'rSquash bx. — @ — 

60 (It 1 CO do Bay 65 S - 

75 Cucuml>eis. box 60 @ - 

2, do Bay 1 25 (u - 

3 f do pickling, lb.. l(a 14 

Peas gr'n com sk 76 @ 1 00 
do do sweet. 1 00 @ 1 IS 
String Beans, lb 
do do wax. . . 
Egg Plant, box . 



75 



1 CO «i 1 50 



do Bartlett 
Nectarine 

White, bos 1 25 © 1 75 Green Corn, sk 
Red 1 50 <u 2 00 do Sweet, doz 



2«M 
2 @ 

75 U 1 26 

76 O 1 to 
18 @ 25 



Rope. 



Billing, Duplex, lb 8 

Manilla, lb U 

mixed 91 

Twine, (or bops, balls, tarred. It, Manilla 10 

" " grape vine, balls, ib " 12 

colls. Ib •' « 

" spring, &> 16 

" bbider (660 ft. to lb), Ib IM 

Duplex twine 3c per lb Issa. 



July 18, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAlo PRESS, 



6^ 



Anotion Sales of Caiitornia Fruit. 

New York, July 8, — Five cars: Royal apricots, 
9SC@ $1.20; peach apricots, 8oc@$i.4S; peach 
plums, ii.90@2.6o; Royal Hative plums, $i.20@ 
2.80; Hale's early peaches, 95c@$i.20; Alexander 
peachps, 950®$!. 30; Brigg's early May peaches, 
$i.2S@i.9o; Bartlett pears, $2.9S@3.90; Tragedy 
prunes, $2@3.o5; red apples, $1.40; Royal Five figs, 
$3; Beurre Gifford pears, $2,55: California plums, $1 
@i.40; St. Catherine plums, $1.35®!. 60, 

Chicago, July 8.— Two cars; Royal apricots, $1 
@ 1. 25; Royal Hative plums, $1.30®!. 50; St. Cath- 
erine plums, $i.40!g)i.4S; peach plums, $2@2.io; 
Triumph and Moorpark apricots, $1; Alexander 
peaches, $1.50®!. 60; Hale's early peaches, $1,40® 
1.65. 

Chicago, July 8. — Two cars: San Jose cherries. 
Royal Annes, 8oc@$i.so ^ lo-tb bx; Black Repub- 
lican, $i.io@i 70; peaches, 95c@$i.75; peach 
plums, $r.50@2; Purple Duane plums, $1.25®!. 35; 
Royal Hative plums, $1.25®!. 45: Cherry plums, 
$1.30®!. 40; German prunes,$i. 50; Tragedy prunes, 
$2.2S@2.75. Royal apricots, 9sc@$i.i5; Bartlett 
pears, $i.05®2.20, 

Boston, July 8.— One car: Royal apricots, $1,20 
©1.40; St. Catherine plums, $i.35@i.SS; Clyman 
plums, $1.30; Cherry plums,$t.55; Alexander peach- 
es, |i.25@i.62; Triumph apricots, $1.90; Hale's 
early peaches, $1.35. 

Boston, July 8. — Two cars: Peaches sold to av- 
erage $1.43; plums, $1.40®!. 66; Royal apricots, av- 
erage, $1.17; Tragedy prunes, $3.35; Bartlett pears, 
$2.36@4.30. 

Boston, July 9. — One car: Alexander peaches, 
$t.5S®i.7o; Royal apricots, $i®i.2o; Hale's Early 
peaches, $1.60; Royal Hative plums, $1.60; St. 
Catherine plums, $1.65; cherry plums, $1.50; Moor- 
park apricots, $i.20@2. Excellent demand for all 
choice stock. 

Chicago. July 9.— Four cars: Apricots bringing 
90c@$i.4o; Royal Hative plums, $1.30®!. 50; peach 
plums, $i.8o®2 50; peaches, $i.40@2.ss; Tragedy 
prunes, $2.45@2.55; Bartlett pears, very small, 
$i.SO@2.20 and one car of Bartlett pears $2.25® 
$2.35; P. Duane plums, $i.75@2. 15; German 
prunes, $1.85; Tragedy prunes, $2.60; Royal Hative 
plums, $1.75; Mikado Japan plums, $2; Hales Early 
peaches, $i.6o; San Jose Royal Ann cherries, most- 
ly in an injured condition, 90c®$i.25. 

New York, July 9. — Two cars: Royal apricots, 
$i.35@i.40; peach apricots, 90c®$i.6o; Triumph 
apricots, $2.65; nectarines, $2.50, St. Catherine 
plums, $1.50®!. 65; Tragedy prunes, $2.55@2.6o; 
Bartlett pears. $2.8o®3.6o; peach plums, $1.65® 
3.05; Alexander peaches, $i.35@2.2o; cherry plums, 
65c@$i; Hale's Eirly peaches, $i.70@2.5s; apples, 
$1.40. 

Chicago, )uly 10. — Iwo cars: Peaches, $1.35 
@i.5S; Purple Duane pluras, $i.5S®2.2S; peach 
plums, $1.70®!. 90; Bartlett pears, $i.75@2.3o; 
Tragedy prunes, $2.6s®2 75. Demand for peaches 
and plums is good, and the market is improving. 

Chicago, July 10. — Two cars: Hale's early 
peaches, $i.2S@i. 70; German prunes, $1.50; P. D. 
plums, $i.75@i.8o; peach plums, $t,70@2.i5; 
Tragedy prunes, $2.75; Royal Hative plums, $1.05 
®i.So; Royal apricots, $r.i6@i.4o; Peach apricots, 
$1.10; Bartlett pears, $2, i5®2.3o; Royal Ann cher- 
ries, $1.15; St. Catherine plums, fi.25@i.35; Moor- 
park apricots, over-ripe, $1.10. 

New York, July 10. — One car: Bartlett pears, 
$2.70@2.9o; German prunes, $2.io®2.i5; Tragedy 
prunes, $2.io@2.3s; Peach plums, $i.8o@2.is; 
Purple Duane plums, $1.70®!. 95. 

Boston, July 10. — One car; Bartlett pears aver- 
aged $3. 16; apricots, $1.06; peaches, $2.08; plums, 
$1.64. 

Minneapolis, July lo.— One car: Peaches, $1.50 
®i.75; pears, $2.50@2.75; plums, $2.50. There is 
good demand for peaches and plums. 

Boston, July 10. — One car: Royal apricots, over- 
ripe, $1.05®!. 26; good condition, $1.75; Peach 
pluras, Ji.75(g)i.8o; Hale's early peaches, $1.70® 
1.75; Alexander peaches, $1.70®!. 87; Royal Hative 
plums, $1.75; Tragedy prunes, $3.50. 

New York, July 13. — Four cars Peach plums, 
$2.os®2.io; Tragedy prunes, $2.6o®2.8o; Bartlett 
pears, $2.8o@3; Royal Hative plums. $1.30®!. 50; 
Royal apricots, $i.20@i.3S; Purple Duane plums. 



PAOIFIO COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[Furnished for publication Id this paper by officer In charge of branch Signal office. Division of the Pacific. 



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CL 


.00 


92 


Nw 


01. 


.00 


88 


Nw 


OL 


.00 


70 


sw 


01. 


.00 


68 


w 


T 


.00 


36 


S E 


01. 


.CO 


92 


SW 


01. 


.00 


56 


S 


01. 


.00 


98 


N 


01 


.00 


92 





OL 


.00 


70 


w 


CI. 


00 


70 


w 


01. 


.00 


ICO 


NE 


CI. 


.00 


92 


SW 


CI. 


.00 


56 


s 


CI. 


.01 


100 


Nw 


01. 


.00 


96 


N 


01. 


.00 


76 


w 


CI. 


.00 


72 


w 


01. 


^17 








ooi 






09 








.01 








CO 








.00 








.00 









Explanation. CI. for clear; Cy., cloudy; Fr., fair; Cm., calm; — indicates too small to measure. Temperature wind and weather at 5 P. M. (Pacific Standard time) with amount 
of rainfall In the preceding 24 hours. T indicates trace of rainfalL P 0, partly cloudy. Rn., rain. X, missing. 



$i.3S®i.So; German prunes, $2.30; Hale's Early 
peaches, $i.3S®2.4o; St. John peaches, $1.6002.45; 
McKevett seedling peach, $3; also four cars Sacra- 
mento Bartlett pears, $2,3S@2.8o; Peach plums, 
$i.55@i.8s, few fancy at $2; P. D. plums, $1.70; 
Peach apricots, $i.20®i.3o; Royal apricots, $1.35® 
1.45; Hale's Early peaches, $2. i5@2.8o; Briggs' 
Early May peaches, $2; Tragedy prunes, $2.50; 
apricots from Winters, poorly packed and over-ripe, 
95c®$t.3S; Hale's Early peaches, 8sc®$i.5S. few 
at $1.60; nine boxes of figs in bad order, 5@ioc. 
Market likely to remain good for choice fruit. 

Chicago, July 13. — 'Three cars Hale's Early 
peaches, $r.so®i.55; Alexander peaches, $1.40, 
some small, some over-ripe; Royal apricots, many 
soft and over-ripe, $1.30®!. 40: Moorpark 
apricots, $1.30®!. 40; St. Catherine plums, 
soft, $1.27; St. Catherine plums, good 
order, $1-35®!. 45; Peach plums, $1.63®!. 65; 
Royal Hative plums, $1.60; Royal Five figs, $1.35; 
Bartlett pears, $2.15. Market short of desirable 
fruit. Also six cars Bartlett pears, $i.30@2.5o; 
Tragedy prunes, $2.45@2.55; Hale's Early peaches, 
$i.30®i.ss; St. John peaches. 8sc@$i.6o; Craw- 
ford peaches, $1.85; Royal Hative pluras, $1.40® 
1.4s; Royal apricots, $i@i.35. 

Boston, July 13, — Two cars: Car No, 36,873 
sold gross for $1888; Bartlett pears sold from $3® 
3.32. Hale's Early peaches, $2.15; Tragedy prunes, 
$3@3.6o; Purple Duane plums averaged $1.53. 
Car No. 32 009 sold gross for $1110; Bartlett pears 
sold for $2.56; fruit very small and green. 

Chicago, July 14. — Three cars: Royal apricots, 
$i.20®i.4o; Moorpark apricots, $1.35; Hale's early 
peaches, $1.50®!. 60; peach plums, $1.65; P. D. 
plums,$i.65@i.85; St. Catherine plums, $1.29^1.40; 
Royal Hative plums, $1.42; Bartlett pears, $2.05® 
2.25; German prunes, $1.95; Tragedy prunes, $2.55; 
also three more cars: Hale's Early peaches, $1.35 
@i.SS; St. John's Yellow Freestone peaches, $1.80 
®2.5o; few boxes off condition, $1.20; Bartlett 
pears, $2@2.4o; Tragedy prunes, $i.90@2.4o; 
Royal Hative plums, $1.40; Royal apricots, $1.85; 
few in poor condition, sold at 90c. 

Boston. July 14. — One car Sacramento river 
fruit for $1779.80, gross. Barlletls all sold at an 
average of $3.02. Tragedy prunes averaged $2.78. 
Purple Duane plums, $1.70. 



FRUIT AND GRAIN RANCH 



Fifteen hundred acres of land, sitimted 
ten miles S. W. from the town of Williams, Colusa Co., 
Cal. ; 4G0 acres of choice fruit and i;rain laod; the balance 
first-clajs grazinir land, capable of keeping200 head of cat- 
tle the year round; plenty of living watrr; two-atory house 
of H rooms, hard fioiehed; tank-house, hard finished, all 
new; hot and cold water in kitchen and bath room. 
Nice location; fine view of the surrounding country. 
Crops never fail. Price, $36,000. Terms, ooe-half down, 
the other secured by mortgage at eight per cent per 
annum. This property will be sold in subdivisions to suit 
purchasers. Apply or write to L. H. BAKER, on premises. 



YOUR DWELLING, BARNS and GRAIN 



■WITH 




INSURANCE T COMPANY 

OF SAN FRAN0I80O, OAL. 



THE CELEBRATED BLUE RIBBON, 

WITH SPIRAL SPRING LAZY BACK, 



This Cart was Wonderfully Popular Last Season, is Now Better Than Ever, and 
Continues the Favorite as a Low- Priced SubstantiEiI Cart. 



CDAMII DDnTUTDC 33 & 35 main STREET, 

^^An^ Dnuincno, san francisco, cal. 





WELL BRED TROTTING STOCK, 

Comprising 47 Head of Brood Mares, Colts and Fillies, 

By REDWOOD, 2;27, Son of Nutwood, '2:18; BRILLIANT, Fon ot Director, 2:17; STEINWAY, 2;26i, etc. 

Property of MR. GEO. CROPSBY, Pleasanton. 
Also, Offerings by F. C, TALBOT, P. J. SHAFTER, P. PUMYEA, and Others. 

AT II A. M., AT 

OAKLAND TROTTING PARK, on SATURDAY, JULY 25, 1891. 

tS" Catalogues ready July 9th. 

KILLIP & CO., Auctioneers, 22 Montgomery St., S. F. 




No story need be told o( the Cyclone or ot the numoer that have been sold. They c»n be seen working in 
every inhabited jrart of the Pacific Slope whilst hundreds are exported every year. j jj. 

The Cyclone mill is not an experiment, but acknowledged by all who have used it to be the meet powerful and 
durable mill on the market. 

It is simple in construction, has no cogs or complicated gearing to get out of order. Has only three principal 
bearings, heavily babbited boxes and self piling apartments. 

The wheel and vane of the Cyclone (which are the most durable parts of any solid wheel mill) are made strong 
and of well seasoned wood finished with the best lead and oil which neither blister in the sun nor is consumed by rust 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue to 

Pacific Manufacturing Company, 

575 MISSION ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Manufacturers and Jobbers of Windmills, Pumps, Tanks, TUBULAR 
WELL TOOLS, Pipe, Fittings, Etc., Etc 



EVERY 
AND 



IN THE WORLD, BY THE NAME OF 



Who will send us 26 cents in stamps, or other good money, will receive by return mall, postage free, a nice silk 
handkerchief, not large, but a perfect 



Write to SMITH'S CASH STOKE, the Greatest Outfitters In the World, 416 and 418 
Front Street, San..£^anclsoo. Oallfomla. - 



62 



f AC! Fie i^uraid press. 



[Jolt 18, 1891 



The Lumber Trade. 

In the year eodiof; May 31, 1890, nearly 
144,000 persons were employed in the Inmber 
indastry in Michigan, Wisconsin and Minne- 
sota, receiving over $30,000,000 in wages. The 
investigations of the Census Barean indicftte 
that the indastry in these States will cease 
within BIX years, so far as it depends on lands 
held by individuals. Already employers have 
began to prepare for the future by bnying large 
areas of timbered land in other States. In 
Montana and Idaho they have become owners 
of over a million acres of 6r and oedar, which 
it is estimated will yield five thousand 
million feet, board measure, of merchantable 
lumbwr. 

In California, Oregon and Washington they 
have acquired over 1,200 000 acr< a of fir and 
rndwoorl, and the cutima'ted vield is nearly 
28 000,000 feet. In Virginia, North Carolina, 
Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louis* 
iana, Arkansas and Missouri, their holdings 
amount to 1,400,000 acres of yellow pine and 
oypress, which, it in estimated, will yieH a 
total of over 11,000 000 feet, and in West Vir- 
ginia, Kentnckv, Tenneseee, Ohio and Illiuois 
they own 138,000 acres of yellow poplar and 
hard woods, which, it is pstimated, will pro- 
duce a total of over 1,100,000,000 feet. 

These figures seem prodlgioas, and yet they 
make an aggregate of less than 45,000,000,- 
000 feet, which is leas than five times the 
aggregate output of white pine lumber from 
the milln of the North-western States in the 
year 1890, and less by 18,000,000,000 feet than 
the estimated amount of mercbiintable lumber 
landing on private or corporate holding in the 
States of Mioh'ean, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 
On May 31, 1890, the Census Bureau bai been 
unable to ascertain how much land still in 
these States belongs to the United States and 
how much to each of the States respectively. 



Sea and Railway Travel. 

In long-distance travel, the sea "still has 
the call," notwithstanding the great'y increas- 
ing railroad mileage of the world. A friend of 
ours, Mr. C. H. New of New York, recently 
completed his second voyage around the world, 
and during his stay in San Francisco, where he 
was detained by illness, he told us of ^hn miles 
he had traveled batwren 1880 and 1891, Oo 
his first voyage in 1880, he was gone eight 
months, spending some time in the £ tst Indies. 
In his second voyage, recently comoleted, he 
was gone 115 days, starting January 10th, He 
also spent three months in S^uth America and 
the West Indies a few years ngo. In these 
trips, he traveled a total of 102.250 miles, of 
which 11,050 were by rail and 91,200 miles by 
ana. Oa the last voyage he visited England, 
France, Switzerlend, Italy, Sicily, Egypt, 
Arabia, India, Ceylon, Australia, NewZsaland, 
Tonga Islands, Simoan islands and Sandwich 
itiands, landing in his native country in Cali- 
fornia. From here he went through Nevada, 
Utah, Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa Illionois, In- 
diana and Pennsylvania to New York. 

Daring all these thousands of miles of travel 
only one accident of note was met with, and 
that was shipwreck near Melbourne. 

One could scarcely suppose, unless attention 
wai called to it, that a large proportion of the 
travel around the world would be by sea. In 
these days df 'iiigh spaed and fine steamers, 
with every c^OHlfort and appliance, sea travel 
has lost its unpleasant features. Sohedale 
time is closely carried oat by the sea steamers 
between all the principal ports of the world. 

Newspaper Agents Wanted. 



Extra inducements will be offered for a 
few active canvassers who will give their 
whole attention (for a while at least) to so- 
liciting subscriptions and advertisements 
for this journal and other first-class popu- 
lar newspapers. Apply soon, or address 
this office, giving address, age, experience 
and reference. Special inducements to old 
agents. 

Dewey & Co., Publishers, 

No 220 Market St., S. F 



Complimentary Sample*. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms of sub- 
soription, and give it their own patronage, and 
as far as practicable aid in oiroulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence In 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription, 
paid in advance, 5 mos, $1; 10 mos., $2; 15 
mos,, $3. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents, 
If ordered soon enough. If already a sub- 
snriber, pleaao «hnw tH« paner *o others. 



Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this pftp«r be recelTed by any fiubscrilx;r who 
does not want It, or beyond the time he irtteiuls to pay 
/or it, let him not fail to write us direct U* utop it. A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will gulticc. We will 
not knowiugly seni the paper to aay oue who does not 
wish it, but if it is continued, through the failure of the 
■ubscriber to notify ua to discoutluue It, or uouie irre- 
sponsible party requestetl to stop it, we shall poeltively 
demand i>ayment for the time it is sent. Look carefully 

AT TIIK LABRL ON VOL'K PAPVV 



BUSINESS OHANCElFOR MAN OU WOMAN 
Addreea. G. R. ORCUTT, Oicutt, Oallfomla, 



A Great Event 

In one's life is llie discovery of a remedy for 
some long-standing malady. The poison of 
Scrofula is iu yuur bluod. You iulierited It 
from your ancestors. Will you transmit It 
to your offspring ? Iu the great majority 
of cases, both Consumption and Catarrh orig- 
inate in Scrofula. It is supposed to be tlie 
primary source of many other derangements 
of the body. Begin at once to cleanse your 
blood with the standard alterative, 

Ayer's 
Sarsaparilla 

" For several months I was troubled with 
scrofulous eniptioiis over the whole body. 
My appetite was had, and my system so 
prostrated that I was unable to work. After 
trying several rpmedlcs in vain. I resolved 
to talie Ayer's Sarsaparilla. and did so with 
such good effect tliat less than one bottle 

Restored My Health 

and strength. The rapidity of the cure as- 
toiiislied me, as I expected the process to be 
long and tedious." — Frederico Mariz Fcr- 
nandes. Villa Nova de Gaya, Portugal. 

"For many years I was a sufferer from 
scrofula, until al)out three years ago, wlicn I 
began the use of Ayer's Sarsaparilla, sliice 
which the disease has entirely disappeared. 
A little child of mine, who was troubled with 
the same complaint, lias .also been cured by 
this medicine."— II. r.raiidt, Avooa, Nelir. 

Ayer's Sarsaparilla 



TMtEPAUKI) KT 



DK. J. C. A'yEB & CO., Lowell, Mass. 
Sold by Dniggiste. $I,eiz$5. Worth $3 a bottle. 



The GRr/ifHEAtrH DRINK. 

P:i. k:.K.- I„.,k. - f, Kali..ns. 
Delu-n us, hparkliup. and 
niil"'tizing. Sold liy all 
dealers. //,*/:/;al>eautiful 
Picture Book and can.. 
tieot to an.v f>ne addres&jnfr 
C. E. HIRES 4 CO.. 

Philadelphia. 



100,000 EXTRA FIjMB 

BARTLETT^ftR TREES. 

Apple. Pear, Plum. Cherry. Peach, Apricot, 
Nectarine. Quince- Grape Vines 
acd Small Fruits. 




500,000 FRUIT TREES. 

Orange, Lemon, Lime. Olive, Japan Persim- 
mon, and au Ic nds of Nui-Bearlns 
Treee. Shade Hnd Ornamental 
Trees, Sbrubs, Etc. 

IMPOETED FRUIT TEEE SEEDLINGS. 

Ask for Prices. 

James T. Bogue, Marysvilie, Cal. 



FRENCH PRUNES 



Two THOUSAND OR THREE THOUSAND FRENCH 
Prunei on MyroboUn Stock. Also French Prune 
and Apricot trees on Peach Stock. One year trees Bile 
season. Will be sold at reasonable rates. Apply to 
ISAAC COLLINS, Haywards, Cal. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES, 

Establlched in in 185S. 
For sale at reasonable rates, a Keueral assortment of 
hardy Fruit Trees, grown without irrigation and free 
(rom scale but^s and other pests. 

BARTLBTT PEARS A SPECIALTY. 
Prices furnished on application. Address 

W. H. PEPPER, Petaluma, Cal. 

Tbe Arastrong Antomatic 

PORTABLE 

ENGIIIE and SOILEB. 

The Best, Lightest, Cheapest 
Knglne in the world. Can be 
^ arranged to Burn Wood, Coal, 
' ■■ Straw or Petroleum. 6 or 8 H. P. 
Uouoted on sklda or on wheels. 
TRCHAN. HOOKRR ft CO.. San Francl(co. 





THE LATEST AND BEST. 

APIARIAN SCPPLIBS. 
Italian Queens, fl.SO each; Black Queens, fl each. 
Swarms from $2.60 each; Smoker, tl. Comb Fouoda. 
«nn. $1.2B oer oonnd; V-groove Sections. t< per IC* 
Comb Honev wholefale and retail; Hives, etc. W. 
8TYAN & SON, The Homestead Apiaiy, San Mateo, Cal. 



California Ventilated Barre 



:e:: 



:0£3Xj8 ATiTi O mi EJUS 



IT IS LIGHTER, STRONGER. MORE DURABLE AND BETTER 
VENTILATED THAN ANY OTHER BARREL. 



Tliia engraving of the CALIFOR- 
NIA VENTILATED BARREL makes 
plain to the practical shipper its 
points of superiority over the com- 
mon barrel, which may be enumer- 
ated as follows: 

It weighs from five to sereii 
poandg less than the ordl- 
narj barrel, making a ma- 
terial saTlng In freight 
charges. 

It costs less than one-half 
for trimming, and does not 
reqnlre an experienced hand 
to cooper It. 




It is the only thoronghljr 
ventilated barrel made, a 
very Important point. 

The heads are warranted 
Dot to come oat in transit, 
and no liners are required. 

It Is stronger and more 
dnrable than any other bar- 
rel. 

Never varies in size, even 
to the extent of a qaart. 

— At/TOORTHKR MAKIKO Tt — 

The Cheapest and Best 
Barrel on the 
Market. 



It is Made of the Best Qaality ot Spruce, Woven Together with Copper Wire, 

And can be furnished in any size desired. 



THE CALIFORNIA BARREL IS ADAPTED TO SHIPPING THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES: 



Apples, 
Oranges, 
Onions, 
Potatoes, 



Sweet Potatoes, 
Dried Meats, 
Bottled Goods, 



Glassware, 
Canvased Meals, 
Crockery, 



And Vegetables of All Descriptions. 



Poultry, 
Walnuts. 
Almonds, 



A factory making these barrels is now in operation Id San Francisco, with a capacity of 4000 barrels a day. 
The success of the barrel is almost unprecedented, and it is bound to become the package in a very short time. 
EVERY ONE USING IT IS KNTHUSIASTIC IN ITS PRAISE. IT HASN'T A FAULT. When shipped In knock, 
down form, about 2500 barrels can be placed In a sinRle car. ^"Special rstcs given on car lots. WRITE FOR 
PRICES AND PARTICULARS. • ^^^^^^^ 

California Ventilated Barrel Co., 

OFFICE AND FACTORY: N. W. COR. POWELL AND NORTH POINT STS.. 
SAN FRANCISCO, OAL. 

MERY s iMPRovED^ioNELR BARLEY CRUSHER 

USING 

The Benoit Corrugated Rollers. 

STILL ftllHE FRONT. 




This Mill has been in use on this Coast for 10 years, 

TAKEN THE PREMIUM AT THE STATE FAIR 

Four .years n succession, and h.is met with general favor, 
there now bciiiK 

Over 250 of them in use in California, Nevada and Oregon, 

It Is the most economical and dur.ible Feed Mill in use. 
1 am sole manufacturer ot the Corrui;ated Roller Mill. The Mills are all 
ready to mount on wagons. 



Okai.nlavd, BuiTK Co., Cal., June 9, 1887 
Mk. M L. M«av- Dear Sir: We have used one No. 2 
Koller Ba'le}' Crusher now for eiuht years and have used 
it steady during; that time; have cruxhed 45 tons a day 
anil the Crusher is as irond to-(?ay as when it came out of 
your i-hop. I am satisfied that it is tl'e best mill made. 
You may reconstruct this testimonial to the best adv^n- 
Uge for you and sign our names, f jr you cannot over- 
rate the merits of your mill. F. E. REAM, 

JNO. P. SUTTON. 



DURUA.V, May 21, 1887. 
Mr. M. L. Mkry— Dear Sir: In reply to yours of the 
19th. would say that I cru-hed from two to -two and a 
half tons per hour, but could crush three and a half tons 
if my tlevatom were large enouth to carry the barley 
fr m the machine. The No. 1 machine I used at Oridley 
was run on a tack a minute, but if we got behind we 
could run tbrounh five tons an hour »nd do good work. 
The machine I use here Is a No. 2. Yours, 

WM. M. TAYLOR. 



I thank the public tor their kind patronage received thus far, and hope for a continuance of the same. 

M. L. MERY. Chico Iron Works. Chico, Cal. 



U ]Nr 13 E » X3 



GANDY THRESHER BELTS. 

FRENCH & LINFORTH. 35 Beale St., San Francisco, 



SOI.K AGBNT.S PACIFIC C»>A8T. 



DEWEY & CO. mSA^^:^^^^ri,L''-\ PATENT AGENTS. 



JOLY 18, 1891.] 



f AClFie r^URAlo PRESS. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA, 
SAN FBAN0I80O, OAL. 
Incorporated ApriJ, 1874. 




Anthorlsed Capital $1,000,000 

CJapltal paid np and ReHerve Fund 800,000 
Dividends paid to Stocliholderg. . . 675,000 

OFFICERS. 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

PRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

General Banking Deposits received, Gold and Silver 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans on wheat and 
country produf'e a specialty. 

January 1, 1891. A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 




Write us for prices and full particulars. Address 
TKCMAN, BOOKER & CO., 

SAN FRANCISCO.... and FRESNO. 



"Neponset" Waterproof Paper. 

NEPONSET MILLS. 

THESE PA- 
peraareall 
guaranteed to 
be absolutely / 
water proof,.' 
alr-tlght and.' 
odorless. 

For sheath- 
ing and lining 
of buildings; 
for roofing of 
factories, 
storehouses 
and farm 
buildings. 

They are 
entirely un. 
affected by 
heat, cold, / 
'snow or rain. / 

"NEPONSET" SHEATHING (color black). 

NO. 1 "NEPONSET" ROPE ROOFING ool terracotta). 

NO. 2 "NEPONSET" ROPE ROOFING (color terra cotta). 




These papers are In rolls 36 Inches wide, and tv<ey con- 
tain either 2&0 or SOO square feet per roll, and weigh 
about 30 or 40 pounds per roll, respectively. 

DIMMICK & LOW, Agents, 

221 Front Street. - - San Francisco, Oal. 



PROTECT YOD TREES 

/ FROM SUNBURN, BORERS 
RABBITS, ETC., 

By Using the 

Pacific Tree Protector. 

Waterproof, Adjustable & Convenient, 

Saves Time, Trouble & Expense. 
No. 1 Tarred Felt, Vermin and Water- 
proof, good for 3 yrs, 7x16, $2 ^ 100. 
No. 2 Patent Insect- proof, Heavy, 
7x16, «1.B0 per 100. 
No. a Patent Insect-proof, Light, 7x16, $1 per 100. 
Special Sizes made to order. Orders promptly filled by 

THE PACIFIC ROLL PAPER CO., 

80 and 32 First Street. San Francisco, 

Also headquarters for Fay's Patent Manillo-Leather 
Roofing and Building Papers; Cheapest and Best in the 
Market. Send for Samples. 





DRS 



RUPTURE AND PILES. 

We PosiTIVKLY Cure all kinds of Rupture 
and Rectal Diseases, no matter of bow long 
standing. In from 30 to 60 days, without the 

use of KNIFE, tlRAWINO BLOOD, or DETEN- 
TION FROM BUSINESS. Terms: No Care. 
BO Paj; aad no Pay nntll Cared. 

If afilicted, come and see ua or send stamp for 
namphlet. Address: 

. POBTEBFI£iLD & LOSSY, 



Market Strnitt. 



Ran Fmnotaoo 



"DEAD LOCK" GOPHER 

or 93 per doi. delivered. I. F. WHITE & SON, Pomona, Oal 



STOCKTON NURSERIES. 

500,000 ROOTED MUSCAT VINES 

OAXk. loo X>elli7'exrecl fxroxxx ri-e>«xa.o or Stools. 'toxx. 

Special Prices on Lots of 50,000 or more. 

White Adriatic and San Pedro Figs 

TJ]Vi:BIl.E!IjiIL.^JS. 

A Fall Line o Frait and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Palms, Roses & Small Fruits, 

ESTABLISHED 1858. WRITE FOR CATALOGUE AND PRICE LIST. 

St:ools.-toxx. - - - - - OA,l±fom.lA.. 



W.H.WOOD&CO., 



COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

OALIPORNIA FRUITS' AND PRODUOE. 

ALFALFA SBBDIH^ to 125 j street, 

A sPEOiAT.Tv. I SAORAMENTO. OAL. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

Free Ooaob to and from the Hoaee. J. 'W. BEjOKBR. Proprietor. 



THE GARDEN CITY windmill. 



The Popular Windmill 

OF THE 

Santa Clara Valley. 
SIMPLE, DURABLE, 

AND 

SELF-REQULATINa. 

We manufacture the Steel Wheel with 
the Garden City Oeariog if desired 

Towers, Tanlis and Frames furnished. 
Estimates j;iven aod coniracts made at 
the lowest price for f;ood work. Address 

BUTE&STEPHENS. 

Contractors and Manufacturers, 

SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA. 




WATER PIPE F0R_8ALE CHEAP. 

LAP-WELDED WROUGHT IRON TUBING, COUPLED WITH LEAD-LINED 
COUPLINGS, ASPHALTXTM DIPPED, READY TO LAY. 



W have on hand and can deliver with dispatch the following quantities of this form, viz: 

10,000 FT. %" DIA. INS. I 100,000 FT. 2" DIA. INS 
20,000 " J'* " '• 100 000 " 



100,000 



1%" 



2" 



26,000 



25,000 FT. 3'" DIA. 
25.000 " 314" " 
20,000 " 334" " 



INS. 



JOSHUA HENDY MACHINE WORKS, 

Noa 89 TO 51 FREMONT STREET. 3AN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



THE 

I UTAWAY; 

HI66ANUM MANUFACTURING CORPORATiON&!!:S%r.?TNVvS 




IT WILL 
CULTIVATE 

CORN^ 
COTTON 

to a Height of 
THREE FEET 

Tlirovving the 
Soil to or from 
the Plant. 

Send for Special 
Circular. 




IN ORr»KK TO OLOSK OUT OUR RRTAII. CARRIA6K BUSINKSS 
in San Francisco, we will sell our large stock on hand of first-class Carriages, Top 
Buggies, Phaetons, Four Spring Wagons, Carts and Harness at Cost. Now is the time if 
you want to buy a good carriage cheap. Salesrooms, S80 »D<l,S89,,llIiaaion St., 8sn 
FranoKoo, Oal. 

BRIGQS CARRIAOE CO., C Cr«go, AgMt. 



iBIRDSELL 

ALFALFA 




HULLER 

Thrashes, Hulls and Cleans ALFALFA 
Seed, and delivers it In the sack 
ready for market. 

It gets ALL THE SEED OUT 
of the Straw, and SAVES IT. 

and la the only Machine on earth that docs. 
Send for full description und price to 

BIRDSELL MFG. CO. 

SOUTH BEND. IND. 



THE VERY BEST & CHEAPEST FLOUB. 




PRIZE MEDAL OF CAL. STATE PAIR, 1890 




ASK YOUR GROOER FOR IT. 



PRICE'S HAY PRESSES 



Genuine Price Petaluma Press. 
Junior Monarch Hay Press. 

Hurricane (Size A) Hay Press. 
Wide West Hay Press. 

ADDRESS 

L. C. MOREHOUSE. San Leandro. 



THE KRIEBEL ENGINE 

And Plain Vertical Boiler. 
AToanted on a Combined Base. 

A very Cheap and Economical 
Engine. 

Made of the very best material, 
a & 8 HORSRPOWBR. 
Write for Prices. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., 

<SATtf KRANCISOO. 




Codiin Moth Destroyed 

THISSELL'S 

NEW CODLIN MOTH TRAP 

Will entirely clean an orchard In two years. 
ORCHARD RIOIITS SOLD. Satisfaction 
guaranteed. Write to 

G. W. THiSSELL, Winters, 

YOLO COUNTY CALIFORNIA. 



FRUIT 

AND 

QKAIN 



BAGS 



All Sizes and Kinds. 



CAL. BAG, TENT & AWNING CO., 

Ill Clay Street, San FranclBCo. 



JAMES U. HAVEN. THOMAS E HAVEN, 

Notary Fublio. 

HAVEN & HAVEN, 

ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELORS AT LAW, 

No. SSO California Street, 
Telepbooe No. 17M. SAN 7BANCISC0. OAL, 



ENGRAVING -SDPEKIOB:WOOD AND 
Metal Engraving, Electrotyping and Stereotyping 
done at*the olflce of this paper. 



64 



f ACIFie R.URAI0 PRESS. 



[July 18, 1891 



Pacific Gas Engine Co- 

230 FREMONT STREET, - SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



3VE ^avTTTT' Aorrxmuns of 



The Pacific Gas of Gasoline Engine. 




PUMPING WATER, RUNNING CREAM SEPARATORS, PRINTING 
PRESSES, LAUNCHES, ETC., ETC., ETC, 



The Only Absolutely Safe 
Boat Engine. 




$ 8 SAVED $'s MADE 



CARTS $13.08 to $17.98 

BODY CARTS 19.98 to 22.98 

RUN ABOUT WAGONS . 39 98 to 50.98 

OPEN BUGGIES 48.98 to 72 98 

PHAETONS 93.98 to 97.98 

TOP BUGGIES 60.98 to 69.98 

SPRING WAGONS 42.98 to 49.98 

SURRIBS 126.98 

CARRIAGES j 124.98 

POUR-SPRING MOUNTAIN WAGONS 121.98 

HARNESS $6.98, $9.98, $12.98, 16.98 

We have on exhibition at our Repository upward of 90 samples of all kinds of vehicles, which we retail at extraordinary and 
unprecedented LOW PRICES. WE GUARANTEE these goods absolutely superior in every respect to goods now and heretofore sold at 
double our prices. 

You get them without any middle profit added to price, and we have no expensive traveling men whose salary and expenses are added 
to price. The figures quoted are actually lower than wholesale rates. We buy for cash and sell for spot cash. We sell you for less money 
than any Dealer can buy for. 

WE DELIVER GOODS FREE ON BOARD CARS AT SAN FRANCISCO AND NOT AT ANY EASTERN CITY. 

CALIFORNIA WAGON & CARRIAGE CO., 

220 & 222 Mission Street, San Francisco. 





Vol. XLII-No. 4. 



SAN PRANOISOO. SATURDAY, JULY 25. 1891. 



/ DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 
I Office, 220 Market St. 



Gigantic Red Cedar. 



[Written for the Pacific Rural Prbbb oy 
J. Q. Lemmon.] 

Swelled basea to the trunks of 
onr forest trees are not uncommon, 
espeoially to certain speoies of the 
great Cypress family, including 
the Sequoia, 

Of course suob swelling is a 
great detriment to a lumber tree, 
especially when accompanied by 
hoUownesB of the part, as often 
happens. The most inveterate 
sinner on this coast, in respect of 
egregious expansion and wind-611- 
ing interior, is exhibited by the 
Gigantic Bsd Cedar (Thuya gigan- 
tea), or Pacific Arbor Vitse, of the 
forests of the Northwest, 

Bat the hollowness of this tree 
is not execrated in fifty dialects 
by the aboriginal inhabitants of 
the country. The Indian just 
chops down a tree, outs it ofif at 
the proper distance, splits cS the 
upper side, plugs up the ends, and 
there is his canoe ! 

The Atlantic species of the 
same genus — Thuya occidenlalia — 
Is more inclined to have swelled 
bases than ours, while the Bald 
Cypress — Taxodium dialichum — 
excels all other trees in this re- 
spect, the trunks being three or 
four times as large at base as they 
are at the hight of 15 or 20 feet; 
and this is the tree which, in ad- 
dition to hollow trunk, develops 
large balloon - like excrescences 
from the surface roots, called 
"cypress knees," and the subject 
of much speculation on the part of 
scientists, 

Bat all the trees which are 
given to enlargement of the base 
are not also hollow-hearted. This 
is particularly true of the two 
species of Sequoia. Their bases 
are seldom empty barrels, but 
rather well stored butts of com- 
pacted material, arranged in but- 
tresses that brace up a monster 
tree and enable it to carry up a 
columnar shaft to a great hight. 

Bat all the same, hollow or well 
stored with excellent lumber ma- 
terial, the big swell of a tree 
Is not prized, and its owner Is obliged to 
contrive means to climb above the enlarge- 
ment before catting his tree. Some build 
scaffolds to the desired hight, others erect lad- 
ders against the trees, but the most used and 
ingeniona method is shown in the illustration 
on this page. 

This tree Is a "swell," belonging tj the Rsd 
Cedar species common about Paget Sound, and 
often met with along the streams on the coast 
aa far southward as Cape Mendocino. The 
workmen menacing the tree with ax and saw 
are seen standing on planks, one end of which 
Im fixed into the tree. These planks, about 
three feet long, are narrowed at one end and 
provided with a strong iron shoe or upturned 
grip. A hole is cut into the tree, the board 
inserted %t an angle, the outer end depressed 




Postal Telegraphy. 



GIGANTIC RED CEDAR - Thuya Oiganlea. 



when the grip takes effect, and thus a staging 
is formed for the workman, who, however, 
mast be level-headed to swing an ax on such a 
narrow perch, often at the hight of 20 to 30 feet. 

To cut off a tree above the swell is to save 
half the labor of catting and to rid the owner of 
the irregular gnarled or burned oat butt of his 
tree, but an Eastern citizen's first exclamation 
when visiting a redwood stomp field is " What 
a waste 1 " This was the constant lament of 
the American Horticultural Society when visit- 
ing the noted Guernevllle region three years 
ago. 

They could not hi convinced that stumps of 
solid redwood, as big as a four-room cottage, 
were worthless for timber — except now and 
then one which displays some peculiarity of 
curled or wavy grain, 



As these stumps are well nigh indeetrnctihle, 
except by fire, there is here a reserve supply 
of timber which, in view of the fast disappear- 
ing forest), may be utilized by the coming 
economist of the Northwest. 



Foo AND Beans,— It is reported that the 
hot, clear July weather will somewhat reduce 
the bean crop along the southern coast, where 
a foggy summer gives the plant a longer grow- 
ing season and enables it to better fill its pods, 
On the other hand, the hot, clear weather is 
said to have helped the corn crop. 

An Electric Gun. — A gun operated by elec- 
tricity is a recent invention of Elward A. 
Hyde of Kenosha, Wis., who claims that guns 
made of paper or wood, nud operated by his 
ayitem, would be effective at long range, 



An Omaha journalist, Mr. 
Edward Rosewater, who has for 
several years given much atten- 
tion to the promotion of the move, 
ment for postal telegraphy, is 
now doing public service by visit- 
ing Earope for the purpose of 
gathering information as to what 
foreign Governments have really 
accomplished in this direction. 
Mr. Rosewater was summoned 
last winter before a committee of 
Oongreis, which had been formed 
to obtain information respecting 
the advisability of the Govern- 
ment baying up or controlling the 
pojtal telegraphic service of the 
United States. He went abroad 
with ofSoial letters to the heads 
of the telegraph services of Eng- 
land, France, Germany and Aus- 
tria. 

A reporter who visited Mr. 
Rosewater in Paris asked what 
opinions he had formed from his 
investigation. In reply he said 
that he was more than ever con- 
firmed in the opinion that the 
( ffect of government control was 
to produce a superior telegraphic 
service. He said that London 
employed no less than 3000 per- 
sons in the telegraphic service, 
whereas in New York there were 
only 1200. The object of the Eng- 
lish Government was not to make 
a revenue, but to give the public 
the best service at the cheapest 
possible rates. In every place 
where there were 1500 persons 
there was a postal telegraphic 
service, whereas in the United 
States towns with several thou, 
sand inhabitants had nothing bat 
the railroa'l telegraph service. 

This is jast the state of affairs 
which we supposed such an in- 
vestigation would bring out, 
Wbere the Government owns the 
telegraph, the public is cheaply 
and efficiently served, and tele- 
graphing becomes a common 

means of inter-communication. 

Where the business is con- 
trolled by monopolies, as in thia 
oonntry, the charge is exorbitant, 
the services inefficient, and people do just 
as little with the wire as they possibly 
can. It is certainly a reflection upon our 
Intelligence and progressive spirit as a peo- 
ple that we are willing to be hampered and 
repressed in this manner. We have much 
to learn from some countries which are looked 
upon as old fogyisb and slow-going in some re- 
spects. We hope Mr. Rosewater's report will 
wake the people up on this question. 

Now AND Then.— Only a few years ago Edi- 
son was working for a modest salary. Bis in- 
come at the present time from various soaroei 
is said to be $100,000 annually. 



Mechanics' Fair. — It la reported that more 
space has been applied for by intending exhib- 
itors at the Mecbanios' Fair than ever before, 



66 



f AciFie f^uraid press. 



[July 26, 1891 



€lNTOJVIObO@ICAl9 



Prol. Riley on the Gas Treatment 
Patent. 

We are indebted to Prof. C. V. Riley, U. 
S, Eatomologist, for an advance copy of an 
article which he haa prepared for the Scitntifi,c 
Amtriean Supplement on the "Gas Treatment 
for Scale Insects," The first part of the article 
relates to the history of the experiments which 
led up to the adoption of hydro-cyanic acid gas, 
and to the perfection nf the methods of its ap- 
plicatloDo, closing this branch of the subject 
with Mr. Ooqaillett's report, as pablished in 
Insect Life for Jannary and Febrnary, 1890. 
Prof. Riley then proceeds as follows : 

The perfected process there described (Mr. 
Ooquillett's report) is the'one that has been pat- 
ented. The application for this patent was 
filed in the Patent Office Deo. 10, 1889, and im- 
mediately after that date the department re- 
ceived a communication from Mr. Coquillett 
to that effect, The Assistant Secretary of 
Agrionltnre immediately wrote to the Commis- 
sioner of Patents protesting againptthe issuance 
of such patent and referring briiflyto the De- 
partment's connection with the process. In 
spite of this protest on the part of the Depart- 
ment, and also of the fact.as I am informed, that 
the application was adversely reported upon 
by the special examiner who bad been over the 
facts somewhat carefully, a natent was ulti- 
mately granted Jan. 27, 1891. The patent 
having been granted, the action of the Patent 
Office cannot be reversed except by carrying 
the case into the courts and entering into 
troublesome and expensive litigation. The 
Patent Office, knowing the interest of the De- 
partment of Agriculture in this case, and its 
ability to throw light on the matter, ignored 
the Department altogether,and simply relied, in 
granting the patenr, on the *'estimony of the 
applicants, whereat. If the Department had 
been consnlted, evidence which would oertiinly 
have been satisfactory to the Patent Office 
coald have been promptly furnished, showiug 
that the patent covered disoovnries which had 
resulted from the Department's investigations 
rather than the investigations of the patentees. 
In fact these individnals merely assisted Mr. 
Ocqaillett in his later experiments and received 
from him the formula which they have pat- 
ented for producing the gas, under a promise 
that they would not publioh or give it to any 
other person nntll it was first published by the 
Department. The process ret forth in the 
patent for fumigatiug plants with bydro- 
oyanic add gas in the absence of light, whioh is 
the important feature of the patent, had been 
repeatedly anggested by Mr. Coquillett, as 
shown in the italicised portion of the article just 
quoted, and as I know from my constant corre- 
■Dondence with him. I have from Mr. 
Coquillett a sworn statement of the facts in the 
okse, supported by testimonials from Messrs. 
Craw and Alward, which substantiate what I 
have here recorded, and show that the pat- 
entees have no right in priority of discovery to 
any of the claiina made by them and granted 
by the Patent Office. Indeed, it is evident from 
the correspondence that on several occasions 
one of the patentees, Mr. W. B. Wall, applied, 
personally and by letter, to Mr. Coquillett for 
Information on the subject, the latter, as a 
Government offijer, giving him all the facts in 
his possession. 

The matter is assuming very considerable im- 
portance on the Pacific Coast, and the orange- 
growers are asking what it is best to do. The 
Rural OaUfornian for June, 1891, says edi- 
torially: 

"Without conceding a single point the 
patentees claim, without for a moment even 
Intimating that in case of a trial the 
fruit-growers would be worsted, we are 
nevertheless conetrained to ask, ' What 
Is the obeapeet and best way out of the diffi- 
culty, and yet secure the greatest good to the 
greatest number ?' In other words, ii It cheaper 
to fight the patent than to boy It ? 

"We all know of 'the law's delay.' The 
patentees refuse to bring suit, and in case the 
fruit-growers or their proper representitives 
bring suit to abrogate the patent, It will reqsire 
at least three years to obtain a decision. In 
the meantime, Mr. Scale will luxuriate and 
spread, and do no end of damage. On the 
other hand, if the patent can be bought off at 
a nominal price, the good work of killing off 
the scale can proceed, and the produo'>iveness 
of orchards very materially increased. While 
the concensus of opinion among the fruit- 
growers is to fight, still the sober business 
thing to do is to get the matter settled as 
quickly and cheaply as possible. Negotiations 
are now pending to buv the patent outright, 
which, if successful, will at orice bring the 
matter to a settlement. The Rural hopes to 
see the measures now on foot to this end 
brought to a successfol issue." 

In the same number of the same paper, the 
patentees have a long article by James R. 
Townsend, endeavoring to make good their 
claim, which reads very much like the argu- 
ment of a lawyer retained to defend them. It 
closes with the following paragraph: 

"The patent cannot be abrogated, except 
upon decree of court. Suit to set the patent 
aside can only be Instituted by the owner of a 
patent for the sarrx" proceBs or by the Attorney 
General of the United States. Np one can 



secure a patent for the process except by prov- 
ing in an interference coctsst with the present 
patentees in the Patent Office that he is the 
true and first inventor. The Attorney General 
will not bring suit to set aside the patent unless 
it appears that Messrs. Wall, Jones & Bishop 
wrongfully secured the patent, and that great 
public iojury will result if it is not repealed. 
There Is but one way to test the validity of the 
patent which appears practicable, and that is 
for the owners of the patent to bring suit for 
infringement. Thla has not yet been done, but 
they anuounce that, in case infringement is 
practiced, they will, within the time allowed 
by law, bring suit to recover the profits, sav- 
ings and advantages arising from such infringe- 
ment, together with the interest thereon." 

This, taken together with a card published 
by the patentees in the same journal, is virtu- 
ally a threat to orange-growers that suit will 
be brought unless the royalty of ten cents per 
tree, which they now demand, is paid, the 
patentees holding themselves free to increase 
or decrease the royalty at their option. 

Two of the patentees, at latest aooounte, 
have agreed to sell their patent for $10,000, 
and a committee of three has been appointed 
by the County Boards of Horticulture of 
Southern California to bring about some ar- 
rangement with them. The terms of the oon- 
traot which it is proposed to make, and which 
the commissioners are given until August 15th 
of the present year to meet. Involve the pay- 
ment of the above sum which it is proposed to 
raise through the Bsards of Supervisors of the 
various counties as follows: L9B Aogoles, 
$3000; San Bernardino, $3000; Orange, $2000; 
San Diego. $1000; Ventura, $500; and S»nta 
Barbara, $500, It is proposed to raise this 
sum not beosuae the commissioners admit the 
claim or the moral right of the patentees, but 
because they believe it will be cheaper than to 
fight the patent in the courts. 

Pending official action, I deem It desirable 
to set forth these facts in the columns of the 
Scientific American, and I have no hesitation in 
advising orange-growers to pay no heed to the 
threats made, and that it would be far safer 
and wiser to combine to oppose the patentees, 
If suit is brought, than to subscribe to give 
them an undeserved and valuable royalty. I 
have had experience of this kind before, and in 
no inetince that I now recall have the pat- 
entees, under like circumstances, been able to 
enforce their demands in the courts. In point 
of fact, the patent is invalid, and it is to be re- 
gretted that, through whatever laxity or tech- 
nicality in the patent office, it should ever have 
been granted. 

There is nothing more discouraging to an 
officer of the Government engaged in original 
investigation with a view of benefiting the pub- 
lic, than the efforts of various private individ- 
uals to appropriat « the results, of which the 
foregoing case is an example. I have been en- 
gaged now for nearly a quarter of a century, 
either as a State or Government officer, in in- 
vestigations having for their objaot, in the 
main, the protection of plants and domestic 
animals from the attacks of injarious insects. 
Either directly or with the aid of assistants, 
these investigations have resulted in some im- 
portant discoveries of universal application, 
and I can say with pride that, though often 
urged to take personal advantage of such dis- 
coveries, I have in no single instance accepted 
a fee for information given, or received a dol- 
lar from any application of these discoveries, 
even whnre others have reaped fortunes. As a 
salaried officer, my duty was plain, and I make 
the statement without boastfulness, and simply 
to emphasize the discouraging fact that In 
every instance where the benefit to the public 
has been great, either the honor has been con 
tested by private parties, or else means have 
hoen taken by private individnals to control, 
through pat-ntor otherwise, the disooverles 
for their personal ends. It seems to me that 
on this account the Patent Office should be ex- 
tremely oarefnl in considering applications for 
patents, for objects which the Government is 
already endeavoring to accomplish, to ascer- 
tain fully what the Government has done, as 
any other course will tend to pervert, discour- 
age and neutralize all honest effort made by 
other departments of the Government for the 
public good. 



©HE jBCpiary. 



Unfinished Sections. 

Editors Pbes.s: — Almost every season after 
the honey flow has ended, we have on hand a 
number of unfinished sections. We generally 
extract the honey they contain, and save these 
sections for starters, in surplus cases, for an- 
other season. 

Some bee-keepers practice feeding this honey 
back to the heaviest colonies, where they 
have placed all the beet sections not quite fin- 
ished. They are generally successful in secur- 
ing well-capped, filled oot sections, whioh pays 
for all time and trouble. 

Great care should be exercised in choosing 
the colonies that are to do this work. Hybrid 
bees with good, young, prolific queens, where 
the hives are full to overflowing, are the ones to 
select. 

Place two section cases upon each hive; have 
the lower case filled with the most finished sec- 
tions, and the top case with the half and quar- 
ter finished ones; next, add a top story to the 
hive, and inside of it place your feeder. The 



honey that you have extracted, and which yon 
intend feeding should be thinned by adding 
water, so that the bees may work and carry it 
away more rapidly; one quart of water to ten 
pounds of honey is about right (boiling water 
Is best). Feed as fast as the bees can 
take it np; take off the sections as 
fast as finished, and add more unfinished 
ones. When your stock of unfinished sections 
rnns short, reduce the number of colonies that 
you are feeding ; until you hare one colony 
finish what is left. Contraction is sometimes 
practiced when feeding back to obtain finished 
sections. If yon use the Langstroth hive, con- 
traot to five frames. The time to commeuce 
feeding back would be after the last heavy 
honey flow, whioh in some parts of Oalifornia 
would be the latter part of June, and in other 
parts the first of November, 

A Chico bee-keeper tells me that he once fed 
out 1500 pounds of honey by sprinkling it on 
the marsh grass near his apiary. He says it 
was the most satisfactory feeding of bees that he 
ever did. (He did not feed to obtain finished 
sections, but simply to supply them with win- 
ter food as it was an nnfavorable honey sea- 
son). 

Bees awarm more in a mountainous country 
than in the valleys. 

Of this, statement I have had abundant proof. 
In the 8>cramento valley, along the river bot 
toms, bees will build up and stay in immense 
colonies, and finish every section before swarm- 
ing ; and sometimes after their seotioni are 
fialshed, they will commence comb bailding on 
thf> outside of the hive. 

But in a mountain looatlon it is entirely dif- 
ferent. (I now speak of the Sierra Nevada 
mountains. I do not know whether it is the 
same in the mountain ranges in southern Cali- 
fornia or not.) When a colony here has the 
sections about three-fourths finished, out they 
go ; and if the queen cells are not cut out of 
the old colony they will swarm themselves to 
death. This accounts for the fact that so many 
farmers who keep bees and do not know much 
about them, think that the moths cleaned all 
the bees out, while in reality the bees swarmed 
too much, and after they were through swarm- 
ing there were not enongb bees at home to pro- 
tect them from the moth. If the queen cells 
had been cut out at the proper time, all would 
have been well and good, and the colony been 
saved. 

When an old colony swarms, we always take 
the section case with the adhering bees that it 
oontains, and place it on the new colony; some- 
times we place the new colony where the old 
one stood, and thus catch all the old returning 
field bees, which generally makes a rousing 
colony for business, and they soon fiaish up 
the sections in good shape. 

After the young colony has bsen in the hire 
a month or so, and they have things pretty 
well fixed up, they commence building queen 
cells, and make preparations for swarming, and 
if they are not "nipped in the bad," they will 
swarm themselves down so as to be almost 
worthless. 

It takes a great deal more care and attantion 
to run an apiary in the monntaina than it does 
In the valley. 

TaklQK Away the Queen Durlngr the 
Honey Harvest 

Will it pay to cage the queen during a heavy 
flow of honey Is a question that Is yet nnsolved 
by many bee-keepers. Some claim that it pays 
well In dollars and cents, while others think It 
is a disadvantage and no profit is derived from 
this practice at all. I think the secret of it Is 
in the location; some locations, after the main 
honey flow, have no smaller ones to follow, 
and it Is in snoh locations that removing the 
queen will pay. 

The queen should be oaged about two weeks 
before the honey flow. She may be kept in a 
small nucleus hive with two or more frames of 
adhering bees. In ten days all the queen cells 
should be removed from the colony and a frame 
of larvee inserted, with whioh the bees will go 
and raise another batch of queen cells, whioh 
will keep them occupied about ten days longer; 
by that time you will be ready to give them 
back their old queen again. Gs to the nucleus 
hive where you put her, and lift out the two 
frames and place them in the old hive again. 

The bees after having their queen removed, 
work just as well without a queen, as with one; 
because they have all the material necessary to 
make a queen, and of course, they are in a 
perfectly natural oondltion, and will jost rush 
the honey in and fill every cell as fast as the 
young bees emerge. The old colony, you see is 
getting stronger every day, and about the time 
the honey flow ceases, all the first or original 
brood will bs hatched. Of what use afterwards 
la the great number of bees that would hatch, 
if the queen had been left In the hive; they 
would simply be consnmers, Instead of pro- 
ducers; for after the honey flow is gone, there 
would not be anything for them to do. 
Swarming t3 a great extent is controlled too by 
removing the queen. When running for ex- 
tracted honey, removing the queen is bound to 
be a success in certain locations, and it will 
also be a great aid in the prdnotion of oomb 
hnney. S. L, Watkin.s, 

Oritdy FlaU Gal. 



Reliable Statistics show that the percen- 
tage of Insanity among farmers' wives is greater 
than In any other class. The explanation is 
they work too hard, are left alone too mnch, 
and have too little chance to take reoreation 
•nd enjoy society. 



BlUIT iQAf^KETING. 



How the Canneries Trust Works. 

At the time the fruit-canners' trust or com- 
bination was entered Into early in the season 
those who were prominent in the movement 
earnestly combated the idea that they had any 
Intention of regulating the prices which should 
be paid for fresh fruit to the producers. In- 
deed, they rather sought to oonvey the belief 
that the organization would be beneficial to the 
fruit-growers, and to themselves as well. 
According to the leaders of the trust they would 
be able to economize so largely In freights, 
sugar, etc., that a large saving would be effec- 
ted by the canneries, and the hope was 
held out that some portion of the saving would 
accrue to the benefit of the fruit-growers. 
Such belief, however, does not appear to have 
been borne out by the facts, and, If reports 
from various looalitiea are to be believed, aome- 
thing [marvelonsly like 'an agreement to keep 
prices down would appear to have been entered 
into. 

A manager of one of the trust canneries thus 
summarizes the advantage gained by the organ- 
ization: "They (the trust) have compelled the 
sugar tiust to give them sugar at five cents. 
They are strong enough to import full cargoes 
from foreign growers, and by threatening to 
import full cargoes of the German beet sugar at 
$5.10 per hundred weight, the trust was com- 
pelled to contract with them at $5. Then in 
the matter of freight rates on their product 
shipped Eist. The railroad rats is $1 10 per 
hundred, while the ooean rate is 35 oenta. 
Heretofore, no single cannery being able to 
provide full ship cargoes, and thus secure the 
fastest transportation by sea, thev were unable 
to use that mode of shipment. Now they ex- 
pect to ship by rail only enough to supply the 
early market, and follow it with ooean ship- 
ment!, unless the railroad will give them a 
rate of about 70 cents." 

In support of the belief that one of the obj eots 
of the canners' trust is to break down the prices 
paid to the fruit-growers, the Riverside Enter- 
prise declares that "the low prices being offered 
by agents of canneries for fruit go to show that 
the recent combine of canning companies had 
for Its purpose the same retson that actuates 
all other manufacturing combines — a lowering 
of prices to be paid to the producer of fruit for 
the products of the orchard. The prioes being 
offered this year are far lower than those paid 
last, and there is no reason to hope that even 
present prices will be maintained, for hasn't 
the combine everything largely its own way? 
The only redress the grower of deciduous fruit 
has. Is to Immediately make arrangements to 
dry hi* fruit, or at least all he can of it." 

The S»n Bernardino Timet /n(f«x corroborates 
this suapicion and says: "The oombination en- 
tered into by the oanneries promised that the 
prices should not be affected by a scale of rates, 
but the prices now offered indicate that the com- 
bination intend to force the grower to sell at a 
low figure. One and a quarter cents Is the 
price now offered for apricots and peaches. 
The growers should prepare at onoe to dry their 
fruit when practicable, go as not to be at the 
mercy of the canneries. But if the canneries 
offer a fair price let them have the fruit." 

The Ponoma Times-Courier adds its testi- 
mony as follows: " There is mnch speculation 
regarding the price of fruits. Several of the 
buyers now here say that they cannot and will 
not give more than a cent a pound for apricots, 
and that they will keep their money in their 
pockets if the price rules higher than that. 
Bat very few sales have been made as yet. the 
growers being very backward about selling. 
The time will soon be here, however, when 
they win be forced to sell or dry their own 
fruit, and many of them are not prepared to do 
the latter. Only one company as yet has 
offered ii cents, and that only for merchant- 
able fruit." The Colton cannery has made • 
few bargains at 1^ cents, but they oan afford 
to pay more for oanning purposes than those 
who purchase to dry." 

Similar reports come from other parts of the 
State. As low as three-quarters of a cent a 
pound is claimed by the C3lusa cannery to be 
all that it can afford to pay, while one cent a 
pound is the basis maintained by a number of 
establishments. 

Jostly enough, the growers do not believe 
the assertion that no better rates can be af- 
forded. There is a brisk demand for canned 
fruits, and in former years eatablishments 
which paid twice, and even three times, as 
mach for the fruit have made money. To be 
sure, every season there has been a repetition 
of the doleful story that "there is nothing in 
the buainess," bat no one has heard of any of 
the large establishments falling. On the con- 
trary, they have, if anything, extended their 
operation's, while their proprietors certainly 
wear all the outward semblance of proiperity, 
and their readinesa to continue in the intinstry 
certainly denotes that they are not raoning 
their establishments for the fun of it 

It Is a very significant fact that the Chinese, 
who have gone into the oanning and drying 
business, are offering better prioes than the 
cmblnition. Thus they are now paying from 
H to 1^ cents a pound for apricots and peaches 
ot ordinary quality, which is considerably more 
than the average paid by the white oanners. 
Yet the bigher-prioed fruit, when canned, 
comes into direct competition with that bought 



Jolt 25 1891.J 



f ACfFie f^URAlo PRESS. 



for the lower rate. The Chinese are certainly 
not in the basineaB for their health, and it is 
not at all likely, in the present condition of the 
labor market, that their help ia any cheaper 
than that of the white oaoners, yet they are 
able to pay enongh more for their fresh fruit to 
make a decided difference to the grower. 
When the trifle of an eighth or a quarter of a 
cent a poand Is made on a crop of several hun- 
dred tons, it amounts to a sum well worth con- 
sidering. 

The fruit-growers In many localities learned 
of the probable result of the combination early 
enough to make preparations to dry their crops 
themselves and thus become independent. 
This is, of course, the only way out of the diffi- 
culty, though there are several canneries in va- 
rious places which pay as good rates as pre- 
vailed laet year. That they should be able to 
do so shows plainly enough that the rates ap- 
parently established by the combine could 
readily be increased and still leave a margin 
for- profit. — Chronicle. 



Barmers' Institutes. 

The Institute at Malaga. 

One of the quarterly meetings of the Fresno 
Farmers' Institute was held at Malaga, on Jaly 
6 th. From reports in the Fresno Republican, 
we compile the following outline of the pro- 
ceedings: 

The meeting of the Fresno County Farmers' 
Institute was called to order by President O. P. 
Liird. It was opened with an instrumental 
aolo by little Opal Stuart; invocation by Rev, 
Cartright, Music, song of welcome by the 
choir, consisting of Mrs. O. W. Cirtwrigbt, 
MlsB Oro Birling, Miss Lida Brlico, Miss 
Grace Darling, Messrs. Potter and Wall; 
organist, Miss St. John. Malaga has reason 
to be proud of her musical talent, and also In 
other respects of her courteous, large-hearted, 
hospitable people. 

The eloquent address of welcome by G. W. 
Cartwright was fully confirmed by the action 
of the people, who welcomed and provided for 
the unexpectedly large crowd assembled there. 
The use of the fine hall, cool, clean and pret- 
tily decorated, was donated, the room below 
filled with long white tables, decorated in a 
way to bring joy to the heart of a hungry man. 

In the absence of Miss L. H. Hatch, which 
was deeply regretted by all, the responsive ad- 
dress was read by the secretary. 

President 0. P. Liird's address upon the 
benefits to be derived from the holding of 
Farmers' Institutes was so full of good points 
that it was the uoanimous wish of members 
that it be given for publication to the papers. 
Discussing the paper J. S. Dare gave a state- 
ment made to him by Mr. Oabonrne, formerly 
of the Eist but soon to become a resident of his 
eighty-acre vineyard near Fresno, to the efifact 
that he had seen sold at retail, in the Eist, 
Fresno raisins at 40 cents per pound. 

J. C. Ryce, while on a visit to Glasgow, 
Saotland, saw in the market a poor quality of 
Muscat grapes, marked at the ridiculous prioe 
of 90 cents a pound, which was considered a 
strong argument against the theory of over- 
production. 

Colonel McGlinoy, the lecturer of the oc- 
casion, was then introduced and in a bright, 
breezy speech brought the session fitly to the 
closing number, a beautiful solo, sung by Miss 
Oro Darling. 

The committees appointed were: 

Introduction — Mr. and Mrs. Craycroft. 

Eatertainment — Mr. and Mrs. L% Rue. 

R3solutions — J. S. Dore, Mr. and Mrs. Cart- 
wright. 

Afternoon Session. 

After coming to order the choir gave the 
song, "This is the Reason Only. " 
Calling the roll, responded to by proverbs, 
proved a spicy exercise. Prof, J. M. Martin, 
who was to have given an address on raisin 
culture, being absent. Colonel McGlinoy kindly 
oonsented to open the subject. 

A spirited discussion followed, participated 
in by Messrs. J. 8. Dare, J. W. Stevenson, J. 
0. Ryoe, J. H. Harding and others. The time 
proved far too brief for the importance of it. 

The choir gave, "The Farmer is a Gentle- 
man, " in pleasing style. Following this came 
an essay on " Home Aiornment, " written by a 
very young lady. Miss Myers of Malaga. The 
manner of handling the subject and the read- 
ing were both so admirably done as to deserve 
the praise it received, and it will be secured for 
publication. 

The reoitation, " The Dapple Mare, " given 
by Miss Grace Darling was well chosen and 
splendidly done and one of the best features of 
the session, which closed with the rousing 
" Hunter's Chorus " by the choir. 

Evenlcer Session 

Opened with a grand piece of music by the 
Malaga band, appropriately followed by the 
recitation. " After the Concert," given delight- 
fully by Mrs. D. G. Harlan. Following this 
came a rare treat in the form of a cornet solo, 
by Prof. Willis. After the reading, "First 
Settler's Story," by Mrs. M. Stuart, Miss 
Baltbis of Fresno, the popular singer, favored 
the audience with "Annie Liurie," the rich 
sweetness of her voice aboniog in vivid con- 
trast to the wheezy tones of the organ. Too 
mnoh praise oannot be given to the choir, who so 



nearly made us forget the sad complainings of 
that unhappy organ. 

The speaker of the evening, Oolonel Mc- 
Glinoy, then came forward, jind for nearly an 
hour held the attention of the large and en- 
thusiastic andience present, showing how deep 
is the Interest felt in the subject of co-oper- 
ation, No official steps were taken, but 
although the lateness of the hour made the dis- 
cussion of the matter, led by R. B. Harlan, 
necessarily brief, the tone of the remarks in- 
dicated the depths of thought that had been 
stirred, and no one present doubts that the way 
will be discovered of solvincr the problem of co- 
operation. The people of Fresno county have 
great reason to be thankful to Col, MoGlincy 
for his preseDce and labors among us, and we 
bespeak for him and hla estimable wife, who 
accompanied him, a cordial welcome ehould 
they come again among us. 

The choir, with G. W. Cartwright as tenor, 
gave us their choicest selection, "Tne Evening 
Echo." The Committee on Rasoluttons re- 
ported : 

Whereas, Fresno county has organized a Farm- 
ers' Institute Association, for the express purpose of 
holding Institutes; and 

Whereas, The association has held two successful 
and highly interesting and useful Institutes — one in 
Fresno City and one in Malaga — and we have no 
doubt that several other points in the county would 
be glad to have the association hold meetings in 
their midst; and 

Whereas, The expense and labor of such meet- 
ings devolve upon a few workers, practically largely 
from the localities in which the meetings are held; 
therefore be it 

Resolved, That the Fresno Connty Farmers' In- 
stitute Association respectfully petition the Board of 
Regents of the State University to appropriate from 
the sum of money in their hands for the purpose of 
furthering Institutes in this State, such an amount 
as in their judgment would be proper and right to 
enable us to pay the expenses attendant upon our 
meetings, such as printing programs, reports, etc., 
and for distributing the same to the people; and 
also that the Regents either send us assistants or give 
us funds to enable us to secure specialists to address 
us in our meetings; also to secure the services of a 
short-hand reporter, that our proceedings may be 
accurately reported for the benefit of the people. 

The report also included several resolutions 
of thanks for local kindness. 

The band gave us a splendid piece of mu^ic, 
and the lattituta adjourned, all feeling it had 
been a remarkably pleasant, enjoyable and 
every way successful session. Experience has 
taught us that we need more time, and that dis- 
cussions should be the leading feature of the 
programs. 

The bills all settled and a small balance in 
the treasury, the increase of membership to 82, 
the perfect success of the meeting and the 
kindly surprise given her, have greatly encour- 
aged the Secretary, Mrs. M. B. Stuart. 




California Hop History. 

The following interesting facts in regard to 
the first attempt to grow hops in California 
were obtained by the Sonoma Democrat from 
Otis Allen of Sebastopol, who was interested in 
the first experimental bopyards on the Pacific 
Coast. Amasa Bushnell of Green valley 
brought out with him from the East enough 
roots to plant ten acres of land in the spring 
of 1856; he set them out on the Pulgas ranch, 
in San Mateo, on land now owned by the 
Hon. T. G. Phelps. The crop failed on ac- 
count of the dryness of the soil. He took up 
all the roots that lived and planted them In 
a garden, on Mission creek, near Dow's dis- 
tillery, in San Francisco. Mr. Bushnell con- 
cluded from what he had heard that the soil 
and climate of Sonoma county would be good 
for hops, and in the spring of 1858 took there 
what roots be had saved and all that be 
could purchase. He set them out on the 
place upon which he now lives at the head of 
Green valley, near Vine Hill. Hd planted 
five acres of roots. In the fall of that year, 
Mr. Allen formed a ptrtnership with him. 
They gathered about 1000 pounds of hops 
that season, which Mr. Allen sold to the 
Union Brewery for $1 per pound. These were 
the first California hops sold on the market. 
Their quality was fine, but they were a little 
new. In the spring of 1859, Mr. Allen came 
up to reside on the farm, and that season they 
added considerably to their plant. They sold 
this crop for 75 cents per pound. The land 
was high and sandy, and did not average over 
800 pounds to the acre. 

In 1859, they exhibited hops at the Healds- 
burg Fair, the first held in the county, and 
took the premium, a silver box, which Mr. Al- 
len still has in hia possession. 

In I860, the firm exhibited a bale of hops at 
the State Fair in Sacramento, and again were 
awarded a premium, this time a valuable silver 
pitcher, which ix still in the possession of Mr, 
Bushnell. In 1860, Mr. Allen bought the place 
on the Liguna, upon which he now lives. He 
planted hops'there, and found the soil much 
better for them. The yield was increased to 
1200 pounds to the acre. He has grown hops 
every year sinoe, and has a crop thi« reason on 
some land which he rents on Sinta R3s» creek 
that will produce a ton to the acre. 

Boon after Messrs. Bushnell and Allen began 
in Sonoma connty, hops were planted by 
Wilson Flint {o Sapramento, but not before 



1860, so that to Mr. Bushnell and bis partner, 
Mr. Allen, the credit of the firrt introduction 
of hop-growing on the Pacific Coast belongs. 
Oae year with another Mr. Allen has found the 
business profitable, and he has now growing 25 
acres on his own, and upon some land which he 
rents. Mr. Bushnell grew hops on the original 
plantation for a number of years, but now de- 
votes his land wholly to fruit, for which it is 
better suited. 



The World's Wheat. 

The London News figures that the United 
States wheat crop will reach 501,000,000 
bushels at most, or 63 750 000 quarters, and 
this will leave about 16,500,000 quarters for 
export to Europe, the West Indies and ether 
extra European markets, requiring about 
2,500,000 quarters. In France, a deficiency of 
16,000,000 quarters will have to be covered 
next season, either by Imports or using up old 
stocks. In a large wheat-consuming country 
like France there is always a fairly important 
reserve stock, which mav be put as a minimum 
at 5,000,000 quarters. This, indeed, was the 
quantity popularly believed to be held in the 
country on the 1st of August last, when the 
new crop became available. The crop of last 
year was officially estimated last autumn at 
41,000,000 quarters, but la now known not to 
have exceeded 39,000 000 quarters. By the 
end of July about 5 250,000 quarters will have 
been imported, making a total supply of 44,- 
250,000 quarters. 

The prospect for next season, in faot, it is 
quite clear, is for an unprecedentedly large de- 
mand for wheat in Earope. The general posi- 
tion ia as follows, taking the minimum quanti- 
ties required by the importing countries and 
the maximum amount available from present 
indications from the exporting countries: 

RlqUIREUEKTS. 

Quarters. 

United Kingdom 19 000,000 

France 15,ono,ooo 

Belgium, Gc-many and Holland. 7,.')00,000 

Spa n and Portugal 2 000,000 

I'-ily 4,000,000 

Switzerland, Qreece and Norway-Sweden 2,500,000 

Total 50,000,000 

PROBiBLE EXPORTS TO EUROPE. 

United States and Canada 17,000,000 

Russia 11,000,000 

Rimmania, Turkey, etc 4,000,000 

Austria and Hungary '2, 50(1,0(10 

Im ia and Persia 5,,')00,')00 

Egypt, Algeria and Tunis 1,000 000 

Australasia, Argentine and Chili 2,500,000 

Total 44,000,000 

Deficit 6,000,000 

This deficit figures approximately at 24,- 
000,000 bushels. 



Wheat-Kaising in Washington. 

Under the above heading the Walla Walla 
Union says: Mr. 0. H. Barnett, who for near- 
ly 20 years has farmed in the country of the 
foothills, gives the following figures as an aver- 
age of bis yearly profits on his crops on summer- 
fallowed ground: 

AMOONT OF WHEAT. 

Value of land per acre $40 00 

Average price of wheat per bushel 50 

Average yield in bushels per acre 40 

Received for wheat per acre 20 00 

COST OP PRODDCTION 

Plowing ground twice $ 2 bO 

Seed 75 

Work of seetMng 60 

Cutting and stacking 1 75 

Thra-hing 2 00 

Hauling to market ... 1 60 

Total cost per acre 9 10 

This leaves a net profit of $10.90 per acre, 
where the owner of the land hires all his work 
done. 

A. Zaring, who for many years baa conducted 
a thousand-acre wheat farm in the hill and 
prairie section of the country, gives the follow- 
ing facts in regard to his average yearly yield 
and profit on crops on summer-fallowed land: 

AMt UNT OF WHEAT, 

Value o( land per acre $!5 00 

Average price o( wheat per bushel ,50 

Average yield in bushels per acre . 27 

Receive! for wheat per acre 13 40 

COST OF PRODUCTION. 

Plowing the ground .8 1 25 

Seoi per acre .' 75 

Work of seeding 75 

Cutting and stacking 150 

Thrashing ^ " 1 7ft 

Hauling to market 51 

Total cost per acia 3 6 64 

Net profit per acre $ 6 98 

These figurei are the result of experience of 
years. 



California Dyes. — A new industry in the 
line of dyes is becoming of considerable Im- 
portance to Oalifornta. Lower California has 
long been nctad for the variety of dyes which 
it produces, such as orohilla weed, etc., but the 
torote-tree bark, recently discovered, has come 
into great demand, and several large shiploads 
have been exported t} Earope. As yet there 
seems to be but little demand for the article in 
the United States, although it is cheaper than 
orohilla and other dyes, producing in its natu- 
ral state a dark red color, which is quite in- 
delible. It is now collected and sold in this 
market at the price of $1 to $1.50 per 100 
pounds, and the supply seems to be enormous. 



HbORIST jSrND ©Af^DENER. 



Orchids for Amateurs. 

At a recent meeting of the Southern Cali- 
fornia Horticultural Society, J. C. Harvey read 
the following paper on "Orchids for Ama- 
teurs ": 

Until recently, the cultivation of orchi- 
daceous plants has been regarded as one of the 
privileges of wealth, and the amateur of slender 
means could hardly hope for more than the 
pleasure to be derived from the inspection of 
some public exhibit of these curious and beauti- 
ful plants, or an ocoasional visit to the gardens 
of some wealthy friend. All this has been 
greatly changed during the past few years, ow- 
ing to the large importations constantly arriv- 
ing from the difi'erent tropical regions where 
they abound; better methods of packing are 
employed by collectors; improved transporta- 
tion facilities and the much wider area now 
under contribution have all tended to reduce 
prices — so much so that many of the finest 
species that a few years ago sold for several 
pounds in England are now offered for as many 
shillings, and the same holds good in America. 

We olten hear of large sums being paid for 
certain orchids. The plants were either ex- 
ceptionally fine specimens, or varieties of cer- 
tain species differing more or leas in color. 
Lycaets Skinnerii in its many varieties, from 
the faintest blush and white to the deepest 
carmine and pink, is pnrchaasble for a dollar 
or two, while a good plant of Lycaste Skinnerii 
Alba, the pure white variety, may bring from 
$50 to $100. 

Orchids are found growing in nearly all 
countries, and there are many terrestrial 
species of great beauty confined entirely to the 
temperate zones. Within the tropics, how- 
ever, they reach their highest development, 
and are found in the greatest profuaion; epi- 
phytic on rocka and the branches of trees, ab- 
sent only in tropical regions where protraotad 
drought prevails, or where the rainfall is small. 
Probably no country contains such a wealth of 
them as portions of South America, notably the 
Andes of Peru and the Cordilleras ef Colombia 
and Brazil, which yield their odontoglots and 
superb cattleyaa. "Such is their number and 
variety," wrote Humboldt, " that the entire 
life of a painter would be too abort to delineate 
all the magnificent orchide which adorn the 
deep valleys of the Peruvian Andes." Many 
fine species are found in Mexican States. 
Guatemala and Costa Rica are f'pscially rich in 
orcliidB, 

Turning to the tropics of the Old World, we 
fined a class of epiphytal orchids, differing 
greatly in aspect, though retaining the charac- 
teristic form of flower. In Java, Barmah, the 
Philippines and the Malay archipelaeo are 
found some of the finest species, »uch as Vanda, 
Saccolabium, Aerids and Phalaeaopsis. From 
the Himalayas and the hills of Assam come the 
glorious Ddndrobea. 

Continental Africa yielda many terrestrial 
species, pre-eoiioent among which stands Disa 
Grandiflora. In Madagascar several fine epi- 
phytic speciea occur, notably Angtsecum Ses- 
qnipedale. A few are scattered through Japan, 
China and the islands of the Pacific. 

Orchids have great beauty and singular struc- 
ture. Many possess exquisite fragrance and 
attributes not common to other flowers; no 
falling away of petals; flowers of many species 
remaining in full beauty several weeks. This, 
with gorgeous coloring, gives these noble plants 
the position they hold. 

A few good and easily grown orchids will 
flonriah in any greenhouse where the tempera- 
tare fails but occasionally as low as 40 degrees 
in the coldest weather. We have had here in 
bloom at the same time, and grown to the flow- 
ering stage with nothing but sun heat, the fol- 
lowing species: Dendrobium Nobile. D. Wardi- 
anunn, D. Formosum, Cattleya Citrina, C. 
MoB^iae, Cymbidium Ebnrneum, Phsjas Grand!- 
folius, Caelogynae Cristata, Lycaeta Skinnerii, 
L. Cruena, and that most charming orchid, 
Pha'eeaopsis Sohilleriana. 

The following six species may serve as an 
experiment in culture: Cattleva Triaree, Ly- 
oaste Skinnerii, Dendrobium Nobile, Odonto- 
glossum Grande, Calanthe Veitobu and Cy- 
pripedium Venustum. These are all good, 
easily grown and quite diatinct. 

Cattleya Triacae may be grown in a basket or 
on a block. The beginner will have most suc- 
cess with basket culture. Sphagnum moss, 
broken charcoal and pieces of crocks form the 
best medium. In spring the moss should be 
just slightly damp. When new bulbs are form- 
ing, the baskets may be dipped in water as 
often as the moss seems dry. Keep the plants 
dormant until spring. 

Lycaste Skinnerii grows best in a pot with 
half an inch of broken charcoal for drainage, 
over which plac!* paat or sphagnum moss, 

Dendrobium Nobile enjoys a warm situation 
under glass, but shaded from direct rays of the 
sun. The atmosphere should be kept moist, 
the baskets should not be large, and drainage 
should ha perfect. 

Calanthe Veitchii requires a hot, moist situa- 
tion, with liberal watering during growth. 

Cypripedium Venustum grows well in a mix- 
ture of sand, peat and moss, in a pot with 
charcoal drainage. 



Electric Wands are now used in beast 
taming. 



68 



f ACIFie I^URAlo PRESS, 



[July 26, 1891 



J^ATROj^S Of J^USBAJMDF^Y. 



Our Grange Edition. 

The Urauge news i>f most gcueral interest ia given tlirough 
all editions of our iiaper ou this page. Several unpplc- 
meutal pages devoted to Grange iutereetg, are added in our 
Grange edition, whicli any aubscriber can receive in Ueu of 
the regular edition without rxtka cost, by addressing 
the puDlisliers. 

The Master's Desk. 

1. W. DIVIB, W. M. 8. e. 01' C&LIPOKMA. 

Up to date there has not been a single 
complaint made against any one of the firms 
with whom Patrons can deal with the 
" Trade-Card." The plan seems to give 
f^eneral satisfaction, and those who have 
ordered goods on the card principle say 
" there is money in it." 



Can't you get your farmer neighbor to 
go with you to a big Grange meeting as 
soon as the harvest is over ? Feast both 
his body and his mind after the hard work 
of the harvest season, and perchance he 
will want to join the Grange and with the 
Grangers remain. 

Careful compilers estimate the wheat 
crop of the United States for 1891 to be 500,- 
000,000 bushels. Without doubt this will 
leave about 150,000,000 bushels for export, 
but the Old World will want all this, and 
at a paying price to the producer. If our 
farmers did not have so much interest to 
pay annually, the wife might have some 
pin money this year. 



" What are you farmers going to do at 
the next election ?" is a question very fre- 
quently asked nowadays. It seems to me 
quite as pertinent a question might be : 
What are you politicians going to do after 
the next election ? 



What is to prevent our fellow-farmers at 
Livermore and at Niles from organizing a 
Grange. Alameda county is to have the 
next session of the State Grange, and Ala- 
meda county ought to have a large repre- 
sentation at that session. Won't some one 
send a charter list and ask the Deputy to 
come down there very soon? 



Promptness does as much as any one 
thing to make Grange meetings pleasant, 
profitable and successful. Meet at the 
minute; proceed promptly from one item of 
business to another. Don't " rush," but be 
prompt in all things at all times with all 
persons. Twenty should not wait for the 
one. Be prompt! 



Mr. Dodge of the Department of Agricul- 
ture is reported as saying " That all indica- 
tions point to a high degree of prosperity 
among farmers." 'This is cheering news 
from a reliable source. Prosperity among 
farmers means general prosperity. All 
avocations, professions and callings are de- 
pendent on the farmer. 'Tis the husband- 
man who feeds them all. The prosperity 
that makes the farmer full-handed, thrifty 
and hopeful is the prosperity that makes 
the Nation to rejoice and the world to be 
progressive. 



There is farm work enough in California 
just now for every man, woman and child in 
the State who is able, willing and compe- 
tent to do such work. Why stand ye here 
all the day idle? Go to the hay-field, or 
wheat-field; go into the orchard or vine- 
yard — everywhere, from Del Norte to San 
Diego, there is wonk to be done. The man 
or woman who can't find work now is not 
searching very closely. 



Where can you best find the three great 
considerations of this life (viz., health, hap- 
piness and home) — in the country or in the 
city? Answer for yourself, but be very 
sure you do not run and jump at a conclu- 
sion. If you have been reared in the city, 
what do you know of the country ? Or, if 
reared in the country, what do you know of 
city life? 



It is said " Homes make the Nation." 
Who makes the homes? Not the "Old 
Bachelors" nor the " Old Maids." Oh, no ! 
not by a great deal. 



The San Francisco dailies tell us the 
fruit canners and fruit buyers of California 
have gone into a "trust," or "combine." 
If this be true, why not each grower take 
care of his own crop of fruit, drying and 
preserving as much as possible of it him- 
self, and leaving only the balance to go to 
the " combine." If all growers will do so, 
a lesson will be taught and somebody will 
learn that lesson. 



Do you know that Australia does not 
luction divorces? Possibly some of the 



States of this Union might learn from Aus- 
tralia on the subject of divorce aa well as 
about ballot laws. 



The suggestions made by Past Master 
Coulter in last Eurai> are to the point and 
are worthy of careful consideration. 



Special railroad fare to Haywards when 
the State Grange meets in October. 



The Grange can reasonably hope that if 
you are a farmer, you will join the Order, 
because the Grange claims only what is 
right. It asks no one to do wrong or to go 
wrong. The greatest good to the greatest 
number is a cardinal principle of the Order. 
No one ought to object to such legislation, 
organization or association as will bring 
the greatest good to the greatest number. 
Investigate the Grange and then help it. 
It will help you in return, and help when 
you most need assistance, too. Remember 
that. 



From Watsonville Grange. 

Wateonville Grange held a regular meet- 
ing on Saturday, July 18th, at 2 p. m., with 
W. M., A. P. Roache presiding. Con- 
ferring degrees was the order ot the day, 
and after two candidates had been obli- 
gated in the first and second degrees, the 
third and fourth were conferred on a class 
of eight. 

W. P. M., Sister Roache sends out the 
announcement that a new class is to be 
started at once, to be initiated in Septem- 
ber, in time to attend and take higher de- 
grees at the session of the State Grange in 
October. So notice is hereby given to all 
concerned to send in candidates as fast and 
in as great numbers as possible, for this is 
to be by far the largest class ever initiated 
in Watsonville Grange; and the good peo- 
ple of the country around are cautioned to 
be on their guard, lest some scheming mem- 
ber of the Grange should catch them un- 
awares and lead them into the Order. 
However, they wouldn't be sorry for it 
afterward. Any of us can testify to that. 

Sister Merrill of Stockton Grange spent 
the afternoon with us, and favored us with 
one of her delightful and instructive talks. 
May she ever meet with success in her no- 
ble endeavors to teach some of the truths of 
the true way of doing good. 

A fine program has been arranged for the 
celebration of Pomona Day and Harvest 
Feast, which will take place on the 25th 
inst. This will be an open meeting, and 
we expect to have a large attendance. 

A committee has been appointed to in- 
vestigate the question of Farmers' Insti- 
tutes, and to secure the co operation of the 
Farmers' Alliances of Watsonville, Cor- 
ralitos and Green Valley and of the citizens 
of Watsonville and vicinity, in order to 
make all arrangements for the holding of a 
grand and rousing Institute some time this 
winter. Further developments will be re- 
ported. T. L., 
Sec'y Watsonville Grange. 



Songs at the State Grange. 

Editors Press : — In answer to our 
Worthy Master Davis in the Press of June, 
6th, in regard to music at the next State 
Grange, I would say I have selected a num- 
ber of songs in the new book, " Glad 
Echoes," and a few in the old book, "Grange 
Choir," perhaps it will be too many. 

In my selections, I may have omitted 
a favorite song of some Patron; if so, I 
hope he will name it; and I wish the 
brothers to please take notice of the pages 
and look up the songs as well as the sisters, 
for we usually need all the base and tenor 
singers we can get. I am sure if all try to 
do their best, we will have some good con- 
cert singing. I hope we will have a large 
attendance from' all parts of the State at 
our next State Grange. I think it would be 
a good plan for all who can help in singing 
to bring their own song books. 

IN NEW " GLAD ECHOKS," 

The pages are 12, 14, 19, 40, 42, 44, 46, ">0, 
52, 55, 62, 76, 78, 89, 92, 102. In the 

" GRANGE CHOlU," 

Pages 42, 61, 65, 76, 90, 101. I would like 
to say I take pleasure in reading your paper, 
and I am very much interested in the wo- 
man's work in the Grange. We should be 
thankful to the sisters for a great deal of 
the work done in our Grange, and we have 
some very pleasant and profitable meetings. 
Fraternally, Mas. N. E. Allikq." 

Stockton, July 15. 

Sister Alling's suggestions are all good. 
We hope they will be widely seeded. Then, 
indeed, will we have music that will dwell 
with joy in our souls long after the delight- 
ful session of 1891. 



Sacramento Grange. 

Editors Press: — Some time ago, on ac- 
count of the extravagant manner I was 
using oxygen, I was informed by a commit- 
tee of three, and afterward by three com- 
mittees, that the drum that makes the most 
racket has the thinnest head, and it occurred 
to me that if the rule would apply to a 
drum, it might with ecjual force apply to 
me, so for some weeks you have not heard 
from the Sacramento Grange. I would not 
write this letter, but another committee 
waited on me yesterday and informed me 
that the drum that has the thickest head 
makes the least noise and is good for 
nothing except to give away for charitable 
purposes. I shall make both rules work by 
making a little noise for awhile, and then 
take a breathing spell. 

THE FENCE QUESTION DISCUSSED. 

Sacramento Grange is flourishing. It is 
not on its " last legs," if by that is meant 
it is approaching dissolution, as I heard the 
other day. Its last legs at present are those 
of Bro. P. B. Green, who joined a few 
weeks ago. A structure supported by 160 
sturdy limbs cannot be said to be dying. 
Additions to our membership come regu- 
larly, and there never has been a time when 
the Grange ran along as smoothly as now. 
We are having practical discussions on a 
number of topics, and they are popular. 
The last discussion was proposed by Sister 
Williams, our efficient Lecturer, and was on 
uniformity in farm fences. It brought out 
many valuable ideas. Bro. Flint especially 
gave an interesting account of the fence 
question, the absence and presence of the 
same, as seen by him on his recent Euro- 
pean trip. The only discourse of the day 
I noted was that of genial Myron Smith of 
Home Farm," near the Union House. 

Bro. Smith said he had watched the de- 
velopment of fences ever since his arrival 
in California, in 1849, and he has come to 
the conclusion that the only fence that will 
turn stock successfully and at the same 
time can be built at a minimum price is the 
barb-wire fence. He places the posts 12 to 
14 feet apart and nails on three wires; and 
with such a fence he can sleep in piece, 
knowing that no masculine bovine can rub 
it down, without he first fortifies himself 
against the pungent barbs by putting on 
four-inch armor of chilled steel. Bro. 
Smith thinks under some circumstances a 
smooth wire might be used successfully at 
the bottom of the series, for he said that a 
fence as above described is so proof against 
everything that a man cannot go through 
one without getting impaled, cannot jump 
over it, and cannot crawl under one without 
great danger of getting inoculated by the 
barbs in the bosom of his trowsers; but if a 
smooth wire were on, he could crawl under 
it and come out on the other side just as big 
a man as Jay Gould or any other high flyer. 
If it were not for the sleight of hand and 
juggling performance he has to go through 
in getting through his fences, he would pre- 
fer three barbed wires. Bro. Smith's re- 
marks were listened to attentivelv. 

A TEMPERANCE FENCE. 

Talking about fences, about the highest 
one I know of was erected some time ago 
by the temperance people around here. 
They asked the Board of Supervisors to 
raise the licence on the sale of alcoholic 
liquors, and put on other restrictions. The 
Granges ' took hold of the matter, and it 
assumed such a shape the supervisors were 
forced to recognize it and dispose of it in 
some way. They wanted time to think over 
it, and the frst delegation that approached 
them was a little discouraged. During the 
interval between sessions, one by one of the 
honorable gentlemen began to climb the 
formidable fence erected for them, until the 
five " little, little Injun boys " sat there 
squirming and twisting, not knowing which 
side of the fence to fall. Political oblivion 
stared them ou either side, but they very 
manfully fell on the right side — on the side 
of temperance. It is said three of the board 
are on their way back at the present time, 
while the other two are going down politi- 
cally like heroes. 

A BROTHER CAVES DOWN. 

In order to conduct a whisky joint in this 
county, the man who- desires to do so must 
have a petition with a majority of the 
names of the taxpayers in his precinct 
thereon, before he can secure a license for 
the dispensation of R. G. or any other 
brand of whisky. 

In a Grange in this county there is a very 
progressive brother whose originality I have 
always admired, who has pursued such a 
singular course, and whose action has caused 
so much unfavorable l omment and has been 
productive of so much damage to the cause 
he has at all times espoused, that he cer- 
tainly needs to explain. To begin with. 



my brother is a strictly temperate man. He 
believes whisky is the essence of eternal 
damnation. He made a motion in a certain 
Grange a short time ago to increase the 
license to $200 a quarter, in order to kill 
the hellish whisky business. He said some 
time ago, " If all the gold in California was 
melted at my feet, I would reject it rather 
than see my boys use tobacco or liquor." 
Yet this brother, who has preached temper- 
ance for lo! these many years in words of 
no uncertain sound, has signed the petition 
of at least two saloon men within a short 
time. I am losing confidence in humanity. 
This is a brother who has made a bitter 
fight for years against saloons, but when 
the test came and he was asked to sign, his 
resolutions of years were swept away, and 
down went his name, written in the largest 
letters of any man on the page. With me, 
in future years, his eloquent lectures -on 
temperance will be worse than wasted, for 
no man can shout for temperance with his 
mouth and work for intemperance with his 
hand. The brother's action considerably 
resembles that of the devil when he rebukes 
sin. The brother had a chance to show 
that his backbone was not a piece of garden 
hose, but he let the opportunity go by. 
When he sees luxuriant rum blossoms on 
every highway, he must censure himself a 
little, for if you water one of these flowers, 
it will cease to bloom; but the worthy 
brother did it not. The worthy brother, by 
his action, poured ice-water on the devil's 
head: When a man shouts himself hoarse 
for temperance and gives intemperance his 
support, I think if you find much of the 
genuine article in his composition, you will 
have to catch it with a hair seive. I have 
no faith in the temperance principles of 
any man who will run up an account with 
temperance, from time to time, and sneak 
away in the " Pop goes the weasel " style 
pay day.. Fraternally, Mack Jr., 
Sec'y Sac. Grange. 
Union House, July 15. 



From Tnlare Grange. 

Although the weather was hot and many 
farmers very busy, yet the last Grange 
meeting was well attended; discussion on 
various subjects added much to the pleas- 
ure of the members. 

At our next meeting, the Grange will be- 
gin to discuss the resolutions of the People's 
party, to be continued from time to time 
until all have been handled. 

The Hon. ex-Senator, Bro. Roth, being 
present at our last meeting, added much 
with able remarks on th% question then dis- 
cussed. All of our meetings have been 
well attended. While I do not care to men- 
tion names of those who have done much 
toward making them so interesting, our 
Worthy Sec'y must receive the praise of all; 
she not only keeps a full record, but she 
always adds a few words to finish the min- 
utes, as it were, with a wreath of silver 
lining. Such minutes go a great way toward 
making an interesting meeting. If more of 
our Secretaries of subordinate Granges 
would pursue such a course, you would al- 
wavs have better meetings. W. M. 

Tulare, July 20. 



Pescadero Grange. 

A. T. Deuey, Sec'y Slate Orange: — I have 
been a little off since I saw you in the city 
— grip or something akin to it, but I am 
better now. 

We expect Brother and Sister Roache to 
meet with Pescadero Grange on Saturday, 
Aug. 8th. All Patrons in good standing 
are cordially invited to meet with us at 11 
A. M. There will be an open meeting in 
the afternoon or evening. The time of 
meeting was not yet fully determined. 

We would be happy to have you and Sis- 
ter Dewey and any other officers of the 
State Grange visit us on that occasion. All 
Patrons, in fact, are invited. Fraternally 
yours, I. 0. Steele. 



Arroyo Grande Grange. 

We excerpt the following from a personal 
letter under date at San Luis Obispo, July 
20th : Friday morning Bro. Webster took 
us to Arroyo Grande, where we remained 
over night and attended a fine dramatic en- 
tertainment given by the Alliance and 
Grange. Saturday afternoon we attended 
the Arroyo Grande Grange. It is an active 
Grange with a fine membership. Although 
it is harvest time, and large numbers were 
absent, yet there were about 30 persons 
present. State Lecturer Steele and his 
assistant officers appear to be well up in 
the work. I think that even Bro. Over- 
hiser could not have found auythiug to cor- 
rect them in in the way of opening the 
Grange. 



Jolt 26, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAb PRESS. 



69 



Farmers' Alliance. 



AUianoe Edition. 

BubscriberB can receive our Farmers' Alliance Edi- 
tion WITHOUT EXTRA COST, by applying for the same 
That edition containa several supplemental pages oi Alli- 
ance matter, In addition to that which appears ou this page 
through all editions. 

Lecturer Shaw at Alameda County 
Alliance. 

Buelness Co-operation. 
[Reported by request for the Pacific Rural Press.] 

You hear from different speakers who are 
canvassing our State of the enormous 
amount in the way of freights and fares that 
we pay to the Central Pacific and other 
railroads, of the " tariff wall " that is placed 
about us, and the land-grant barons who 
are "gobbling" up so much of our terri- 
tory, and they don't forget the National- 
banking system that has proved such a 
curse to our people; yet there are other 
matters of as great importance as these, 
which we trust the Farmers' Alliance as a 
body will continue to handle without 
gloves. But what we wish to bring before 
you to-day is the subject of co-opera- 
tion. We consider the plan adopted by 
the Rochdale Equitable Pioneer Society 
of England the most practicable. A 
few weavers out of employment — almost 
at the point of starvation — had assem- 
bled together to devise some plan where- 
by they might better their condition. 
They decided to start a store — build their 
own manufactories, employ their own la- 
borers, and all this with little or no money. 
They started with 12 men, binding them- 
selves to hang together, come what would. 
Their subscription was two pence per week, 
and after 52 calls had been made upon 
them, they had barely enough to buy a bar- 
rel of oatmeal. How many of us here to- 
day would have held together under such 
adverse circumstances ? 1 imagine very few. 
But they stood by each other through thick 
and thin, until they were able to convince the 
world that they were strong enough and de- 
termined enough to overcome all combina- 
tions and attacks, whether from conspira- 
cies within or invasions without. The Gov- 
ernment itself was opposed to them, and 
the fight was fierce and long continued. 

They started their subscription in 1843, 
and in 1844 they opened their store with a 
capital stock of $140, the membership hav- 
ing increased to 40. In December, 1845, 
their weekly receipts were $140. In 1846, 
they found it necessary to extend their 
business, the members taking shares at $5 
each; capital stock, $5000. 

In 1847, the weekly receipts had risen to 
$180, or $9360 per year. From this on, the 
membership increased more rapidly, and in 
13 years the capital stock had reached over 
$1,500,000. The total profit to that period 
was $99,440. 

In 22 years from the beginning they had 
1515 societies and 1,054,996 members. 
Profits for that year, $18,666,475. They 
now own in Liverpool, England, many of 
the largest manufacturing and wholesale 
establishments there. 

Small Oains a Factor. 

Few people imagine the enormity of small 
savings, when combined in one great aggre- 
gate. It is estimated that in England alone 
there are 6,000,000 adult males and 4,000, 
000 females. If these have but two pence a 
week at compound interest, in 60 years, it 
would buy the entire property of the king- 
dom. This system ot co-operation has ex 
tended from England to France, Germany 
Russia and Australia. 

For our own country we say this— there 
are at present several such co-operative 
unions in successful working order. We 
quote from W. K. Cessna, Business Man 
ager of the Farmers' Alliance Exchange of 
Florida. 

" As the plan of the Exchange becomes 
more clearly understood it grows in the es- 
timation of the brotherhood. This is as it 
should be. Like all the affairs of life it has 
its ups and downs, its friends and its foes, 
its good reports and its evil ones. The 
work, nevertheless moves on, and each re- 
turning year finds its usefulness as a general 
leveler of prices advancing. Its protect- 
ing influence in the sale of all farm pro 
ductions is also felt, in that it puts com 
mission men on theii' good behavior, 
and opens prospects for the future 
never before deemed possible. * * * 
Every mistake of the past is a buoy point 
ing to the channel of the future. Much 
has been accomplished in the way of dis 
cipline that will prove invaluable to the in 
coming management and the brotherhood 
in all future movements. * * * The 
system does away with the individual and 
considers the multitude and the benefits 
and burdens go to the many. No large and 



dangerous accumulations of wealth can ob- 
tain, and a more equitable distribution of 
wealth is assured. The stock of the Ex- 
change is in no sense monopolistic, because 
it is not transferable, not cumulative; hence 
its control must ever remain in the many. 

* * While we have not realized the 
fullness of our hopes, we have made prog- 
ress." 

We might quote further, but think this 
sufficient to show the prosperity of at least 
one Exchange in the United States. There 
are many others as successful as the one 
above quoted. Let the work spread like a 
mighty fire, and when its smoke shall have 
cleared away from the horrison, " purer 
aims and more exalted conceptions of truth 
and justice will animate our hearts; the 
sterling metal of our Western life, abstracted 
from the dross which so long tarnished its 
luster, will shine out as never before." 



Alliance County Notes. 

Alameda. 

Editobs Press : — The following is a cor- 
rect list of Niles Alliance's newly elected 
officers: Pres., H. Tyson, Niles; Vice- 
Pres., J. Jacobus, Niles; Sec, H. Over- 
acker, Jr., C'ville ; Treas., Mrs. J. Tyson, 
Niles ; Chap., J. E. Sweet, C'ville ; Lect., 
Mrs. J. A. Bunting, C'ville ; Steward, Chas. 
Sweet, C'ville; D. K., C. Hatch, Niles; Asst. 
D. K., Mrs. H. Tyson, Niles. We have al- 
ready purchased 5100 large-sized fruit-boxes 
of our business agent, one carload arriving 
last week, and the rest will be here soon. 
These figures will be enlarged, no doubt, 
before the season is out. Several new 
names will be presented at our next meet- 
ing for consideration, so there is nothing to 
complain of, and new interest is being en- 
listed on every hand. Yours truly and fra- 
ternally, H. OvERACKBK, Jb., CenterviUe, 
July 18. 

CenterviUe Cor. Oakland Enquirer says 
that at the Niles Alliance meeting, July 
18th, subjects discussed were the prices of 
fruit, manner of drying, etc., and for the 
next meeting there will be a continuation 
of the same, with views about the eradica- 
tion of noxious weeds from orchards and 
farms. The next meeting will be held at 
Fraternal Hall, July 27th. 

Butte. 

C. W. Thresher, Butte Co. Lecturer and 
Organizer, paid an official visit to Liberty 
Alliance at Butte 8choolhou3e,Saturday even- 
ng.July 18, 1891, and installed the following 
officers : Pres., John V. Moore; V. P., A. 
M. Gridley; Sec'y. Jas. Myers; Treas., T. 
J. Gebhart; Lect., Jesse Hobson; Chap., 
Mrs. Flora B. Harris; Steward, Chas. Bis- 
set; D. K., R. L. Gorby; Asst. D. K., Mrs. 
Sarah Burnham. Liberty Alliance was or- 
ganized Feb. 9, 1891, by Deputy T. A. 
Gallup of Yolo county, with seven mem- 
bers. We now have a membership of 25, 
and several applications in the hands of 
committees. — Jas. Myebs, Sec'y, Oridley, 
July 20, 1891. 

Placer. 

On July 4th Newcastle Farmers' Alli- 
ance held an open meeting, J. A. Barton, 
Co. President, presiding. Dr. M. Schna- 
bel and four other young men formed a 
vocal quintet, which enlivened the occasion 
with original music. J. J. Morrison deliv- 
ered a well-worded lecture, stating the ob- 
jects of the organization. The following 
officers were installed : C. V. Freed, Pres.; 
Mrs. Eva Robertson, V. P.; G. W. De La- 
mater, Sec'y; J. A. Robinson, Treas.; Rev. 
S.C.Hamilton, Chap.; Dr. M. Schnabel, 
Lect.; W. Blair, D. K.; Miss Jennie Hews- 
tis. Asst. D. K. After the installation the 
crowd went down into the basement and 
partook of such a spread as only the New- 
castle ladies can furnish. — Argus. 

Tebama. 

According to the Observer, the Corning 
Alliance is increasing in membership. 
San Joaqaln. 

Editors Press : — Following is a list of 
officers of Macville Alliance, No. 203: I 
N. Told, Pres.; Edward Hart, V. P.; John 
Mehrten, Sec'y; Rasmus Hansen, Treas.; 
Mrs. Hansen, Ohap.; C. A. Brink, Lect.; 
Daniel Mehrten, Steward; C. Mehrten, D. 
K.; J. J. Simpson, Asst. D. K. P. O. ad- 
dress, Clements. Fraternally, John Mehr 
TEN, Clements, July 18, 1891. 

Santa Barbara. 

The Cor. Santa Maria Times says of the 
Santa Barbara Co. Alliance: Any one who 
saw the city of tents with its 200 inhabi- 
tants, besides the many visitors entertained 
in the hospitable homes of Lompoc, need 
not be told that the Alliance is increasing 
fast, so fast that it is necessary to limit the 
number of delegates before they become so 
numerous as to make an unwieldy deliber- 
ative body. After this, therefore, each Sub 
Alliance is allowed one delegate for each 25 
members, and one for mtgor fraction 
thereof. 



To Pertect Our Order. 

Some Points with Which the State Consti- 
tution Perhaps Ousrht to Deal. 

Editors Press: — That there are some im- 
portant things, and much, yet to be done 
to reasonably complete the organization of 
the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union, 
in this State, is plain; and it is perhaps 
proper that members of the Order, both out 
and in office, should begin to confer with 
one another, through the medium of our 
publications as well as privately, as to what 
there is to be done and as to how to do it. 

The brothers who composed the Commit- 
tee on Constitution and By-laws of the 
first State Alliance, properly, I think, con- 
sidered it best at that time to make as little 
law as possible, leaving a chance for the 
organic law of the Order to grow easily and 
and naturally, as laws should, as all natural 
things do. 

A trial of the State Constitution has 
shown one or two slight flaws in it, more 
verbal than otherwise, and a lack of declara- 
tion on at least one or two important points 
upon which it may, perhaps, be well at the 
Los Angeles- meeting this year to declare, 
in order that there may be a clearer under- 
standing and greater concert of action and 
cohesiveness among us. 

The points which seem to me important 
are indicated below by questions, which it 
seems to me it would be well for each mem- 
ber, in the interest of the whole Order, to 
ask himself or herself. 

Form of Business Co-operation. 

Since business co-operation is one of the 
essential objects of the Order, and since 
some forms of co-operation appear to be 
better adapted for the use of reform organ- 
izations than others, would it not be well 
for the members of the State Alliance to set 
forth in plain language the principal fea- 
tures of that form of business co-operation 
which seems to them most likely, in prac- 
tice, to prove permanent, incorruptible, and 
likely to offer equal benefits to all members 
of the Order? All, of course, that our Or- 
der can do is to adopt as official and put the 
stamp of approval upon that plan which 
seems likely in practice to make equal offer 
of benefit in return for payment of equal 
dues, leaving the amount of benefit to each 
member to be the result of the extent to 
which each member, in accordance with his 
or her circumstances, voluntarily takes ad- 
vantage of the benefits offered. To many 
earnest and thoughtful members, it seems 
that the "capital stock" method of co- 
operation is not well fitted for reform or- 
ganizations, not well fitted to bringing 
equally benefit to many people, upon equal 
terms to all. It seems rather, by virtue, of 
its nature to tend inevitably to the enrich- 
ment of a few without corresponding equal 
benefit to many others engaged and inter- 
ested. It is a question whether, if Alliance 
people generally adopt the " capital stock " 
method, the Order may not soon find itself 
in the same trap by which the usefulness of 
farmers' organizations in some parts of the 
country have previously been destroyed. 
These surely are questions of business im- 
portance to the Order, to which members 
should, for their own sakes, give a little 
thought. 

Relation of this Order to Political Parties. 

2. Should we state, in brief and plain 
language, the relation of this organization 
to any and all those organizations, known 
as political parties, created for the almost 
sole purpose of putting up candidates for 
office ? which is far from being the purpose 
of our Order. Is it wise for the Order in 
general in this State, or for local sections of 
the membership, to "indorse" particular 
candidates or particular parties?' Is it wise 
for the membership of this Order generally 
in this State to allow a chaotic and in- 
definite state of things to continue to exist 
on this point? Is it not advisable that the 
organizations for putting up candidates for 
public office should come to us, rather than 
we to them ? Does a " resolution of in- 
dorsement" control more than the votes of 
those who vote for it ? and does it control 
theirs? and is a resolution necessary to con- 
trol theirs? What is unnecessary is usually 
unwise. At the same time, it is highly de- 
sirable that, within the Order, there should 
be the freest and most extensive interchange 
of opinion, and it seems to me that the ex- 
penditure of some ironey for the purpose of 
creating facilities for such interchange would 
be wise. 

The " Bedrock" of the Order. 

3. The social feature of the Alliance 
seems to me to be the " bedrock," of the 
Order. Would it not be well to amplify 
somewhat the provisions of the State Con- 
stitution regarding the parliamentary and 
social conduct of Alliances, providing, 
among other thingo, that Alliances should 
open for business promptly at the hour ap 



pointed, or as soon thereafter as auj 
members shall be present, and making 
least half an hour's rece.ss for informal 
sociability at every meeting one of the per- 
manent features of the Order ? 
Would not these things be wise ? 
Other Sueeestlons. 

Besides these three most important ones, 
there are some other points which might be 
thought of : 

(a) Would it not be well to make every 
earnest Farmers' Alliance paper in the 
State an " official organ "? 

ib) Would it not be well to entirely dis- 
continue the present " commission " feature 
of the State business co-operation, putting 
the total expense upon the dues? Would 
it not be well that, for educative purposes 
if no other, all declarations touching the 
political and public affairs of this State 
should be ratified (by discussion and vote 
in the Sub Alliances, under proper limita- 
tions as to time) by direct vote of a majority 
of all the members in the State, before be- 
ing given out to the public as the prevailing 
opinion of this Order, thus making discus- 
sion of public questions a part of the regu- 
lar business of the Order ? 

I believe that the surest way to defeat our 
enemies is to render ourselves invulnerable. 

Modesto, July 11, 1891. F. P. Cook. 



Sacramento County Alliance. 

Florin Alliance, No. 310, entertained the 
members of Sacramento County Alliance at 
the regular quarterly meeting held here 
July 6th. 

Twelve Alliances out of 16 were repre- 
sented, and the latter sent almost a full Hat 
of delegates. 

Lunch was served by the members of our 
Alliance, assisted by Enterprise Alliance, 
after which, election of officers for the en- 
suing year being in order, the following 
were selected: Pres., J. E. Camp, Perkins; 
Vice Pres., F. McMillan, Antelope; Sec'y, 
L. M. Landsborough, Florin; "Treasurer, 
Sol Kreeger, Gait; Chap., Rev. W. C. Scott, 
Elk Grove; Lect., A. A. KruU, Sacramento. 
Ass't Lect., A. B. Burns, Sacramento; Stew., 
Miss M. Krull, Sacramento; D. K., Mark T. 
Hunt, Freeport; Ass't D. K., Mrs. W. B. 
Bradford, McConnells; Serg't, B. F. Smith, 
Routiers. 

The spirit of the convention showed that 
the members of the Alliance are alive to 
the important Lssues of the day, and intend 
discharging the great work outlined for 
them with credit to themselves and honor 
to the organization. The committee ap- 
pointed to examine the assessment roll, with 
a view to equalizing the tax roll in this 
county, is still at work, and if it does not 
accomplish its object in the short time al- 
lotted to it, it has sown the seed for future 
work. L. M. Landsborough. 

Florin, July 20. 

Farmers' Alliance Reception. 

Leading Farmers' Alliance speakers will 
visit Oakland Friday evening, July 24th, 
by invitation of Oakland Farmers' Alli- 
ance. Alonzo Wardall from S. Dakota, 
member of the National Executive Council, 
Marion Cannon, Pres. of the Cal. State F. 
A. & I. U., John S. Dore, Chairman of the 
Executive Committee, State Lecturer J. L. 
Gilbert, J. W. Hines, Treasurer, and other 
officers have promised to be present. The 
meeting will be held, at G. A. R. Hall. 
Patrons of Husbandry, Nationalists, mem- 
bers of the Citizens' Alliance and Trades 
Unions are invited, with all citizens, to 
attend and hear the views of these repre- 
sentative Farmers' Alliance leaders. Miss 
Jessie Weed, one of the young members, 
will speak or recite an appropriate selec- 
tion. Some good music will also be 
rendered by members of the Nationalists' 
Club. 

Important Meetings. 

The Executive Committee of the State 
Farmers' Alliance commenced its quarterly 
se.ssion at the Chamber of Commerce, 
Wednesday morning, July 22d. In the 
afternoon, the State Legislative Council, 
consisting of the State President, Lecturer, 
Executive Committee and Congressional 
District Lecturers, met and organized, with 
Pres. Cannon ex-officio Chairman; .lesse 
Poundstone, Sec'y. The State Executive 
Committee were elected as the Executive 
Board of the Council. Further reports 
later. 

State Citizens' Allianee. 

The organization of this body is expected 
to take place in S. F. to-day, July 25th. 



70 



f ACIFie f^URAL) PRESS. 



[Jdlt 25, 1891 




As in Vision. 



If I were told that I must die to-morrow — 

That the next sun 
Which sinks should bear me past all fear and sorrow 

For any one, 
All the fight fought, and all the journey through, 

V/hat should I do ? 

I do not think that I should shrink or falter, 

But just go on 
Doing ray wcrk, nor change, nor seek to alter 

Aught that is gone; 
But rise, and move, and love, and smile and pray 

For one more day. 

And, lying down at night for a last sleeping, 

Say in that ear 
Which hearkens ever, " Lord, within thy keeping. 

How should I fear ? 
And when to-morrow brings thee nearer still, 

Do thou thy will ? " 

I might not sleep for awe; but peaceful, tender, 

My soul would lie 
All the night long, and when the morning splendor 

Flashed o'er the sky, 
I think that I could smile, could calmly say, 

" It is His day." 

But if a wondrous hand from the blue yonder 

Held out a scroll 
On which my life was writ, and I with wonder 

Beheld unroll 
To a long century's end its mystic clew, 

What should I do ? 

What could I do, O blessed Guide and Master, 

Other than this, 
Still to go on as now, not slower, faster, 

Nor fear to miss 
The road, although so very long it be. 

While led by thee ? 

Step by step, feeling thou art close beside me. 

Although unseen; 
Through thorns, through flowers, whether tempest 
hide thee. 

Or heavens serene; 
Assured thy faithfulness cannot betray. 
Nor love decay. 

I may not know, my God; no hand revealeth 

Thy counsels wise; 
Along the path no deepening shadow stealetb; 

No voice replies 
To all my questioning thoughts, the time to tell; 

And it is well. 

Let me keep on abiding and unfearing 

Thy will always. 
Through a long century's ripe fruition 

Or a short day's. 
Thou canst not come loo soon; and I can wait, 
If thou come late. 

— Susan Coolidge. 



Rural Life and Home on the Farm. 

[Read at Farmers' Institute hold at Wasco, Oregon, by 

S. R. Hl'BBAKDS.J 

The question of rural life and home on the 
farm, ia wide as the universe, deep as the 
fathonDlesa sea, and old as the hills. With our 
first parents it was nshered into the world, and 
with them became a permanent and a f;lorious 
institution. As tillers of the soil, their home 
was in the midst of the scene of their labonr, 
perfect in its arrangement and matohless in its 
adornments. From dewy morn until the 
twinkling stars nshered in the silent night, they 
drank their full of a perfect form of rural life, 
and rural soenery; each peeping Qswer from 
emerald sod, was beautiful in form and 
gorgeous in colour; not a thorn or bramble to 
wound or annoy, and no decay to mar their 
beauty, for death had not entered the world; 
but Adam fell, and so ended the perfect form 
of raral life. 

From time immemorial have the praises of 
woodland life and farmers' hoipes been sung. 
Poets have vied with each other, and spread 
broadcast over the land multitudinous volumes 
of poetic rhyme, wherein one and all have 
shown to the world, that the acme of happiness 
as far as this world is concerned, is to live in a 
cottage home, embellished with nature's pro- 
dactions and surrounded with its beauties. 

The word home; what a soothing power does 
those four little letters posess; to the weary 
husbandman a calm retreat, as when from bis 
daily toil he crosses its threshold, therein to 
find a haven of rest — bis citadel, his palace, 
his all, his everything. The tired traveler, 
sweating under the scorching beams of a aam- 
mer's sun, anticipates with delight the return 
to his restful home; and how many sighs and 
longings have gone forth from (he heart of the 
boy or girl who has left home to struggle 
with the world for a share of its wealth. In 
the turmoil of life, when reverses and mis- 
fortunes have dogged our footsteps and the 
Shylocks of oooimercial life have taken onr last 
cent and are still holding over as the threats of 
the law, what a haven of rest is home. It re- 
vives the drooping spirit and infuses fresh life 
into the soul. Within its hallowed precincts 



the Btorm-woro heart revives, and there fresh 
conrage takes. Shut oat from the gaze of a 
cold, anfeeling world, the unfortunate there 
takes refuge; the scathing power of the tattler's 
tongue reaches them not; new resolves are 
formed and nurtured to sncoess, and from its 
saored portals a better and happier being goes 
forth. Even the very birds who during win- 
ter's storm have sought sunnier climes returned 
to the place of their birth, and whether by in- 
stinct or reason, call it what you may, the 
brute creation oomes back with nnerriog pre- 
cision to the home of their care and protection; 
therefore all endorse the poet's words, "There 
is no place like home." 

From early Infancy and all along the path- 
way of life, even to the tottering fortstepa of 
old age, it is a part of ourselves. There our 
constitutions are formed, oar traits of char- 
acter that are shown through life, are built up, 
whether they be good or evil. As the printing 
press imprints the character of the type upon 
the paper, so does the mighty power of home, 
environments, indelibly stamp their oharaoter 
npon the mind of its inmates; but, unlike the 
paper to be cast away, destroyed or forgotten, 
it remains a perpetual reminder by its early Im- 
pressions, and oar actions through life are in a 
great measure governed thereby. 

The question then resolves itself into two 
points. First, why la home eo attractive ? 
and second, why should maoh care be be- 
stowed upon its surroundings? 

We are born into the world helpless in- 
fants, dependent upon the fostering care of our 
parents, and for a time we are unobservant of 
of anything and everything around ne, onr 
brain gradually acsnmes shape and power, and 
the dawn of intellect appears above the horizon 
of our sphere, thence to rise to its zenith in 
perfection or imperfection as the case may be. 
The first, and one of its grandest attributes, is 
love, and here are its first efforts displayed; 
love toward Its mother for her watobfai oare, 
her efforts to please; its every sigh and cry is 
an anguish to her soul; as she is the grand con- 
necting link to home it extends it affections 
thereto, and everything in that home as its in- 
tellect enlarges, becomes dear to its heart. 
From infancy to childhood, and on to man and 
womanhood, this love Increases and becomes an 
inseparable part of our being. Some people 
will say, "this is only natural" I say it is more 
than natural, it is a God given power which we 
must exercise, and without it we should become 
very poor specimens of hamanity and Our hab- 
itations would be abodes of misery and degra- 
dation. 

This leads us to the question, why should 
much oare and of what nature, be bestowed 
upon its surroundings ? Habits once formed 
are almost Indelible, and there is an old saying 
which may sound very singular to some of you, 
but neverlees is true, " That the child is father 
to the man" and the child being a great copyist, 
it is therefore of the ntmost importance for its 
future well being and formation of character, 
that its home life should be surrounded with 
everything that tends to elevate and enlarge its 
intelleotual powers, shutting out from view 
that which is of a degrading and vicious oharao- 
ter. Where shall we find the home that is 
most suitabb and beet adapted to the carrying 
out of this object ? Di) we find it in the city ? 
Many well regulated homes we find there, but 
from a false notion of love, the parents often 
permit their sens and daughters to form a com- 
panionship with those who have already formed 
bad habits, and thus they become bad as their 
companions. Temptations in all shapes and 
forms beset them on every corner, and parental 
inflaence mnst be indeed very strong, to pre- 
vent them from following the footsteps of evil. 
How many young artiz^ns living in oitles, have 
fallen under the power of the demon alcohol ? 
The brilliantly lighted saloons have lured 
thousands to lead an unholy life and fall into 
an nnhonored grave. The gambler's den, with 
its dice box and cards (emblems of deceit and 
villany) has caused many a bright young life to 
end its days by suicide or in a prison cell. We 
must look then for a better place to raise our 
families, a place where evil influences are the 
fewest, and where do we find it ? I think you 
will all say with me, it is in the country and on 
the farm, cmd when we as farmers have gotten 
some of our rights, which we are now on the 
high road to attain, if we will be only trae to 
ourselves and follow out the principles of our 
obligations, and adhere olosely to our declara- 
tion of purposes, we shall become the happiest 
people In the world, and be better able to make 
our homes, morally and socially, still more 
suitable for the building ap of true oharaoter In 
the young. 

This brings us to our lubjeot in hand: The 
farmer's home, and what should it be as an 
in fluence on the growing mind of the young. 
It should be a plaoe of happiness their young 
souls can look back upon with unalloyed pleas- 
ure, when laanched out upon the sea of life, 
battling with its waves, to make a successfnl 
voyage. It should be an incentive to their am- 
bition, a guiding star to honesty and Integrity, 
a haven of rest to the weary tiller of the soil, 
a repository of art from the deft fingers of the 
loyal housewife, the whole made musical by 
the joyous laugh and song of the rising genera- 
tion. I think many of us labor under the 
mistake that because we have small houses, it 
is not worth while to beautify them. This is a 
great error. Any house, however small, can be 
made very pretty by planting a trailing vine 
against it — nothing ooald be better than one or 
two grapevines, adding profit with beauty, and 
for this part of the country I would suggest the 



Concord grape. It is hardy, and will stand 
this climate nicely. The wash-water from the 
house will be all the moisture needed. Althongh 
in the summer-time I know water is rather 
scarce, two barrels per week would be sufBsient 
to keep a flower garden, six or eight rods 
tquare, and fenced in with $6 worth of picket- 
fence, very pretty all the summer. Try it 
once, sisters, and you will wonder why yon 
never tried your persuasive powers upon your 
husband before to fix you a fence and hanl you 
the water. There is great virtue in flowers. 
They elevate the mind of youth in learning to 
gruw and care for them. Who ever heard of a 
bad young man or woman who was fond of 
growing flowers ? Then they are good things 
to trade with. A neighbor calls and makes 
yon a visit. When she goes away you gather 
her a bunch of flowers. She carries them home 
and shows them to her folks. She tells them 
you gave them to her, and bow real good you 
are. Yon gave her great pleasure, and get her 
good wishes for your handful of flowers; and 
let me say right here, the more yoa pluck flow- 
ers from the plant, the more they will bear and 
the longer they will bloom. 

If some of yon are so situated yon cannct 
have a garden right awav, have some flowers 
in the house, but you must bear in mind they 
must be given good and regular attention, for 
fljwers are easily offended and will always re- 
pay for care, I fancy I can hear some sister 
say she oannot keep hers through the winter. 
I would say if they will get the boys to dig a 
pit about thirty inches deep on sloping ground, 
boarding up the sides and putting on common 
window-sash with grooves out through the 
sash bars to let off the wat^r, and cover with 
straw or matting on very cold nights and days, 
I think they will have good success, but oare 
must be tiken in having the box six or eight 
inches higher at back than front, with dirt or 
manure thrown against the projecting part 
above ground. Much more could be said in 
favor of flowers but time will not permit. 

It is undoubtedly the duty of parents to pro- 
vide some innocent amusement for their fami- 
lies. Among the many pastimes for the chil- 
dren's enjoyment, I think music might be men- 
tioned as the foremost. Same parents will say 
our children cannot sing. That may be all 
true, but I assure you that singing can be 
learned, and when once acquired it is always 
enjayed. The old saying is, "show me a per- 
son fond of music for that person possesses a 
soul." Music cheers the sorrowing heart, and 
drives away the blues. An organ is a good 
piece of fnrniture; get one as soon as you can 
if you do not possess one already. How our 
memory takes us back to the songs that were 
sung in our childhood home, and can we ever 
forget the soothing inflaence of the cradle song, 
as it fell In sweet low cadence from the lips of 
her we loved so well — " Hush my babe lie still 
and slumber, holy angels guard thy bed," we 
will never regret teaching the children to sing. 

In my short travels over this part of the 
oonntry, I find some of the farmhouses not 
very large, and where there is a family, they 
must be inconveniently small. I think much 
might be done to improve them, although I 
know that from uncontrollable circumstances, 
many are not in positions to build larger ones. 
However, I feel sure much might be done to 
make them more comfortable, and at a slight 
extra expense. When we consider the $20 
spent in putting on an extra room, the extra 
convenience will well repay the outlay. I 
would here like to suggest to the brothers who 
have wives laboring under these difficulties, 
that instead of taking up the paper every time 
you have a spare moment, occasionally watch 
the wife in her household duties and notice 
with what many makeshifts she has to put up, 
and how much extra work it cost her, and all 
for a small outlay in buying her some house- 
hold articles suitable to do her work with. It 
seems to me we would not put np with half 
the inconvenience out of doors, for the proper 
implements we must have at any cost. 
Brothers, are you not aware it is a bad ex- 
ample to set the boys ? They will begetting 
wives after awhile, and be very likely to act 
as father did. I would not imply that this is 
done intentionally. It is more from thought- 
lessness and the idea that they cannot afford to 
spend the money, and the uncomplaining wife, 
true to her nature, worries through life the 
best she can, and, as a true descendant of 
Mother Eve, is still a helpmate to her Adam. 
All wives, however, are not of this class. We 
find some (and we hope there are bat few) who 
are of a careless, shiftless nature, and had they 
all the conveniences a good housewife could de- 
tire, and all household utensils requisite to 
carry on household work, they would still be 
slovens, a curse to themselves, a curse to their 
families and a disgrace to the nelKhborhood. 
Seldom, indeed, do we find these characters in 
the farmer's home. The majority of farmers' 
wives are farmers' daughters, who from ohild- 
hood up have been taught habits of thrift and 
industry, and all they lack is the wherewithal 
to fill their homes with comforts and con- 
veniences. 

But with all the troubles that beset the 
farmer's pathway, as an offset we enjoy many 
blessings that our city friends know little of, 
one of these is that of good health; we may 
have money in abundance, every luxury that it 
can purchase, fine dresses, beautiful furniture, 
nice carriages, and set oar table with sumptu- 
ous ware, but if we have poor health we oannot 
enjoy them. This is fully demonstrated in the 
oase of one of our millionaires; the country res- 
idence of Jay Gould is something snperb; tlie 



grounds are laid out in beautiful lawns, Inter- 
spersed with beds of flowers, and arranged 
with mathematical preciaiou; the conserva- 
tories are beautifully constructed and the 
greenhouses, built npon the latest plan, are 
filled with flawers from every clime, but even 
these luxuries he seldom enjoys, beoause he 
lacks the possession of the one thing needful to 
do so, and which farmers have in abundance, 
that of good health. Nearly all the past winter 
he was unable, through sickness, to visit these, 
bis beautiful possessions, and cut flowers were 
sent to his bouse every day. There is not a 
question in my mind, and yoa mnst all agree, 
that bis life is one of far less enjoyment than 
that of the well-to do farmer of E tstern Oregon . 
When at The Dalles, to take a look at the 
President, I met many of our rural folk, and 
I coald not help bat observe the difference In 
appearance between them and the city dwellers, 
the former so rosy with the hue of health, so 
rugged and strong, capable of facing any dif- 
fisnlty, the latter puny and pale, with scarce- 
ly energy enough to carry them to their meals, 
and with an unmistakable lock of " a buggy 
ride into the country would do me good," but 
that would coat $2.50, and a great many are as 
short of the needful as the farmer, who baa 
this advantage, for when he wants to take a 
trip, be hitches his team to his hack, and with 
wife and family goes when and where he 
pleases, and the other farmer's son, with some- 
thing more than pity in bis eye, to relieve the 
loaded vehicle of paterfamilias, will take one of 
the daughters in bis own buggy, with the de- 
light of a boy in his first pants, and with a look 
of just about as much innocence. 

'Then what a grand and beautiful life is the 
farmer's; the pure, free air, laden with the 
perfume of a million flowers in his possession, 
the ever-changing beauties of the rolling prai- 
ries and the distant hills delight his eye, his 
well'tillcd fields and herds of stock are the pride 
of his heart, and after filling life's dnties hon- 
orably and well, falls gently and quietly into 
an honored grave. 



What Women Are Doing. 

Four women were members of the Medical 
Convention in Concord, N. H., on June 18th — 
two from New Hampshire and two from Massa- 
chusetts, 

Miss Harriet Hosmer writes from Rome that 
the model for her statue of Qiaen Isabella for 
the Wc man's Pavilion at the World's Fair is 
completed. Tne Qjeen is represented in the 
act of stepping down from her throne and offer- 
ing her jewels to Columbus. Miss Hosmer ex- 
pects to leave Rome soon, and make a short 
etay in England, returning to America early in 
the autamn. 

A oase was lately tried at Douglas, Wy., be- 
fore a jury composed wholly of women. All 
the parties oonoerned in the trial were women 
also, Mrs. Ingersoll, who keeps the hotel at 
Donglas, being sued by two of her servant girls 
for their wages. The jury gave judgment for 
the girls. The trial attracted much attention, 
as a jury composed exclasively of women was 
an unusual sight. The case has been appealed. 

Mrs. Mary A. Livermore addressed an audi- 
ence of 2000 in Music Hall, Boston, last Sun- 
day afternoon, on " The Perils of the Re- 
public." After enumerating the dangers to be 
apprehended from the liquor traffic, foreign 
immigration, sectarianism in the public schools 
and labor troubles, she exclaimed: "Men, 
just as soon as you give women a chance to 
vote, we will help you to take care of this." A 
storm of applause greeted this oharaoteristio 
declaration. 

The Anglican synod at Montreal has voted 
to petition the provincial Parliament to let 
women vote at vestry meetings. Cicon David- 
son said that women who contributed to the 
funds of the church had voted at vestry meet- 
ings in former times, but recent hasty legisla- 
tion had declared that a woman was not a 
"person," and now a man who gave $5 per 
year had every privilege, while the woman 
who built a church had none. This was not 
equitable. The synod agreed with Canon 
Davidson. 

Dr. Sarah Stockton, of Indianapollr, has 
been appointed physician at the Indiana State 
Raformatory for Girls and Prison for Women. 

The Governor of New South Walep, in open- 
ing Parliament on Jane 22, announced that 
bills would be Introduced to abolish plural 
voting and to enfranchise women. 

The Nebraska City District Ministerial 
Assoiation of the Nebraska M. E. Conference, 
passed a resolution at its last meeting that the 
wives of ministers shall be included in the 
membership of the Association. 

Riv. Amanda Deyo was lately installed as 
pastor ot the Uaiversalist Church at Scranton, 
Pa. Mrs. D::yo has long been associated with 
the American Peace Association, and has had 
successful pastorates in her denomination. 

The executive committee of the Rimabai 
Association has cabled twelve thousand dollars 
to Pundita Rimabai, at Poena, with which to 
pay for her school building. 28 widows are 
now within its walls, and the school la an 
assured success. 

Governor Filer has signed thebiU giving school 
suffrage to the women of Illinois. Governor 
Filer is a member of the Executive Committee 
of the Equal Suffrage Association of that State, 
so of course his signature to the bill was to be 
expected. Tnere are now 23 States where 
women have school suffrage. 

Miss Cora McDonald has been elected by the 



July 25, 1891.] 



f AClFie f^URAlo f RESS. 



7^ 



Regents of the Wyoming State UniverBitjr to 
fill the chair of hiatory, Mrs. Thereae A. Jen- 
kins writea. "This ia a deserved honor. The 
Unlveraity Regents, two of whom are women, 
seem to be of the right mind as regarda the 
appointing of women. Miss MoDonald'a salary 
ia equal with that of any gentleman called to 
any similar ohair in the UniTeraity, $1500 per 
year." 

Chaff. 

CoD'BAOB ia the starch In the collar of snc- 
ceaa. 

The miller finds life to be one continual 
grind. 

The cook is an expert at decorating the in- 
terior. 

Young Hodsekeeper — And these eggs — they 
are real country eggs? Grocer — Yes'm; genu- 
ine hen-made. 

"Oh, dear," said Mrs. Bakins, "the ants 
have got into my biscuits." " What wonder- 
ful digeatloDB 1" ejaculated the husband . 

"I SAY, Mr. Hodge, your dog bit me in the 
leg last Monday." "Thar? That aokeounts 
fur it. I knowed that thar dog didn't get sick 
on nothlnk." 

" Where can I find Deacon Johnson ?" 
Colored Boy — "In the graveyard." "Is he 
dead?" Colored Boy — "I dnn'no; he wuz when 
they took him there." 

They were roasting chesnuta in the fire. " I 
am going to call that big one by your name," 
she said. "Why?" aeked he. "Because it 
seems to be cracked and won't pop." But 
he did. 

The hour it was late as the timid young beau 

From the home of his best girl was creeping; 
And as he descended the front stoop lo go, 

From the basement the watchdog carae leaping. 
A bark and a scuffle, and cries for " Police !" 

The night air resounded with screeches — 
And the dog had committed a breach of the peace. 

And had taken a piece of the breeches. 

During a hunt a lieutenant fired at a rabbit, 
but did not hit it, and narrowly missed the ma- 
jor of his regiment. " I say, lieutenant," ex- 
claimed the major, "are you shooting at a 
rabbit or for promotion ?" 

In the course of the debates in the House of 
Commons that terminated in the removal of 
the political disabilities of Jews in England, the 
cause of his compatriots was being vigorously 
urged by Diaraell. "What," he demanded, 
"have the Jews ever asked ?" Then he made 
a dramatic pause, which was broken by the 
sepulchral bat penetrating voice of some un- 
seen member, who replied, " Never leas than 
60 per cent." 

"Dkae Mr. Hicks," she wrote, "I am very 
aorry that what you ask I cannot grant. I 
cannot become your wife. Yours sincerely, 
Ethel Barrows." Then she added, "P. 8.— On 
second thoughts, dear George, I think I will 
marry yon. Do come up to-night and aee your 
own true Ethel." 

First wife — "And so you have been married 
twenty years! Really, you must excuse me for 
asking, but does your husband still kiss you 
every day?" Second wife (proudly) — "Yes, 
always. My Tom la one of the moat oonsoien* 
tlous men I ever knew." 

At a dinner given in Philadelphia to some 
Indians, a young chief, observing a castor of 
mustard, swallowed a teaspoonful of it, which 
brought tears to hia eyes. A chief opposite 
asked him what he was crying for. He replied 
that he was thinking of his father, who was 
killed in battle. Soon afterward the ques- 
tioner himself tried the mustard, with the same 
result, and in turn was asked by the young 
chief why he wept. "Because yon were not 
killed when your father was," was the prompt 
reply. 

" Yes, gentlemen," he said, as he stood on 
the steps of the poBtotHce, " we are being 
ground into the earth by taxation." "How 
much property do you own?" asked one of the 
group. "None, sir." "How much tixea do 
you pay?" "Not a red." "Then what is, it 
to you ?" "A great deal, sir. I feel for others. 
In fact, I am drawing a salary to feel for oth- 
ers, and if I don't feel it will be taken away 
and I'll have to go to work." 



The Rose the N. Y. State Flower. 

The rose ia now New York State'a flower. 
Golden rod no longer holda the anpremaoy. 

This was the result of the vote taken in the 
aohools on Arbor Day, May 8, 1891, according 
to the returns made to the State Superintend- 
ent of Public InetroctioD. 

In the 113 School C mmissioner districts, the 
vote 142,036 for the rose and 53,340 for golden 
rod. In the 32 cities— Rose, 151,012; golden 
rod, 150,568. In the seven normal schools — 
Rose, 1300; golden rod, 1571. In the two In- 
dian reservations — Rose, 74; golden rod, 57. 
Misoellaneous — Rose, 394; golden rod, 866. 

Totals— Rose, 294,816; golden rod, 206,402. 
the majority of the rose over the golden rod is 
therefore 88,414, thus establishing the rose as 
the State flower. 

Thia was the second and last vote taken to 
determine the question of a State flower. In 
the first vote taken on Arbor Day in 1890, the 
golden rod received 81,308 votes, to 79,666 
votes cast for the rose. loasmnch as the total 
vote for these two flowers in 1890 did not equal 
half the entire vote cast, the Superintendent of 
Public instruotion decided on a second ballot 
to be taken thia year on the two favorites of 
1890, with the above result. 



^OUJMG ]E{OLKS' QobUJVlN. 



A Faithful Dog. 

[Written for the Rdral Press by Samctbletta Dickson.] 
Shep is a Collie dog living in California who 
haa attained to the venerable age of fourteen 
years. 

He has lost his teeth, his sight and hearing 
are dimmed, the nails and hair on his paws 
have grown till they look like blushes. 

Although he ia so lame that he can walk only 
a few steps at a time, as soon as grandpa, bis 
master, leaves the house, the faithful creature 
hobbles after. If grandpa goes up a ladder, or 
is in any place of danger, Shep barks and 
shows the utmost anxiety. 

He spends mo6t of his time on the south 
piazza, or in the shade of the eucalyptus tree, 
near the window where grandpa sits, but he 
still feels his irresponsibility as guardian of 
the place, although he no longer tries to separ- 
ate the fowls when they fight. He can only bark 
at them in remonstrance and with helpless dis- 
gust. 

He no longer goes into the field and drives 
up the horse or cow aa he used to, bringing up 
whichever one grandpa told him. 

He had lived half his life before he was ever 
left alone at home, and then he was the most 
miserable dog imaginable. He lay all the time 
by the gate watcbing for his master, and re- 
fused the food given him by the neighbor who 
had care of the place until he was nearly 
starved. 

Grandpa and grandma were gone several 
weeks, for grandma was taken very sick while 
away, and when she waa brought home, she 
had to be carried in a reclining chair. 

When Shep espied his master and mistress, 
he was frantic with joy, and rushing into the 
house, stood on his hind feet, put hia fore paws 
on grandma's shoulder, laid his head on her 
breast, and whined his delight and sympathy. 
The poor sick woman let him stay a moment, 
and then said gently, "Now get down, Shep," 
and he instantly obeyed. 

He seemed to feel daring grandma's sickness 
that something was wrong; and the day she 
died, when grandpa came out of the house and 
wandered in the despair and lonelinesa of his 
grief into the barn and threw himself down on 
the hay, he followed and, standing beside him, 
tried to express his sympathy, At first the 
grief-stricken old man did not notice the dog, 
but when the warm touch of his tongue made 
him conscious of the presence of his faithful 
dumb friend, he laid his head on him and wept 
till he was exhausted. Some time afterward, 
he was found asleep with his head lying on the 
dog, who never moved till his master awoke. 
When grandma's bier was carried out, Shep 
stood by the door, with bowed head and utter- 
ing a plaintive wail. 

After this, grandpa took Shep and went to 
live with his daughter in the city, but he waa 
unhappy and discontented; he did not want to 
settle down into grandpa'a corner with nothing 
to do but brood over hia trouble, ao he returned 
to his old home in the country, and brought to 
it a new grandma. At firat Shep eyed her with 
Buepicion, and one day, when she was sitting 
on the porch sewing, he came and, sitting down 
in front of her, looked directly in her face. 
She returned his gaze squarely and soberly, and 
when he stretched out one paw toward her, 
she took it in her hand. Then he lay down at 
her feet as if he said: " I can trust you, your 
eyes do not quail; you are sensible, you under- 
stand me, you do not laugh at my language." 

Ever afterward he owned her aa one of the 
family. 

As Shep was getting old, grandpa got a ter- 
rier puppy named Ben; but Shep was much 
disturbed, and his jealousy, if grandpa caressed 
the new-comer, was painful as well as amusing. 
He seemed to be in a constant worry lest Ben 
should get into mischief, and he never could 
have a peaceful nap for watching the frisky 
youngater. 

Ben had a habit of etealiog eggs, but no one 
knew it but Shep. Oae day, when grandpa 
waa gathering up the eggs, be aet down his 
basket and left it a few moments. Shep im- 
mediately stationed himself near the basket 
and began barking at Ben, who was running 
about. 

Shortly afterward grandpa caught Ben in his 
theft, and then knew why Shep had guarded 
the basket of eggs so carefully. This trick 
cost Ben his life, and since then Shep has been 
allowed to pass hia old age undisturbed by any 
intruder. 



He Got the Figs. 

An elderly and matronly appearing woman 
stopped at a corner fruit-stand last evening and 
purchased a pound of figa. 

" Something for the children," she said to 
the vender if to apologize for indulging in 
such delicacies. 

Before she had reached the opposite aide of 
the street, she waa overtaken by a man who 
would have been genteel-looking but for hia 
general appearance of aeedineaa. He waa evi- 
dently not on good terma with the world. 

" Beg pardon, madam," he aaid politely, aa 
he laid one hand gently on the lady'a ahoulder, 
" but did yon not jutt purohaae aome figa at 
yonder frnit-itand ? " 

" I did," answered the old lady, wonderingly. 



"Are you aware of the prevailing weakneaa 
of that man'a figa ? " 
"No." 

" Ah, I thought not. Then I'll tell you. It 
ia worms. The fruit yon have purohaaed is 
fairly alive with bacteria," 

" You don't say I " exclaimed the woman, al- 
mc6t ready to drop the package. 

" Yes, I know it. I'm collecting evidence 
against the Dago. I need juct suoh a purchase 
aa you have made to complete my chain of 
damning evidence. L^t me take that and con- 
front him with his perfidy. Thanks ! Watch 
the papers to-morrow for news of his arrest." 

And while the innocent old lady stood on 
the corner in wide-mouthed amazement, the 
seedy man disappeared in the crowd with the 
last link in his chain of evidence. 



Music as a Mental Tonie. 

Its Value in the Treatment of Disease- 
Effect of a Pleasing Melody. 
The value of muaio as a therapeutic cannot 
yet be precisely stated. Of ita wholesome in- 
fluence in various forms of disease, however, 
there can be little or no doubt, says the London 
Lancet. In making this assertion, we do not, 
of course, assign to it any specific or peonliar 
action. It is no quack's nostrum, no reputed 
conqueror of ache or ailment. It is only, as 
we have already shown in a recent article, one 
of those intangible but effective aids of medi- 
cine which exert their healthful properties 
through the nervous aystem. It is as a mental 
tonic that musio acts. Accordingly we may 
naturally expect it to exert Its powers chiefly 
in those diseases, or aspects of disease, which 
are due to morbid nervous action. The evi- 
dence of its utility on occasions where fatigue 
or worry has disturbed the proper balance and 
relation between the mind and body of the ao- 
called healthy, will explain ita action in dis- 
ease. We can readily understand how a 
pleasing and lively melody can awake in a jaded 
brain the strong emotion of hope, and ener- 
gizing by its means the languid nerve control 
of the whole oirculation, strengthen the heart- 
beat and refresh the vascularity of every organ. 
We can picture the same brain in forced irri- 
tation fretfully stimulating the service of the 
vasomotor nerves, and starving the tissues of 
their blood supply. Here, again, it is easy to 
comprehend the regulating effect of quieter 
harmony, which brings at once a rest and a di- 
version of the fretting mind. Even aches are 
soothed for a time by a transference of atten- 
tion, and why, then, should not pain be lulled 
by music ? That it sometimes is thus relieved 
we can have no doubt. It is especially in the 
graver nervous maladies, however that we 
should look for benefit from this remedy. Def- 
inite atatietios on the aubject may not yet be 
forthcoming, but all that we have said goes to 
show that states of insanity, which are largely 
influenced by the condition of the sympathetic 
system, should find some part of their treat- 
ment in the hands of the musician. It Is, 
therefore, for such cases especially that we 
would enlist his services. 



A New Theory of La Grippe. 

The unaccountable nature of the influenza 
commonly known as the grippe, haa invited the 
theories of all sorts and conditions of men, not 
to say of doctors, but among all no one is, per- 
haps, BO well calculated to commend itself to 
confidence as that of Sir Morell Mackenzie, M. 
D., who in a paper in the June Fortnightly, 
aeserts that in his opinion, " the riddle of in- 
fluenza is poisoned nerves," and from this 
hypothesis, " the bewildering diversity of 
symptoms beoomea intelligible, if we regard 
them as the results of disordered nervous ac- 
tion." Dr. Mackenzie compares it to the ex- 
traordinary disturbance in telegraphic systems 
produced by a thunderstorm, and says this is 
nothing "compared with the freaks played by 
the living conductors in the human body, if 
anything throws the governing centers out of 
gear." 

Now the theory of " poisoned nerves " is one 
that explains the almost infinite variety of at- 
tacks and curious freaks that mark the disease. 
No two persons, it is safe to say, have ever ex- 
perienced precisely the same symptoms, and if 
it is a nervous disturbance, this is the natural 
result. Dr. Mackenzie regards the epldemlo 
aa falling under three general types, each of 
which include many varieties; these are the 
catarrhal, the digestive and the nervous. "In- 
fluenza," he says, " is the very Proteus of die- 
eases, a malady which assumes so many forms 
that it seems to be not one, but an epitome of 
all diseases, and its aymptomology includes al- 
most everything, from a cold in the head to in- 
flammation of the brain. . . . It la really 
an acute specific fever, running a definite course 
like meaeles or scarlatina. . . . It is a dis- 
ease with that superficial complexity of aspect 
which made Mrs. Carlyle playfully suggeat that 
the doctors had agreed to call half a dozen dif- 
ferent diseases by one name in order to simplify 
treatment." 

Dr. Mackenzie adds that under all its dis- 
guises, he believes the disease to be perfectly 
simple; that the profound impression made on 
the nervous system by the poison, explains 
nearly all the after eBenta of the malady, and 
especially that curious loss of vital energy, 



which ia so disproportionately great in oompar- 
Ison with the diseaae itself. The cause Dr. 
Mackenzie believes to be a living germ, air- 
borne, but of what nature is not yet, he believes 
established. 



DoMESTie • Qco;jOMY 

Cherry Tapioca.— Wash one cup of tapioca 
and soak over ntght in cold water to oover. In 
the morning put in a double boiler with one 
pint of hot water, and cook until the tapioca 
is clear like starch. Stir IJ pounds sour, 
stoned cherries into the boiling mixture, sweet- 
en to taste, add half a teaspoon of salt, and set 
away to get very cold. Serve with sugar and 
cream. 

Plain Bavarian Cream.— One-fourth box 
gelatine, one-fourth cup cold water, one pint 
cream, one-third cup sugar, one teaspoonful 
vanilla. Soak the gelatine in cold water till 
soft. Chill and whip the cream till you have 
three pints of the whip. Boil the remainder of 
the cream (or if it be all whipped, use a oup of 
milk) with the sugar, and when boiling, add 
the soaked gelatine. Stir till dissolved. 

Browned Rice.— Cook one cup of rice with 
three cups of milk in a double boiler until very 
soft. Season it with one teaspoon of salt and 
one tablespoon of butter. Pack it closely in a 
small bread pan. When cold, cut it in half- 
inch slices and brown them delicately in hot 
butter; or spread the slices slightly with but- 
ter, put them in a fine, well-buttered gridiron, 
and color a light-brown over a clear fire. 

Fried Tomatoes,— Cut ripe or green toma- 
toes in two or three pieces, mix a handful of 
Indian meal with some pepper and salt, dip the 
tomatoes into it and fry in butter, with care 
not to scorch. Lay the slices upon a hot dish, 
make a gravy of a cup of milk, two teaspoon- 
fuls cornstarch, little butter and salt and pour 
over them. 

Rice Pdddino. — To every quart of milk 
take three tablespoonfuls raw rice, three table- 
spoonfuls sugar, one heaping teaspoonful flour. 
Boil rice until soft, with a trifle of salt, add to 
milk, which has been in baking-dish where it 
would warm, then sugar, flour wet with a little 
water. Bake until the milk is creamy. Aa 
soon as skin forms on top break it with a 
cooking spoon; repeat this two or three times. 

Sugar Cake.— Half a pound of butter, half 
a pound of sugar, one pound of flour, three 
eggs, milk enough to form a dough. Beat the 
butter and sugar together. Whiak the eggs 
light, and add them, then stir in the milk and 
flour alternately, so as to form a dough. Roll 
it out, out it in cakes, and bake them in a 
moderate oven. 

Ripe Currant Pie. — Stem your currants 
and wash them. Line your pie plates with 
paste, fill them with the fruit, and add sugar 
in the proportion of half a pound to one pint of 
currants. Dredge some flour over the top, 
put on the lid of the pie, leave an opening in 
the center and bake it. 

Tapioca Jelly. —One onpfnl of tapiooa, 
four cupfuls of cold water, juice of a lemon and 
part of a rind; sweeten to suit the taste. Soak 
tapioca in the water four hours. Set within a 
saucepan of boiling water, and stir frequently. 
If too thick after it begins to clear, add a little 
boiling water. Add rind and juice of lemon, 
when quite clear, and pour into a mold. To be 
eaten cold with oream. It is also very nice 
flavored with orange. 

Scrambled Scallops. — Boil half a pint of 
scallops till tender. Drain and chop or pick 
them apart. Mix them with two well-beaten 
eggs, two tablespoonfuls of milk, and salt and 
pepper to taste. Cook in hot butter in a 
frying-pan, stirring aa they thicken, and when 
the egg is firm turn out on toast. 

Sherbet.— Crush a quart of strawberries or 
other small fruit to a paste; add three pints of 
water and the juice of a lemon. Let the 
mixture stand two or three hours, then strain 
through a cloth to clear of seeds; add three- 
fourths of a pound of sugar, and atir until die- 
solved; add ice, and drink when quite cold. It 
is very delicious. 

Orange Gingerbread, — Two pounds and a 
quarter of flour, one pound of molasses, three- 
quarters of a pound of brown sugar, one ounce 
of allspice, eight ounces of candied orange peel, 
three quarters of a pound of butter, one cupful 
of milk, yolk of one egg; mix all these to- 
gether well, and place in a cool place for five 
hours; roll out half an inch thick; cut into any 
form you please, brush each piece with beaten 
yolk of an egg mixed with a little milk; bake 
in a moderate oven. 

Common Mu.stard. — One tablespoonful of 
ground mustard, one teaaponful of angar, one 
ealtspoonful of salt. Mix the salt, sugar and 
mustard together, and then pour on some boil- 
ing water gradually, stir it with a horn-spoon 
or knife till it is quite Bmooth. Some like it 
quite thick, others prefer it so thin as to run 
on the plate. 

Indian Light Cake. — One pint of Indian 
meal, one pint of milk, two eggs, one tea- 
spoonful of butter, salt to taste, one teaspoon- 
ful of dissolved aaleratua. Mix the butter and 
salt with the meal. Boil half the milk, add 
the dissolved saleratus and the eggs, after they 
have been well beaten, to the remaining half 
of cold milk. Pour the boiling milk over the 
meal and let it cool; then add the cold milk 
and saleratus. Bake it In a shallow pan. 



72 



f ACIFie f^URAlo PRESS. 



[Jdlt 25, 1891 



A, T DEWEY W. B, EWER. 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 



Office, 220 Market SI , N. E. cor. Front St , S.F. 
vr Take the Elevator, No. IS Front St. 



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